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Full text of "The New international encyclopaedia. Editors: Daniel Coit Gilman, Harry Thurston Peck [and] Frank Moore Colby"

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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

FROM THE LIBRARY 

OF 
WILLIAM T. FEE 



Bostoi Bookbinding Co. 
Cambridie.Mass., U.S.A. 



THE NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
E N G Y C L O P JE D I A 



EDITORS 



DANIEL COIT GILMAN, LL. D. 

PRESIDENT OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY (1876-1901) 
PRESIDENT OF CARNEGIE INSTITUTION 

HARRY THURSTON PECK, Ph. D., L. H. D. 

PROFESSOR IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A. 

LATE PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS 
IN NEW YORK UNIVERSITY 



VOLUME VIII 



NEW YORK 

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY 

1903 




Copyright, 1903 
By Dodd, Mead and Company 



All rights reserved 






Prksswork by 
The University Press, Cambridge, U. S. A. 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME YIII. 
COLORED PLATES 

** Factno Page 

FuxGi, Edible 10 

Fungi, Poisonous 12 

Marine Gastropods 150 

Greenhouse Plants ISO- 
Game Birds 790 

MAPS 

The Known World at Various Times 226 

Georgia 256 

German Empire 296 

Greece '. 686 

Greece, Ancient e 690 

Guam 808 

Guiana 828 

ENGRAVINGS 

Fungi, Types of 8 

Fungi, Types of ' 10 

Fur-bearing Animals 18 

Gainsborough (« The Blue Boy ") 48 

"Garden of the Gods" 110 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe 116 

Gas-Engines 140 

Gazelles and Small Antelopes 168 

Geography 224 

Geology 240 

Geysers 338 

Ghiberti 344 

Ghirlandajo (" Nativity of the Virgin Mary ") 346 

Giant's Causeway 352 

Gibraltar, Rock of 358 

Ginkgo and Kentucky Coffee Tree ^ 384 

GH)iiGioNE ("The Concert") * 388 

Giraffe and Okapi 390 

Glaciers 404 

Glaciers 406 

Gladstone, William Ewart 408 

Gloucester Cathedral 444 

Goat-Antelopes 464 

Goethe 478 



IV 

Facing Page 

Gold-Mixing 488 

Gold-Mining 490 

goldenrod, etc 494 

Golf . . 502 

Gophers, Lemmings, and Makmuts 524 

Grant, Ulysses S 616 

Grasses . 628 

Greek Art 698 

Greuze (« The Broken Pitcher ") 754 

Grouse, etc 792 

Guinea Pigs 840 

Gymnosperms . , e 892 



KEY TO PRONUNCIATION 



Ol 

<56 

ou 

u 

u 

ii 

u 



ch 



as in ale, fate. 

" " senate, chaotic. 

" " glare, care. 

" " am, at. 

" " arm, father. 

" " ant, and final a in America, armada, etc." 
In rapid speech this vowel readily be- 
comes more or less obscured and like 
the neutral vowel or a short u (tt). 

" " final, regal, where it is of a neutral or 
obscure quality. 

" " all, fall. 

" " eve. 

" " elate, evade. 

" " end, pet. Also for a in German, as in 
Grafe, to which it is the nearest Eng- 
lish vowel sound. 

" '* fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for 5, 
Of, in German, as in Gothe, Goethe, 
Ortel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in 
French, as in Neufchatel, Crevecoeur; 
to which it is the nearest English 
vowel sound. 

" " agency, judgment, where it is of a neu- 
tral or obscure quality. 

" " ice, quiet. 

" " quiescent. 

" " ill, fit. 

" " old, sober. 

" " obey, sobriety, 

" " orb, nor. 

" " odd, forest, not. 

" " atom, carol, where it has a neutral or ob- 
scure quality. 

" " oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in 
Feuerbach. 

" " food, fool, and as u in rude, rule. 

" " house, mouse. 

" " use, mule. 

" " unite. 

" " cut. but. 

'* " full, put, or as on in foot, book. Also for 
u in German, as in Miinchen, Miiller, 
and H in French, as in Buchez, Bude; 
to which it is the nearest English vowel 
sound. 

" " urn, burn. 

" " y<?t, yield. , 

" " the Spanish Habana, Cordoba, where it 
is like a v made with the lips alone, 
instead of with the teeth and lips. 

" " chair, cheese. 



hvir 

K 



as in the Spanish Almodovar, pulgada, where 
it is nearly like th in English then, this. 
" " go, get. 

" " the German Landtag, and ck in Feuer- 
bach, buch; where it is a guttural 
sound made with the back part of the 
tongue raised toward the soft palate, as 
in the sound made in clearing the throat. 
" " j in the Spanish Jijona, </ in the Spanish 
gila; where it is a fricative somewhat 
resembling the sound of h in English 
hue or v in yet, but stronger. 
" " wh in which. 

•' " ch in the German ich, Albrecht, and 7 in 
the German Arensberg, Mecklenburg; 
where it is a fricative sound made be- 
tween the tongue and the hard palate 
towards which the tongue is raised. It 
resembles the sound of h in hue, or ;/ in 
yet; or the sound made by beginning to 
pronounce a k, but not completing the 
stoppage of the breath. The character 
K is also used to indicate the rougli 
aspirates or fricatives of some of the 
Oriental languages, as of kh in the 
word Khan. 
*' " sinker, longer. 
** " sing, long. 

" " the French bon, Bourbon, and m in the 
French Etampes; where it is equiva- 
lent to a nasalizing of the preceding 
vowel. This effect is approximately 
produced by attempting to pronounce 
*' onion " without touching the tip of 
the tongue to the roof of the mouth. 
" " shine, shut. 
" " thrust, thin. 
'• " then, this. 

'' " c in azure, and s in pleasure. 
An apostrophe, or superior comma, ['] is some- 
times used to denote a glide or neutral connecting 
vowel, as in ta'b'l (table), kfiz"m (chasm). 

Otherwise than as noted above, the letters used 
in the respellings for pronunciation are to receive 
their ordinary English sounds. 

When the pronunciation is sufficiently shown 
by indicating the accented syllables, this is done 
without respelling; as in the case of very com- 
mon English words, and words which are so 
spelled as to ensure their correct pronunciation if 
they are correctly accented. See tlie article on 
Pronunciation.' 



S 

N 



8h 
th 

TH 

zh 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2009 with funding from 

Ontario Council of University Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/newinternationa08gilnn 



THE NEW 
INTERNATIONAL 
E N C Y C L O P iE D I A 



FULLER'S EARTH {AS. fullere, from 
Lat. fullo, fuller). A material re- 
sembling clay in appearance, but 
commonly lacking plasticity. It is 
fine-grained, of variable color, and 
has a specific gravity of from 1.8 
to 2.2. It derives its name from the fact that 
its principal use once was for fulling cloth 
and wool, that is, cleansing these materials 
of grease. At the present day a much more 
important application is for clarifying cotton- 
seed and lubricating oil, by filtering them 
through the earth, which absorbs the impuri- 
ties. Fuller's earth was originally mined only 
in England, especially at Nutfield, near Rei- 
gate, in Surrey, where it occurs in Cretaceous 
beds, and it was at one time considered so valu- 
able that its exportation from England was pro- 
hibited under severe penalties. A variety of ful- 
ler's earth, known as cimolite, occurs in the 
island of Argentina, Greece, and has been mined 
since ancient times. More recently fuller's earth 
deposits have been discovered near Quincy, Fla.; 
Fairbum, 80, Dak. ; and at other localities in the 
United States. The following analyses of fuller's 
earth show the composition of the material: 1 is 
from Reigate, England, and 2 from Quincy, Fla.: 



was written in the interest of the High Church 
party. In 1846 she entered the Roman Catholic 
Church, and afterwards published a number of 
controversial novels, chief among which are: 
Lady Bird (1852) ; Too Strange Xot to be True 
(1864) ; and Constance Shericood (1865). After 
1854 she devoted much time to charity. Consult 
Coleridge, The Life of Lady Oeorgiana Fullerton, 
translated from the French of Mme. Augustus 
Craven (London, 1888). 

FULMAR (special use of fulmar, fulmart, 
foulmart, polecat, from AS. fill, Eng. foul + OF. 
marte, Fr. nwrtre, from OHG. mardar, G«r. Har- 
der, AS. mearps, Eng. marten). Any of several 
species of strictly oceanic petrels. (See Petrel.) 
The common northern fulmar {Fulmarus gla- 
cialis) , the 'mallemuck' of sailors, is a bird 
about the size" of a duck, gray above, white be- 
neath; head, neck, and tail pure white; bill yel- 
low; the young are brownish gray. It inhabits 
the most northern seas, in which its numbers are 
prodigious, breeds on the rocky shores of the 
Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Spitzbergen, 
etc., on the grassy shelves of the precipices, 
making a slight nest or a mere excavation, in 
which it lays one egg. It is rarely to be seen 
on the United States coast south of Massachu- 





SIO, 


Al,03 


Fe,0, 


CaO 


MgO 


NSaO 


K.O 


H,0 


Moisture 


1 


62.81 
62.88 


6.92 
10.36 


3.78 
2.45 


7.40 
2.43 


2.27 
3.12 


".'26 


.74 
.74 


14.27 
7.72 




2 


6.41 







The output of fuller's earth in the United States 
in 1900 was 11,813 short tons, valued at $70,565. 
Consult: "Mineral Resources of the United 
States," issued by the United States Geological 
Surrey (Washington, annually) ; also the vol- 
umes of The Mineral Industry (New York, 1893, 
et seq.). 

FULLER'S THISTLE. See Teasel. 

FUL^LERTON, T.ndy Georgiana (1812-85). 
An English novelist and ])hilanthropist, daughter 
of the first Earl of (^rrnnvillo. She was born at 
Tixnll Hall, Staffordshire, and in 1833 niarried 
Alexander FuUorton. In 1844 she published her 
first novel, Ellen Middloton, which was reviewed 
by Gladstone. Her second work, Qrantley Manor, 



setts, or on the southern coasts of Great Brit- 
ain, but breeds in great numbers in Saint Kilda 
and adjacent islets. It is extraordinarily abun- 
dant about these isles, and is of importance to 
the inhabitants of Saint Kilda, who esteem its 
eggs and fiesh above those of any other bird, and 
gather them in the most perilous manner, de- 
scending by ropes from the stimmit of the preci- 
pices. The fulmars are also valued for their 
feathers, down, and oil; the last is one of the 
principal products of Saint Kilda, and is ob- 
tained from their stomachs. The old are said 
to feed the young with it, and when they are 
caught or assailed those birds lighten them- 
selves by disgorging it. It is amber-colored, and 



FULMAR. 



2 



FULTON. 



has a peculiar and nauseous odor. Fulmars 
feed on all animal substances which come in 
their way, giving an evident preference to fat 
and delighting in the blubber of whales. Another 
important species is the giant fulmar (Ossi- 
fraga gigantea) , notable for its size, which equals 
that of a small albatross. It is found in the 
Pacific OceaUj and is known to sailors as 'bone- 
breaker,' because of the observed crushing power 
of its great hooked beak. The slender-billed 
fulmar (Fulmarus glacialoides) is a very wide- 
ly ranging form which occurs on the Alaskan 
coast of Bering Sea, It is of the same size as the 
common fulmar, but the bill is much longer and 
more slender. Several of the fulmars are re- 
markable for their dichromatism. See Plate of 
Fishing Birds. 

FULMINATE OF MERCURY (from Lat. 
fulminare, to lighten, from fulmen, lightning, 
from fulgere, to flash), or Fulminating Mer- 
cury, CaHgNaOa. ^HoO. A highly explosive crys- 
talline organic compound, sparingly soluble in 
cold water, freely soluble in hot water. It is 
obtained by dissolving mercury in an excess of 
nitric acid, and gradually adding the solution to 
alcohol. The operation is attended with consid- 
erable danger and should not be conducted in the 
neighborhood of flames, as the vapors evolved 
during the reaction are very inflammable. On 
cooling, fulminating mercury separates out in 
crystalline form. When moist, it may be handled 
without much danger; but when dry, it explodes 
with violence if struck by a hard body or if 
heated. Mixtures of fulminating mercury with 
nitre or with chlorate of potash are employed 
as the primary of percussion caps. 

FULMINATE OF SILVER, or Fulminat- 
ing Silver, CaAgsNjOj. A chemical compound, 
prepared by heating an aqueous solution of silver 
nitrate with nitric acid and alcohol. It is more 
powerfully explosive than the fulminate of mer- 
cury; for even if it is moist or under water, 
pressure with a hard body will cause its explo- 
sion; and Mhen it is quite dry, the slightest 
friction between two hard bodies produces a 
similar result. See Chemistry (History). 

FULMINATES. A term applied to a class of 
salts having the same percentage composition as 
the cyanates, but, unlike them, exploding vio- 
lently when heated or struck. There are many 
fulminates, corresponding to the different metals. 
The preparation of the fulminates is attended 
with very considerable danger and should not 
be attempted by inexperienced persons. The 
structural formulas at present usually assigned 
to the acid Cfulminic acid,' CoHjNoOa) combined 
in the fulminates are: 



C = NOH 



C = NOH /c\ 

or HO— N\ /N— OH 
C 
/\ 
This acid has not yot been isolated in the uncom- 
bined state. 
FULMIN'IC AC3ID. See Fulminates. 
FUL'TON. A city in Whiteside County, 111., 
36 miles northeast of Ivock Island, on the Missis- 
sippi River, and on the Cltieago and Northwest- 
ern, the Chicago, Milwaukco and Saint Paul, and 
the Chicago, Burlington iuid Northern railroads 
(Map : Illinois, B 2) . It is the seat of the North- 



ern Illinois College, opened in 1865. There are 
manufactures of lumber, clay pipe, stoves, metal 
roofing and siding, etc., and an extensive trade 
in grain, lumber, and produce. Population, in 
1890, 2099; in 1900, 2685. 

FULTON. A city and the county-seat of Cal- 
laway County, Mo., 120 miles west of Saint 
Louis, on the Chicago and Alton Railroad (Map: 
Missouri, E 3). It is the seat of the State 
Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, State Luna- 
tic Asylum No. 1, Westminster College (Pres- 
byterian), founded in 1852, Synodical College, 
and Conservatory of Music for Young Ladies, 
founded in 1874, and the William Woods College 
of the Christian Church of Missouri. The city 
has an extensive supply of coal and fire-clay of 
excellent quality, and manufactures fire-brick and 
pottery of various kinds. Settled in 1821, Ful- 
ton was incorporated in 1859, the charter of that 
date being still in operation. Its government 
is administered by an annually elected mayor 
and a council elected on a general ticket. Town 
meetings are held monthly to discuss topics of 
general civic interest. The city owns and oper- 
ates its water-works and electric-light plant. 
Population, in 1890, 4314; in 1900, 4883, 

FULTON. A city in Oswego County, N. Y., 
25 miles northwest of Syracuse, on the Oswego 
River, the Oswego Canal, and the New York Cen- 
tral, the Lackawanna, and the New York, On- 
tario and Western railroads (Map: New York, 
D 2 ) . It has a public library. The city carries 
on an extensive trade in cheese, and there are 
manufactures of flour, woolen goods, paper pulp, 
firearms, tools, pocket cutlery, butchers' supplies, 
excelsior, water-motors, ensilage and straw cut- 
ters, paper-mill machinery, condensed milk, 
canned goods, etc. Population, in 1890, 4214; in 
1900. 5281. Fulton was settled about 1791, and 
was first incorporated in 1835. In April, 1902, 
the villages of Fulton and Oswego Falls, with an 
aggregate population of 8206 (census of 1900), 
were consolidated and chartered as a city, the 
government of Avhich is administered by a mayor 
and common council. The water-works are 
owned and operated by the municipality. 

FULTON. ' The first steam war vessel, de- 
signed by Robert Fulton, and built in New York 
in 1815. The Fulton was a vessel of 38 tons, 
provided with central paddle-wheels. She was 
accidentally blown up in 1829. 

FULTON, Justin Dewey (1828-1901). An 
American clerg^^man. He was born in Earlville, 
N. Y. ; graduated at Rochester L^niversity in 
1851, studied in the Rochester Theological Semi- 
nary, and was ordained in 1854 to the Baptist 
ministry in Saint Louis, Mhere he was editor of 
the Gospel Banner. Subsequently he had pas- 
toral charges in Sandusky. Ohio; Albany; Bos- 
ton; Brooklyn, N. Y. ; and Montreal, Canada. 
Among his works are: Roman Catholic Elements 
in Ameriean History (1850); Woman as God 
Made Her ( 1867) : 7?owe' in Aincrica (1884); 
Radiealism ; and The f^ahbath. 

FULTON, Robert (1765-1815). A celebrated 
American engineer, bom at Little Britain. Pa., 
of Irish parents, who were in such poor circum- 
stances that all the education young Fulton ac- 
quired was the ability to read and write. He 
made good use. however, of his opportunities and 
passed in study the time allowed him for recrea- 



FULTON. 



3 



FUMARIACE^. 



tion. At an early age he was apprenticed to a 
jeweler in Philadelphia, and in addition to de- 
voting himself to this trade, he applied him- 
self to painting. The sale of his portraits and 
landscapes enabled him, in the space of four 
years, to buy a small farni^ on which he placed 
his widowed mother. At the age of twenty-two 
he proceeded to London, where he studied paint- 
ing under Sir Benjamin West; but after several 
years thus spent he abandoned painting to de- 
vote himself wholly to mechanics. Some works 
that he executed in Devonshire obtained for 
him the patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater 
and of the Earl of Stanhope. In 1794 he ob- 
tained from the British Government a patent 
for an inclined plane, the object of which was to 
displace canal locks, and in the same year he in- 
vented a mill for sawing and polishing marble. 
His next invention was a machine for spinning 
flax, followed by one for making ropes. He was 
received as a civil engineer in 1795, and wrote 
a work on canals, in which he developed his sys- 
tem and ideas. Accepting an invitation from 
the United States Minister at Paris, he pro- 
ceeded to that city in 1796, and remained there 
for seven years, devoting himself to new projects 
and inventions. Among the inventions developed 
here was the Nautilus, or submarine boat, carry- 
ing torpedoes, invented to be used in naval war- 
fare ; but he was unable to secure its adoption by 
either the French, British, or United States Gov- 
ernment. He next turned his attention to a sub- 
ject that had frequently occupied his mind before, 
and about which he had written a treatise in 
1793, viz. the application of steam to navigation. 
In 1803 he constructed a small steamboat, and 
his experiments with it on the Seine were at- 
tended with great success. The French Govern- 
ment, however,, did not give him any encour- 
agement, but he had the cooperation of Robert 
Livingston, the Minister of the United States 
to France, who assisted Fulton in his experi- 
ments. Returning in 1806 to New York, Fulton 
superintended the construction of a larger steam- 
ship provided with an English engine. In 1807 
he launched the Clermont upon the Hudson, 
which started off on her trip to Albany in the 
presence of thousands of astonislied spectators. 
At the beginning the average speed was only 
about five miles an hour, which was considered a 
great achievement. From this perio<l steamers, 
for tlie use of which on the waters of New York 
State Fulton and Livingston were granted a 
monopoly by the Legislature, came into gen- 
eral use upon the rivers of the United States. 
Although Fulton was not the first to apply 
steam to navigation, as a steam-vessel had been 
tried upon the Forth and Clyde Canal as early 
as 1789, and by Rumsey and Fitch in Amer- 
ica in 1780-87, yet he was the first to do so 
with any degree of success. His reputation 
as an engineer and inventor was now firmly 
established, and he was employed by the I'niteil 
States (Joveriiment in the execution of various 
projects with reference to camUs and other en- 
gineering works. In 1814 he obtained the assent 
of Congress to constnict a steam-frigate, which 
was launched in the following year. Though the 
labors of Fulton were attended with such great 
success, various lawsuits in which he was en- 
gaged in reference to the use of some of his 
patents prevented him from ever l)eeoniing 



wealthy; and anxiety, as well as excessive appli- 
cation, tended to shorten his days. His death 
in New York, February 24, 1815, produced ex- 
traordinary demonstrations of mourning through- 
out the United States, He married, in 1806, 
a niece of Robert Livingston, United States 
Minister to France. His published works in- 
cluded: A Treatise on the Improvement of Canal 
Navigation (1796) ; Letters on Submarine Navi- 
gation (1806); Torpedo War (1810); Letter to 
the Secretary of the Navy on the Practical Use 
of the Torpedo (1811) ; Report on the Practica- 
bility of Navigating with Steamboats on the 
Southern Waters of the United States (1813); 
Memorial of Robert Fulton and Edward P. Liv- 
ingston in Regard to Steamboats (1814) ; Advan- 
tages of the Proposed Canal from Lake Erie to 
the Hudson River (1814). Consult: Thurston, 
History of the Groicth of the Steam Engine 
(New York, 1878) : Golden, Life of Robert Ful- 
ton (New York, 1817) ; Reixart, Life of Fulton 
(Philadelphia, 1856) ; Knox, Fulton and Steam 
Navigation (New York, 1886). 

FUL'VIA. Daughter of :M. Fulvius Bambalio 
of Tusculum. She married first P. Clodius, and 
their daughter afterwards became the wife of Oe- 
tavianus ( Augustus ) . In B.C. 44 she married Mar- 
cus Antonius, with whom she was deeply in love, 
and into all whose ambitious plans she entered 
with enthusiasm. Cicero was murdered in 43, and 
when his head was brought to Antonius, Fulvia 
is said to have pierced with her needle, in vindic- 
tive spite, the tongue that had uttered so many 
reproaches against her husband. But Antonius 
in the East fell into the snares of Cleopatra, and 
Fulvia attempted to stir up a riot in order to 
secure his recall to Rome, but failed and was 
banished from Italy. At Athens Fulvia and An- 
tonius met, and he reproached her so bitterly for 
her part in political affairs that she retired to 
Sicyon in despair, and died there shortly after 
(B.C. 40). 

FXT'MAGE (OF. fumage, :ML. fumagium, fuel, 
from Lat. fumus, smoke). In the law of England, 
a chimney tax, commonly called smoke-farthing. 
This tax is mentioned in Domesday as paid by 
custom to the King for every chimney in the 
house. Edward, the Black Prince, is said to have 
imposed a tax of a florin for every hearth in his 
French dominions. The first statutory enactment 
on the subject in England is 13 and 14 Car. XL, 
ch. 10, whereby a tax of 2s. on every hearth in 
all houses paying to Church and poor was granted 
to the King forever. This tax was abolished in 
1689. 

FTJ'MARIA'CEiE (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from 
Fumnrin, from Lat. ftimus, smoke). An order of 
herbaceous plants with water}' juice; alternate, 
much divided leaves; calyx of two deciduous 
sepals; corolla of four very irregular, white, yel- 
low, pale red, crimson, or purplish petals; stamens 
sometimes four and distinct, more generally six, 
and in two bundles; ovary free, one-celled, one- 
seeded, or many seeded : and seeds with large albu- 
men. Botanically. the Fumariaceae are regarded as 
most nearly approaching the Pjipaveracea* (pop- 
py, etc.) : but their genenil aspect is very dif- 
ferent, and they do not possess the same powerful 
properties. More than one hundred species are 
known, mostly natives of temperate climates in 
the Northern Hemisphere, some of great beauty 
in both flower and foliage. Bleeding-heart {Di- 



rUMARIACE^. 



FUNCTION. 



centra spectahilis) , a native of China, is a well- 
known favorite in gardens and greenhouses. Sev- 
eral species of Dicentra and Corydalis are na- 
tives of America. The common fumitory {Fuma- 
ria officinalis) , a rather delicate and beautiful 
weed of frequent occurrence in gardens and fields, 
is an annual of easy extiri^ation. Its leaves, 
which have an intensely bitter, saline taste, were 
formerly much employed in medicine as a tonic 
and diaphoretic, and although disused in Amer- 
ica, are still esteemed in France as a remedy 
for scorbutic affections, chronic eruptions, etc. 
Some other species are credited with anthelmin- 
tic, anti-periodic, emmenagogue, and similar 
properties, but except in household or in foreign 
medicine they are now little used. 

FTJMARIC AND MALEIC ACIDS (from 
Neo-Lat. Fumaria, the type of the herbaceous 
order Fumariacese ) . Two organic substances 
having not only the same composition and molecu- 
lar weight (0411^04), but the same chemical con- 
stitution (COOH . CH : CH . COOH) , yet differ- 
ing considerably in both their chemical and 
physical properties. Fumaric acid crystallizes in 
fine needles and sublimes without melting and 
without decomposition at 200° C. ; at higher 
temperatures it is converted into the anhydride 
of maleic acid; and it is sparingly soluble in 
water. Maleic acid crystallizes in rhombic 
prisms that melt at 130° C, and if heated to 
1G0°, loses the elements of water and is con- 
verted into maleic anhydride; it is readily solu- 
ble in water. Both fumaric and maleic acids 
may be obtained by heating malic ( oxy-succinic ) 
acid. Maleic acid is, however, more conveniently 
prepared by distilling the acetyl derivative of 
malic acid. Both fumaric and maleic acids readi- 
ly form addition products with the halogens and 
are therefore classed with the unsaturated com- 
pounds. The relation between the two acids is 
explained by the modern stereo-chemical theory, 
according to which the atomic groups composing 
their molecules, though the same in kind and 
number, are in two eases differently arranged 
in space. See Stereo-Chemistry. 

FUMBINA, foom-be'na. See Adamawa. 

FUMIGATION (from fumigate, from Lat. 
fumigare, to fumigate, from fumus, smoke). The 
cleansing or medicating of the air of an apart- 
ment by means of vapors, employed chiefly for 
the purpose of destroying odors or disinfecting 
the room, as well as clothing, furniture, etc. 
(See Contagion; Infection.) Most of the 
methods of fumigation formerly employed have 
little real value, and are to be looked on chiefly 
as grateful to the senses; as, for instance, the 
burning of frankincense, camphor, etc. The 
really active processes are noticed under Disin- 
fectant ( q.v. ) . The application of fumes of 
medicines to the respiratory tract is also called 
fumigation. For this purpose fumes of tobacco, 
stramonium, nitrate of potash, muriate of am- 
monium, and various gums are employed. 

FUNCHAL, f()0N-8hal' (Port., place of fen- 
nel ) . The capital of Madeira, situated on the 
southern side of the island. It is a picturesque 
' and well-built town, and contains a cathedral, an 
opera house, and a museum. Its streets are 
mostly narrow, and. owing to their steepness, 
sleds, drawn by oxen, and sometimes luxuriously 
fitted up, take the place of wheeled vehicles. The 



principal streets are lighted by electricity. The 
harbor, which is well fortified, is not very safe, 
but it is the only port in Madeira for ocean-going 
steamers. Funchal is the seat of the government 
and a bishop. Owing to its mild climate, the 
town has come into prominence as a health resort. 
The neighboring mountains present magnificent 
scenery. Population, about 19,000. 

FUNCK - BRENTANO, fuNk'braN'ta'nd', 
Th^opiiile ( 1830— ) . A French philosopher, 
born at Luxemburg. He studied law and medi- 
cine in France and abroad. In 1893 he became 
professor at the School of Political Sciences, in 
Paris. His works include: Les sciences humaines 
1869); La civilisation et ses lois (1876); 
Nouveau precis d'economie politique ( 1887 ) ; 
La logique de Port-Royal et la science moderne 
(1891); L'homme et sa destinee (1895); La 
science sociale, morale, politique ( 1897 ) , and he 
translated and published Bismarck's correspond- 
ence (1883). 

FUNCKE, faon'ke, Otto ( 1836— ) . A Ger- 
man Protestant theologian. He was born at Wlilf- 
rath, near Elberfeld, and was educated at Halle, 
Tubingen, and Bonn. After holding positions in 
various parts of Germany he began in 1868 to 
preach at the Friedenskirche, Bremen, where he 
also published a great number of devotional 
works which have made him widely known. 
Among these are : Christliche Fragezeichen (14th 
ed. 1896; Eng. trans, by E. Sterling under the 
title Self Will and God's Will, or Hoiv to Dis- 
cover what is God's Will in the Perplexing Ques- 
tion of Life, 1887) ; Keisehilder und Heimat- 
kldnge, three series (1869, 14th ed. 1896; 1871, 
8th ed. 1899; 1872, 6th ed. 1893),; St. Paulus 
zu Wasser und zu Land (8th ed. 1891) ; Die Welt 
des Glauhens und die Alltagswelt (9th ed. 1895) ; 
Gottes Weisheit in der Kinderstuhe (5th ed. 
1890). His collected works were published in 
1893. 

FUNCTION (from Lat. functio, use, from 
fungi, to employ, Skt. hhuj, to enjoy, to be use- 
ful). The specific physiological processes of a 
part or organ. In the amoeba all the functions of 
the organism are performed by the same proto- 
plasmic mass. In higher forms, both plant and 
animal, where division of labor is established, 
certain parts take in water, digest food, or ex- 
crete waste for the benefit of the whole body. 
This assumption of particular function by cer- 
tain parts must necessarily involve great changes 
in form and structure of the organism. Any 
subsequent change in function that an organ 
may undergo brings about far-reaching changes 
in structure. Many organs, like the liver and the 
brain, have many functions. Some of these func- 
tions we speak of as primary, others as second- 
ary. Thus the primary functions of an insect's 
wing is locomotor, while secondarily the wing 
may serve in respiration. \Vhat are secondary 
functions may at times or in certain animals be- 
come primary; thus the allantois is an unim- 
portant bladder in frogs; in birds and reptiles it 
is the chief foetal respiratory organ, while in 
many mammals it forms part of the placenta. 
With the change in function, and consequently in 
form and structure, are correlated changes in 
various other organs; hence any change in one 
organ is of far-reaching importance to the whole 
organism. 



FUNCTION. 



5 



FUNCTION. 



FUNCTION. A mathematical term due to 
Leibnitz (1692), but first defined in its present 
sense by Johann Bernoulli (1718). In this sense 
a function is a quantity whose value depends 
upon that of another quantity. E.g. in the for- 
mula for the circumference of a circle, e = 27rr, 
c depends upon r for its value ; c is therefore said 
to be a function of r. Likewise, in the equation 
y=a;'^+2cc-\-3, the value of y depends upon the 
value of X, so that if a? = .... — 2, — 1,0. 1,2, 
etc., 2/ = •• . -3, 2, 3, 6, 11, etc.; y is therefore a 
function of x, and this is expressed by the symbol 
y = f(x), which was first employed almost si- 
multaneously by Euler (1734) and Clairaut. In- 
stead of f(x) other symbols are often used, as 
F(a?), 0(a?), \l/{x),etc. In t/ = ^ a?), the value 
of y depending upon that of x, x is called the 
independent and y the dependent variable. In 
a function like y =^ ax -\- h, y is called an ex- 
plicit function of x ; in the expression x^ -\- 2xy 
-|- 6 =z 0, 1/ is an implicit function, and this is 
indicated by the symbols f{x, t/) = 0. In the 
same way we may have f{x, y, 2;) = 0, f{Xi, Xz, 
. . . . x^):= 0, or we may have zz=zf{x, y) , 
1/ r= f ( iTi, 072, • • • a? ), If ^ function has only one 
value for each given value of the variable, it is 
called a uniform (monodromic, monotropic, ein- 
deutig) function, as in the case of i/ r= x^-\-2x-\-3. 
But if a function has more than one value for 
any given value of the variable, or if its value 
can be changed by modifying the path in which 
the variable reaches that given value, the func- 
tion is said to be multiform, (polytropic, mehr- 



deutig) , as in the case of t/ = 



Vx' 



If the 



equation y:=f{x) be solved for x, then x will 
equal some function of y, i.e. a; = 4>{y), and the 
latter function is called the inverse of the for- 
mer. E.g. in the ca.se of a sphere v =■ f{r) zzz^xr^, 



3 . 

and r = -* 5l = <p (v 
^4^ 



r = /" (r) and r =■ <t> {v) being inverse functions. 

Functions were classified by licibnitz as alge- 
braic or transcendental. The former are such as 
include only the four fundamental operations to- 
gether with the use of constant exponents, their 

simplest forms being a-{- x, ax, — , x^, and their 

X 

most general form being 

(a -f hx + cx*+ ....)'» 



(a" -\- h^x-\- c^x^-\- . . . .)"»'■ 
In the broadest sense we say that y is an algehraic 
function of x when Aoi/° -f .A,y°~* -|- Aat/""^ + 
. . . . H- A y + A„ = 0, where A, is a polyno- 
mial in X oi the form A, = a^ x^ -\- «, a?™-' -|- 
. . . -f a,„_j X +a . The transcendental func- 
tions include all otner functions, to which, from 
the domain of the common operations, powers 
with variable exponents, the so-called exponential 
functions and their inverse, logarithms^ chiefly 
belong. 

An important class of transcendental functions 
is known as circular functions. These include 
the goniometric functions. // = sina?, coso*, tanx. 
cot J, etc. (sec Trkionometry) . and their in- 
verses, the cyclomctric functions, x — ain'\»/ or 
arcsin;/, etc. It is shown in trigonometry' that 
y = sin 07 = sin {x ±: 2hr), where A- is any in- 
teger, so that X may be increased or decrea.sed by 
2T.47r, 6ir, without altering the value of 



y ; the function is then called simply periodic. In 
the inverse function, x == sin'^y, x evidently 
may have, for any value of y, an infinite number 
of values; this function is therefore called in- 
finitely multiform. The inverse exponential func- 
tion (i.e. the logarithm) and the circular func- 
tion are integrals of algebraic functions. Thus, 

/dx ^ r d<v . .., 

— = log X, I , = sm ^ Xy 



/ 



dx 



=tan" 



-J- 



dx 



1 + 07- " ./ X-i/x'-l 

etc., all with the proper constants. 

If a function y=zf{x), or ^(x, y) = 0, be 
plotted, the figure is a curve with infinitely many 
points in immediate succession. The continuity 
of the curve and, corresponding to it, the con- 
tinuity of the function, consist in this, that any 
two successive points lie infinitely near each 
other, so that an infinitely small variation of the 
abscissas is attended by an infinitely small varia- 
tion of the ordinates. This suffices to explain 
what is meant by a continuous function, the 
meaning of the term discontinuous function be- 
ing easily inferred. E.g. the functions a -{- x, ax, 
fl% sinx, coar, are continuous in the domain 
( — 00, -j-OD) of the variable x, as is also x" 
when w is a positive integer. The functions -^/x, 
\ogx are continuous in the domain (0, + oc), 

The function -— > where n is a positive integer, 
X " 

is continuous in the domains ( — oo, o — e), 

(„ ^ g^ _|_ Qc)^ however small e may lie; but for 

jr = it breaks its continuity and y = ±00. 

The term 'theory of functions' was first used by 
Lagrange {Th^orie des> fonctions analytiques, 
Paris, 1797). The branch thus denoted deals 
with functions of more general *form than those 
described above. E.g. in the equation w=f{z), z 
must, in general, be taken to be a complex num- 
ber (q.v,), a? -f t/t, where t stands for •^—'V. 
The theory, therefore, has for its object the study 
of functions of one or more variables, in which 
either the variables or the coefficients, or both, 
are complex numl)ers. This general theory may 
he said to have been founded by Lagrange ( 1772, 
1797, 1806), although Newton, Leibnitz, Johann 
Bernoulli, Clairaut (1734), D'Alembert (1747), 
and Euler (1753) had already worked toward it. 
Gauss contributed to the theory, especially in 
its application to the fundamental theorem of 
algebra. Cauchy, starting from Lagrange's work, 
greatly develojied it. and numerous propositions 
due to him are found in the various text-books on 
the subject. His memoirs extend over a period of 
nearly forty years ( 1814-51 ) , covering a large part 
of the general theory as known to-day, and plac- 
ing the subject upon a firm foundation. The his- 
torical development after Cauchy's time becomes 
interwoven with that of special functions, notably 
the elliptic and Abelian. 

Elliptic functions arose from the consideration 

of the int^jrrnl I —^ , where R is a rational 

fix), and X is the general rational and integral 
quartic a^r* -f (i,a7* -+- a^x' -\- a^ -f a,. The theory 
of these functions had been suggested by Jakob 
Bernoulli (1691) and by Maclaurin (1742). and 
D'Alembert (1746) had approached it. Euler 



FUNCTION. 



6 



FUNDAMENTALS OF DOCTRINE. 



had gone further (from 1761) and had prophe- 
sied (170G) that there would come "a new sort of 
calculus of which 1 have here attempted the ex- 
position of the first elements," To Landen 
(1775), however, the honor is usually given of 
founding the theory. But it is to Legendre that 
its real development is due. He worked forty 
years in perfecting it, his labor culminating in 
his Traite des fonctions elliptiques et des inte- 
grales Euleriennes (1825-28). At the same time 
that Legendre published this work, Abel and 
Jacobi began their great contributions. Abel, 
whose fundamental theorem was not published 
until after his death, discovered the double 
periodicity of elliptic functions, Jacobi created 
a new notation and gave name to the 'modular 
equations' of which he made use. Cayley con- 
tributed to the subject in England, his only book 
being devoted to it. 

The general theory of functions has received its 
present form largely from the works of Cauchy, 
Riemann, and Weierstrass. Endeavoring to sub- 
ject all natural laws to mathematical interpre- 
tation, Riemann attacked the subject from the 
standpoint of the concrete, while Weierstrass pro- 
ceeded from a purely analytic point of view. 
Riemann's theories have been elaborated by 
Clebsch, and also by Klein, who has materially 
extended the theory of Riemann's surfaces, and 
who has generalized Clebsch's application of mod- 
ern geometry to the study of elliptic functions 
in his Thcorie der elliptischen M odulfunctionen. 
This last-named theory had its origin in a mem- 
oir of Eisenstein (1847), and in the lectures of 
Weierstrass on elliptic functions. 

In the theory of functions, the number of spe- 
cial functions is very great. For the list at the 
present time, consult: Miiller, "Mathematische 
Terminologie," in Bibliotheca M athematica {Leip- 
zig, 1901), where some two hundred are men- 
tioned. The most notable work on the historic 
development of functions is that of Brill and 
Noether, "Die Entwickelung der Theorie der 
algebraischen Functionen in alterer und neuerer 
Zeit," in Jahresbericht der deutschen Mathe- 
matiker Vereinigung, vol. ii. (Berlin, 1894). For 
theory, bibliography, and historical notes, con- 
sult: Harkness and Morley, Theory of Functions 
(New York, 1893) ; and Forsyth, Theory of Func- 
tions (Cambridge, 1893). For further bibliog- 
raphy of historical development, and for articles 
on the theory of functions, consult Merriman and 
Woodward, Higher Mathematics (New York, 
1896). 

FUNCTION CHANGE. The disuse of an or- 
gan for one function, and its modification for the 
performance of another; thus an organ may be 
transformed into another homologous with it, but 
performing a different function, serving a quite 
different use. It originates in a series of func- 
tions performed by one and the same organ. Of 
these several functions one is the chief or pri- 
mary, while the rest are secondary. If the 
primary function is for any reason suppressed, 
some one of the secondary functions becomes the 
chief one, and the final result of these processes 
is the transformation of the organ. 

As an example may be mentioned the change 
of function in the anterior limbs of certain crus- 
taceans from swimming and breathing uses to or- 
gans of mastication, (mandibles, maxillae, and 
maxillipeds ) , the outer division, or 'expedite,' 



undergoing reduction from disuse. Thus the 
original or chief function is suppressed, and what 
was an accessory or minor function becomes the 
chief one. More apparent examples are the 
change from the five-toed legs of the reptilian an- 
cestor o^ birds into the wings, and of the fore legs 
of, the ancestors of whales into the paddles of 
existing cetaceans. All such changes of function 
are the result of change of environment, of habits, 
and of instincts. 

Still another good example of the principle of 
change of function is afforded by the swimming- 
bladder of fishes. This in most fishes is a closed 
sac lying directly beneath the backbone. In the 
gar-pike it has acquired a connection by a duct 
with the throat. It then becomes an accessory 
breathing organ in such fishes as the Protopterus 
of Africa, which is able temporarily to live out of 
water. Finally, by further change in habit and 
structure, this bladder with its pneumatic duct 
has become transformed into the lung of the 
amphibians, reptiles, and higher vertebrates. The 
transformation is due to change of surroundings 
and of habit, resulting in the changes of function. 

This principle is pure Lamarckian doctrine ; i.e. 
that changes of surroundings and of habits bring 
about changes of function or use, and finally of 
structure. Yet there are very numerous examples 
of this principle, and it has been most active in 
the origination of the classes and orders of ani- 
mals. 

Bibliography, Saint George Mivart, Genesis of 
Species (New York, 1871) ; Darwin, Origin of 
Species (6th ed., London, 1882) ; A. Dohrn, Der 
Ursprung der Wirhelthiere und das Princip des 
Functionswechsels (Leipzig, 1875) ; A. M. Mar- 
shall, Biological Lectures and Addresses (Lon- 
don, 1894). 

FUNC'TUS OFFFCIO (Lat., discharged from 
duty or authority). A phrase applied to some- 
thing which, having formerly had legal vitality 
and force, is without any further validity or 
authority. When an agent or officer has ful- 
filled the duty assigned him, his office is functus 
officio and his powers at an end. The same 
is true of legal instruments which have been 
duly executed, and have been used for the purpose 
for which they were created, or on which a 
judgment has been entered. Thus a war- 
rant of attorney on which a judgment has been 
entered is functus officio, and a second judg- 
ment cannot be based upon it. So, also, a bill 
of exchange paid by the drawee, or passed by him 
to the credit of the drawer, is functus officio, and 
cannot be further negotiated. 

FUNDAMENTAL NOTE (from Lat, funda- 
mentum, base, from fundarc, to found, from fun- 
dus, bottom). In music, the root or fundamental 
tone upon which a triad is built. Thus C is the 
fundamental note of the triad C E G, and re- 
mains so in all inversions of the chord; whereas 
the lowest note is the bass note. Thus in these 
combinations C E G, E G C, G C E, C is always 
the fundamental note, while the bass notes are 
C, E, G, respectively, 

FUNDAMENTALS OF CHRISTIAN DOC- 
TRINE. A term much used in Protestant theo- 
logical discussion, but very difficult to define. It 
has been said that the fundamental Christian doc- 
trines are those which it is necessary to believe 
in order to attain salvation. But this logically 



FUNDAMENTALS OF DOCTRINE. '; 

involves conclusions concerning the condemnation 
of large classes of individuals which men, par- 
ticularly in the later time, shrink from accepting. 
A distinction has been drawn between truths 
necessary to salvation and the degree of knowl- 
edge necessary in an individual in order that he 
may be saved. That is, a truth may be necessary 
to salvation, yet an individual who does not know- 
it may not be condemned, it being assumed that 
he would believe it if he knew it. It is not 
involuntary ignorance of the truth, but rejection 
or denial of it, that results in condemnation. 
Hence the fundamentals vary for individuals, 
and it is impossible to draw up a certain definite 
list which shall hold good in all cases. Another 
definition would make the fundamental Christian 
doctrines those which are the essential character- 
istics of Christianity, differentiating it from 
other religions. All Christians consider certain 
truths essential to the Christian system, and 
others as comparatively unessential. But each 
Christian body has doctrines essential to its own 
system which are not held by the entire Chris- 
tian Church. And a distinction must be made 
between doctrines fundamental to Christianity 
and those fundamental to a particular system; 
that is, between the essential characteristics of a 
Christian and the criteria of membership in a 
particular body. Adherents to the various bodies 
do not always find it easy to draw this distinc- 
tion, and the best attempts to state the former 
in terms of doctrine almost inevitably prove 
unsatisfactory because of the natural tendency 
to include the latter. In general, however, there 
is a practical tendency toward agreement be- 
tween the different Protestant churches, whatever 
differences there may be upon specific points in 
their statements of fundamentals of doctrine. 
And such agreement is increasingly recognized. 
Modern Protestantism denies that saving faith is 
an exercise of the intellect ; it is an action of the 
will in respect to what is known. And the char- 
acteristics of Christianity are to be found in the 
sphere of conduct rather than in belief. Roman 
Catholic theologians claim that they do not use 
the expression. 

The discussion of fundamentals in doctrine has 
had importance chiefly in attempts to unite the 
various Christian bodies, particularly the Lu- 
theran and Reformed churches. It was actively 
carried on in Germany in the early post-Refor- 
mation period. In England a committee of 
clergymen was appointed in 1653 to draw up a 
list of 'fundamentals* and report to Parliament. 
Richard Baxter, who was one of the committee, 
proposed that it should consist of the Apostles' 
Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Com- 
mandments. A catalogue of sixteen articles was 
adopted, however, including c^octrines concerning 
Cod. Christ, divine worship, faith, sin, the resur- 
rection, the judgment, everlasting life and ever- 
lasting condemnation. The aim seems to have 
been to exclude rather than to furnish common 
ground for agreement. 

FUNDI, funMl, or FuNDrNGi (West African 
word). A kind of grain, Pospalum exile, much 
cultivated in the west of Africa. It is allied to 
the millets, and still more nearly to some of the 
kinds of grain cultivated in India. It is whole- 
some and nutritious, and has been recommended 
as a light and delicate food for invalids. The 



FUNFKIRCHEN. 

natives of Western Africa throw it into boiling 
water, pour off the water, and add palm-oil, but- 
ter, or milk. In Sierra Leone it is much used 
with stewed meat, and sometimes made into por- 
ridge with milk. See Paspalum. 

FUNDY, Bay of (from Fr. fond de la haie, 
head of the bay). An arm of the Atlantic, sepa- 
rating Nova Scotia from New Brunswick and the 
State of Maine (Map: Nova Scotia, D 4). With 
an average breadth of 35 miles, it extends 180 
miles in length from northeast to southwest. It 
forks, at its head, into two inlets, the northern, 
called Chignecto Bay, and the southern, Minas 
Channel, which are divided by narrow necks of 
land from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Along its 
northwest side it receives the Saint John, the 
principal river of New Brunswick, and the Saint 
Croix, which, through its entire course, forms 
the international boundary. The navigation is 
rendered perilous by the peculiarity of the tides, 
which have a rise and fall of 53 feet at certain 
seasons, and produce dangerous bores in the 
upper reaches. The shores present a very bare 
appearance at low tide, with long expanses of 
mud flats and in-reaching estuaries completely 
drained. 

FtJNEN, fv'nen (Dan. Fyen) . The largest 
of the Danish islands after Zealand, situated be- 
tween the Great and Little Belts (Map: Denmark, 
D 3). It is about 50 miles long and over 40 
miles in its greatest width, with an area of over 
1100 square miles. Its surface is slightly ele- 
vated in the south and west, where it rises to an 
altitude of over 400 feet. The larger part, how- 
ever, is flat. The soil is fertile and well watered. 
Grain is produced and considerable amounts are 
exported. The raising of domestic animals is also 
extensively carried on. Administratively the 
island forms, together with the adjacent islands 
of Langeland and JEt'6, and a number of smaller 
islands, the province or stiff of Fiinen. which 
is divided into the two bailiwicks of Odense and 
Svendborg. The principal towns are Odense 
(q.v.), the capital, Svendborg, and Nyborg (q.v.). 
The population of the province in 1890 was 256,- 
827; in 1901, 279,501. 

FUNERAL, The, or Grief a-la-Mode. A 
comedy by Steele, acted in 1701. Hazlitt calls it 
"trite, tedious, and full of formal grimace." 

FUNERAL RITES. See Mortuary Cus- 
toms. 

FUNES, foo'nfts. Gregorio (1749-1830). An 
Argentine historian. He was rector of the Univer- 
sity of COrdoba, and as such introduced numer- 
ous reforms. He was highly distinguished as a 
lecturer, and counted among his pupils many 
men afterwards famous. He wa.s also celebrated 
as an historian and pulpit orator, and in the lat- 
ter capacity was probably unexcelled in his day in 
South America. His qualifications ultimately 
secured for him an appointment to the doanship 
of the Cathedral of Cordova. His chief publica- 
tion is entitled Ensayo de In hixtoria eiril del 
Parofjuat/y Buenos Aj/rcs y Tucumdn (1816). 

FUNFKIRCHEN, fvnfk^rK-rn, or PECS, 
capitiil of the Coimty of Baranya, Hungar>% and 
an important garrison town. 248 miles southeast 
of Vienna by rail. It is picturesquely situatod 
on the southern vine-clad slopes of the Meczek 
Mountains. It has been the see of a Roman 



rUNFKIRCHEN. 



8 



FUNGI. 



Catholic bishop since 1009, and has a handsome 
twelfth-century Romanesque cathedral with four 
towers, which has been restored since 1887. Three 
of the five Turkish mosques from which the town 
derives its German and Hungarian names are in 
ruins, but the remaining two are now respectively 
the Stadtkirche and a Franciscan church. Other 
important buildings are the episcopal palace, the 
town hall, and a fine synagogue. There is a 
considerable trade in coal, marble, wine, fruit, 
tobacco, gall-nuts, and hogs; and it has im- 
portant manufactures of leather, cloth, and pot- 
tery. Ftinfkirchen is thought to be the Roman 
Coionia Serhinum. It was occupied by the Turks 
from 1543 to 1686. Population, in 1890, 34,067; 
in 1900, 43,982. 

FUNG-HWANG, or FENG-HWANG, fung'- 
hwiing'. A fabulous Chinese bird which figures 
largely in Chinese poetry, art, and folk-lore. 
Fung is the male and hwang the female, and 
as the two are inseparable they are considered 
models of conjugal love. The fung-hw^ang is 
the second of the four supernatural creatures 
of Chinese mythology, and has many symbol- 
ical analogies to the Greek phoenix. It is 
immortal, lives in the highest air, and its appear- 
ance on earth presages the advent of a virtuous 
monarch, or is emblematic of a prosperous reign. 
It appeared several times in antiquity. In China 
it is the special emblem of the Empress ; in Japan 
(where it is called Ho-wo), of the Mikado. In 
art it is usually depicted with the head of a 
pheasant, the beak of a swallow, a long flexible 
neck, plumage of many gorgeous colors, a flowing 
tail, and long claws pointed backward as it flies. 
Each of the five colors of its plumage typifies one 
of the five cardinal virtues. The flowers usually 
associated with it are sprays of the tree-peony. 
Consult: Mayer, Chinese Reader's Manual 
(Shanghai, 1875) ; and Griffis, The Mikado's Em- 
pire (New York, 1900). 

FUNGI, fun'ji (Lat., mushrooms; connected 
with Gk. G<t)6yyoi, sphongos, <rT&yyos, spongos, 
sponge ) . A group of non-chlorophyll-bearing 
plants. They constitute the second division of 
the thallophytes (the lowest primary division of 
plants), and because they lack, the green color- 
ing matter, chlorophyll, or pigments related to 
chlorophyll, they are forced to live as parasites 
on living plants and animals, or as saprophytes 
on dead organisms or their products. As stated 
under Alg^, the fungi are believed to have 
been derived from that group, and to have 
arisen at different times from several stocks; in 
other words, the fungi constitute a polyphyletic 
group. Consequently, the fungi do not present a 
continuous series of related forms. On the con- 
trary, there are at least two lines ( Schizomycetes, 
Myxomycetes) which have little resemblance 
eithrr to one another or to the great body of 
higher fungi, except through a general similarity 
of physiological processes. Indeed, in some clas- 
sifications the name fungi is restricted to the 
higher forms, whose bodies are usually made up 
of filaments. It seems probable, however, that 
the terms fungi and algae will be given a more 
general application, as a matter of convenience, 
and cease to have special significance in classi- 
fication. 

The fungi include five large classes: Bacteria 
( Schizomycetes ) , slime-molds ( Myxomycetes ) , 
alga-like fungi ( Phycomycetes ) , sac-fungi (As- 



comycetes), and toadstools and their allies 
( Basidiomycetes ) . A sixth class, the yeasts 
(Saccharomycetes), is much smaller than the 
others. The habits and some of the striking pe- 
culiarities of these groups are discussed in spe- 
cial articles under the above names. This article 
considers points of morphology with especial 
bearing on classification, and includes an account 
of certain biological principles. 

Schizomycetes. The Schizomycetes ( Bacteria ) 
present the same simplicity of cell structure 
as do the Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae). It 
is doubtful if they ever have a well-defined 
nucleus — the most conspicuous cell organ. There 
is likewise a resemblance to the blue-green algae 
in many points of cell arrangement, and in the 
general character of the higher filamentous 
forms. These resemblances have led to a very 
generally accepted view that the Bacteria have 
come from the blue-green algae under the influ- 
ence of an environment that encouraged sapro- 
phytism (living on dead organic material). A 
group, called the Schizophytes, has been proposed 
to hold both these lowest groups of the algae and 
fungi. However, some botanists relate the Bac- 
teria to certain Flagellata (q.v. ). 

Myxomycetes. The Myxomycetes (slime- 
molds) occupy a position quite apart from 
other fungi. The plasmodium phase (the ordi- 
nary slimy body) has no parallel in the life his- 
tories of other groups, and there is no condition 
comparable to a mycelium (a thready body). In- 
deed, the vegetative period of the life history of 
a slime-mold is wonderfully animal-like. But 
the fructification resembles that of plants, in 
that there is developed a complex spore-case 
(sporangium), frequently stalked, containing 
thousands of reproductive cells essentially like 
the spores of fungi. There is likewise a capil- 
litium, a plant-like device of a fibrous network, 
W'hich by expanding and contracting aids in dis- 
tributing the spores. The substance of the 
sporangium wall and of the capillitium is, in 
part, cellulose (the peculiar substance of the 
cell-Avalls of plants ) . 

Setting aside the Bacteria and the slime- 
molds, there is left the vast assemblage of fungi 
whose w^orking body is usually made up of hyphse 
(filaments) more or less closely united with one 
another, the entire mass being called the mj'ce- 
lium ( q.v. ) . 

Phycomycetes. In the Phycomycetes (alga- 
like fungi) there is a very interesting assemblage 
of types almost all presenting some alga-like 
characters, but sufficiently diverse from one an- 
other to suggest that there may have been 
several points of origin. The most alga-like are 
the water-molds ( Saprolegniales ) and the 
downy mildews (Peronosporales) . Here, in ad- 
dition to the coeno'cytic body (see Ccenocyte), 
similar to that of the Siphonales among the 
algae, there are present swimming spores pro- 
duced in terminal spore-cases, and sexual organs 
(oogonia and antheridia) very similar to those 
of Vaucheria. One genus (Monoblepharis) has 
motile sperms, but in the other types the male 
organ (antheridium) puts out a tube that enters 
the female organ (oogonium) and discharges 
some of its contents. There is to be noted among 
these forms a tendency to give up some of the 
alga-like characters. Thus, in certain of the 
doAvny mildews (Peronosporales) the organ cor- 



TYPES OF FUNG 




1. SPORE CASES OF A SLIME MOULD. 

2. SPORANGIA OF BLACK MOULD. 

3. DEVELOPMENT OF ZYGOSPORE OF BLACK MOULD. 

4. WATER MOULD, (a) growing on a fly; (b), Spor- 

angia with Zoospores; and (c), Oogonia and eggs. 



6. SPORE CASE OF CORDYCEPS (An Insect paraalt*). 

6. MILDEW ON LILAC. 

7. LILAC MILDEW, Showing (a) Aseocarp; and (b), Aaol 

with spores. 

8. GREEN MOULD WITH SPOROPHORES. 



FUNGI. 



FUNGI. 



responding to the spore-ease has ceased to pro- 
duce swimming spores^ but has become itself 
an aerial reproductive cell (conidia, q.v.). In 
the water-molds (Saprolegniales) sexuality has 
so degenerated that the male organs, although 
frequently present, are rarely, if ever, functional. 
The Chytridiales include many one-celled forms 
whose life history presents a continuous alterna- 
tion of motile and non-motile conditions, remind- 
ing one of the life histories of some of the green 
slimes ( Protococcales ) among the algae. It has 
been suggested that the Chytridiales have come 
from the Protococcales, a group of algae much 
lower than the ancestors of the downy mildews 
and the water-molds. It is possible, however, 
that the Chytridiales are degenerate forms of 
higher fungi. The common black molds (Muco- 
rales) have less of the algal characters than 
other Phycomycetes, but the terminal spore-cases 
iind sexual organs recall the downy mildews, 
rhe Entomophthorales are a highly specialized 
j^roup of insect parasites whose relationships are 
^ery obscure. 

AscoMYCETES. The Ascomycetes (sac-fungi) 
])resent structures and life histories that are very 
difTicult to correlate with those of the Phycomy- 
cetes. Some of the lower forms are undoubted- 
ly sexual. There is present a female cell ( ascogo- 
nium or archicarp) fertilized by a discharge from 
;i neighboring male cell ( antheridium ) , the con- 
dition recalling at once that in the downy mil- 
dews. The fertilized female cell, however, devel- 
ops a special system of filaments that finally pro- 
duce the characteristic spore-containing sacs 
(asci). These filaments are generally associated 
with sterile portions of the original body to form 
a fructification called the ascocarp. The asco- 
carp may be compared to a similar growth 
(cystocarp) produced from the fertilized egg of 
the red algae ( Rhodophyceae ) . Tlie subject be- 
comes further complicated, however, by an ap- 
parent tendency among the Ascomycetes to give 
u]) sexuality. In some higher groups repeated 
investigations have failed to demonstrate sexual 
organs, and the ascocarp in consequence probably 
develops without a sexual act. There have been 
attempts to homologize the ascus (spore-sac) 
with the sporangium (spore-case) of the black 
molds, assuming that the large and variable 
number of spores in the latter structure became 
reduced and fixed to eight, the usual number in 
the former. Later studies upon the development 
of the spores, however, indicate that the two 
structures are not rehited. It is then possible 
lliat the ascus is a special form of spore-case pe- 
culiar to the Ascomycetes. There are a number 
of peculiar forms of spores in the Ascomycetes, 
ilcveloped at various periods in the life history, 
manifestly for purposes of distribution. They 
liave been named conidia, pycnidia (qq.v.), etc. 
There are n great many fungi known only through 
some fructification of tliis character. For con- 
venience they are placed in a group called the 
Ilyphomycetes or Fungi Imperfecti. Most of the 
Hyphomycetes are believed to be imperfect forma 
of Ascomycetes, but among them tliere are also 
hirge numbers of species that undoiibtedly be- 
long to other groups. There are practical rea- 
sons for this artificial group, as many of the ape- 
t'ies are economically important. Studies in their 
life histories are constantly bringing to light 
phases which determine their place among the 



natural groups, so that species are constantly 
being removed from this artificial assemblage. 

Basidiomycetes. The Basidiomycetes (mush- 
rooms, toadstools, etc.) are a remarkable class. 
There is no trace of sexuality in the group, not 
even the vestiges of sexual organs which generally 
remain even when plants reproduce without them» 
Apart from certain peculiar phenomena of fusing 
nuclei, there are no clews to the problem of the 
origin of the group. The diverse orders are held 
together by a phase common to all the life his- 
tories, namely, the basidium, which is the swollen 
tip of a filament bearing spores on slender 
branches. It has been found that this basidium 
of the toadstools and the puflfballs is represented 
by the promycelium of the smuts ( Ustilaginales, 
q.v.) and rusts (Uredinales, q.v.). This promy- 
celium arises from the winter spore (teleuto- 
spore), which is essentially only a resting spore 
to tide the parasite over an unfavorable season. 
There are kinds of rusts (Leptopuccinia) in which 
the teleutospores form promycelia directly upon 
the host plant, and these conditions resemble 
strikingly the basidia of certain toadstool forms. 
The winter spore (teleutospore) of the rusts and 
the smuts is then merely an adaptation related to 
the parasitic habit, and unnecessary for sapro- 
phytes such as the toadstools, bracket fungi, and 
puffballs. It must not be supposed, however, that 
there is only one conspicuous line of development 
among the Basidiomycetes, for there are several 
divergent lines, prominent among which are the 
rusts (Uredinales), smuts (Ustilaginales), and 
certain orders of the toadstools (Hymenomy- 
cetes), and puffballs ( Gasteromycetes ) . The re- 
lation of the Basidiomycetes to the other groups 
of fungi is problematical. 

Sacciiaromycetes. The group Saccharomy- 
cetes (yeasts) is a verj^ problematical one. The 
fact that the spores of many fungi pass into 
yeast conditions when placed in the proper nutri- 
ent solutions, suggests the derivation of this 
interesting group from one of several sources. 
In a sense the yeasts are degenerate forms, for 
they have adopted a simple life history and 
morphology, but physiologically they are highly 
difi'erentiated. 

Biologic Principles Illustrated by Fungi. 
Some general biological principles are admirably 
illustrated by the fungi. Probably no other of 
the lower plants are so varied in their adapta- 
tion to special life conditions as are the fungi. 
The fact is shown by the immense number of 
species, for the fungi are far more numerous than 
the alga?, and they present more varied methods 
of asexual reproduction than does any other 
group of plants. Besides the specialized spores 
for rapid distribution, there are devices by which 
the protoplasm of the fungus may at any time 
pass into a resting state, and so survive un- 
favorable conditions. When the entire plant 
body is affected, the resting condition is called 
a sclerotium, and if small portions are so spe- 
cialized they are called chlamydospores. As 
would be expected, the development of a large 
number and variety of reproductive conditions 
makes possible very complicated life histories 
(polymorphism), and in this respect the fungi 
are the most remarkable of all plants. This 
astonishing development of polymorphism, with 
its varied and specialized reproductive phases, is 
directly traceable to the parasitic or the sapro- 



FUNGI. 



10 



FUNGI. 



phytic life which a fungus must always lead. 
The evolutionary influences work constantly 
toward the special and successfuL adaptation of 
the parasite to the host in the one case, or of 
the saprophyte to its particular nutrient sub- 
stances in the other. The result of fungal evolu- 
tion is necessarily immense diversity^ sho\^Ti not 
only by the number of species, but also by the 
wonderful variety of things that fvmgi can do. 
Species of Bacillus among the Bacteria have a 
general similarity of form and structure, but 
some are mere saprophytes, concerned only with 
some phase of decomposition, and others are 
parasites in the higher animals, even man, and 
are there the cause of subtle diseases. It is im- 
portant to note that the life of fungi has led to 
the degeneration of sexual organs, and finally to 
their entire suppression. Yet some of the groups 
in which sexuality is entirely lost are the most 
successful in establishing themselves, as is ex- 
emplified by the toadstools and rusts. 

In conclusion, the conception of the fungi 
should be an immense assemblage of parasites 
and saprophytes with several points of origin 
from different stocks of the algae, and branching 
out into innumerable species, each adjusting it- 
self to the peculiarities of a life leading to con- 
stant specialization. There can be, in evolution 
of this character, no general structural results, 
such as are exhibited, for example, by sexual 
evolution and by the differentiation of the sexual 
{ gametophyte ) and sexless (sporophyte) genera- 
tions among the algse by tlie increasing im- 
portance of the sexless generation through the 
mosses and ferns, and by heterospory and the 
reduction of the sexual generation (gameto- 
phyte) in certain fern-plants and in all the seed- 
plants. 

For general treatment of the fungi, consult: 
Engler and Prantl, Die natiirlichen Pflanzen- 
familien (Leipzig, 1887) ; De Bary, Comparative 
Morphology and Biology of the Fungi, Mycetozoa, 
and Bacteria, translated bv Oamsey (London, 
1887); Zopf, Die Pilze (Breslau, 1890); von 
Tavel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze 
(Jena, 1892). Some special works are listed in 
the articles on the various grojips of fungi. 

Fossil Fungi. Although fossil remains of 
fungi are sufficiently common to indicate that 
these plants were important members of the 
floras of all periods from the Carboniferous to 
recent time, comparatively little has been done 
toward studying them, and the sum total of our 
knowledge of fossil fungi is small. There seems 
to be no great difference between the ancient and 
the modern forms. The earliest known fossil 
fungi have been described as Peronosporites from 
the Silurian system. They occur as mycelial 
threads with frequent bulbous expansions in 
limestones of the Clinton series in western NeV 
York, and were detected in thin sections of the 
rock that were being studied under the micro- 
scope. The Carboniferous fungi consist largely 
also of mycelia, referred to the same genus 
Peronosporites, the threads and bulbs of which 
have been found in tlie stems of Lepidodendrons 
from the British coal measures. Similar forms 
have been found in fossil fruits (carpoliths) from 
the coal measures of France. 

The Tertiary deposits have afforded many 
fossil fungi. The silicified woods of Eg;^'pt, Eu- 
rope, and North America contain many species. 



Fossil leaves from the Tertiary shales and sand- 
stones often bear patches of the parasitic As- 
comycetes, which are very difficult to study in the 
fossil state. The leaves in amber also carry 
Ascomycetes, and amber insects infested with 
mucorine fungi have been found. Toadstools, and 
other members of the Hymenomycetes, are rarely 
represented in rocks of Tertiary and post-Ter- 
tiary age. They appear in the Tertiary lignites 
of Europe and North America, with the genera 
Hydnum, Lenzites, and Polyporus. Interesting, 
though indirect, evidence that toadstools and 
similar forms were far more abundant during the 
Tertiary times than is indicated by their meagre 
fossil representatives, is afforded by the fact 
that large numbers of fossil beetles and flies found 
in the rocks of that period belong to genera 
which at the present time are wholly fungus- 
eaters. 

Consult: Zittel, Schimper, and Barrois, TraitS 
de paleontologie, part ii. ; Paleophytologie (Paris, 
Munich, Leipzig, 1891) ; Solms-Laubach, Fossil 
Botany (Oxford, 1891); Loomis, "Siluric Fungi 
from Western New York," in Bulletin of the New 
York State Museum, No. 39 (Albany, 1900). 

FUNGI, Economic. Species of fungi that 
may directly or indirectly affect man's welfare. 
Of those that affect man directly, the edible and 
poisonous species and some parasites, such as 
ringworm, barber's itch, etc., may be mentioned 
as examples ( see Fungi, Edible and Poisonous ; 
Mushroom; Truffle) ; of those that affect him 
indirectly are plant diseases, molds, some ani- 
mal diseases, etc., whose functional activity may 
result in monetary or some other kind of 
loss. A large majority of fungi (saprophytes) 
are capable of living only on decaying organic 
matter, and since they do not ordinarily attack 
living plants, they do not produce plant diseases. 
They are therefore of little economic importance 
except as they occur on fruits and other food- 
stuffs, timber, clothing, etc., when they may be 
considered harmful. On the other hand, many of 
these organisms are more or less beneficial, since 
they act as scavengers in the destruction of 
organic matter which would long cumber the 
earth if dependent upon the slow process of 
chemical oxidation. Under abnormal conditions 
of moisture, temperature, etc., some saprophytic 
fungi (usually called facultative parasites) are 
able to attack and injure living plants. The 
parasitic species (another large group) occur 
normally upon living plants and animals, from 
which they derive their sustenance. The plant 
or animal upon which they live is called the 
host. The relationship between host and parasite 
is more or less intimate, and as the economic 
plants are affected, the importance of the para- 
site is the greater. In some cases the fungi are 
of positive benefit to man because they (entomo- 
genous fungi) destroy noxious insects, as locusts, 
grasshoppers, flies, scale-insects, etc. : others 
live at the expense of fungi that are themselves 
injurious to plants of value to man, as in the 
case of Darluca filum, a parasite of the injurious 
asparagus rust. Tlie number of fungi that at- 
tack living animals is large, and in some cases 
the attack is very destructive. Young fish in 
hatcheries are subject to diseases due to fungi; 
and higher animals often suffer similar attacks. 
A lung disease of horses is caused by the 
presence of the fungus Botriomyces, and the 



EDIBLE FUNGI 




COrVMIOHT, l»Oa, BY OOO0,MC*0 » COMPANY 



1 CHANTERELLE - CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS 

2 COMMON FIELD MUSHROOM - AOARICUS CAMPESTRIS 

3 EDIBLE PORE MUSHROOM - BOLETUS EOULIS 

4 VARIABLE MUSHROOM - RUSSULA HETEROPHYLLA 

5 OYSTER MUSHROOM - AGARICUS OSTREATUS 

» FAIRY RING MUSHROOM - MARASMIUS OR EA D ES 



.•ui.tu«aiti< Aco uTH i«y. 



7 MOREL- MORCMELLA ESCULENTA 

e CLAVARIA CINEREA 

9 HORSE MUSHROOM - AGARICUS ARVENSIS 

10 CORTINARIUS COERUIESCCNS 

11 HORSE-TAIL FUNGUS - COPRINUS COMATUS 

12 LIVER FUNGUS - FISTULINA HEPATICA 



TYPES OF FUNGI 




1. WHEAT RUST, Showing (a) breaking out on a stem; 

(b), portion of stem enlarged; and (c), group of 
Teleutospores. 

2. NEST FUNGUS. 



3. STINKHORN. 

4. EARTH STAR 

5. WHEAT SMUT. 

6. CEDAR APPLE. 



FUNGI. 



11 



FUNGI. 



various forms of ringworms, faviis, barber's 
itch, etc., are all due to fungi. 

When mention is made of fungous diseases the 
term commonly refers to diseases of plants 
caused by attacks of parasitic fungi. The num- 
ber of species of such parasitic fungi is very 
large, and nearly every garden, orchard, and 
greenhouse crop may be attacked by one or 
many. The various parts of the maize-plant 
are subject to the attack of at least seventy 
species of fungi; the common tulip-tree, or 
yellow poplar, is reported as the host of nearly 
one hundred species; the oat-plant has a dozen 
such enemies, and so on. The annual loss at- 
tributed to the attacks of fungi, to which the re- 
duced yield and inferior quality of the product 
are largely due, amounts to hundreds of millions 
of dollars. It has been estimated that the average 
loss due to oat-smut in the United States alone 
amounts to more than $18,000,000 annually. If 
to this sum be added the similar losses of other 
great economic crops, the total would be enor- 
mous. Cereal rusts in the United States are 
believed to cause more loss than any other source 
of injury, and often the loss amounts to more 
than the damage done by all other enemies, 
fungous and insect, added together. In certain 
localities the grape crops have been almost wholly 
destroyed by parasitic fungi, and certain truck 
crops have suffered similarly. The great famine 
in Ireland during 1846-47 has been largely at- 
tributed to the almost total destruction of the 
potato crop, through the attack of the potato 
rot {Phytophthora infestans) . 

The general classification of the fungi, aside 
from the Myxomyoetes and the Bacteria, some of 
which ate of great economic importance, is di- 
vided into four main groups : ( 1 ) The Phyeo- 
mycetes, which include the water-molds destruc- 
tive to young fish ; the well-kno\\ n fly-fungus, by 
which flies are often fixed to window-panes, par- 
ticularly in the autumn; the black mold of food- 
stuffs, manure heaps, etc. ; the downy mildews, 
as the potato rot, peronospora of grape, etc. (2) 
The Ascomj^eetes, or sac-fungi, which include the 
pow^dery mildews of grape, gooseberry, cherry; 
the blue molds, the black knot of plums, ergot of 
rye, peach leaf-curl, the black wart-like growths 
on many trees; the cup fungi, so called from the 
sha])^ of their fi-uiting organs, etc. (3) The 
^Ecidiomycetes, which include the rusts and 
smuts of various plants. (4) The Basidio- 
mycetes, which embrace the mushrooms, toad- 
stools, coral fungi, shelf fungi, etc. From an 
economic 8tandi)()int the parasitic species of the 
soetmd and tliird groups are of the greatest im- 
portance. Fortunately, many of the diseases 
(Musi'd by these parasites may be prevented by 
llie adoption of certain precautionary measures, 
by the application of a fungicide (q.v.), and by 
the exercise of pro]>er motliods of cultivation by 
which the general vigor of the plant is improved. 
See DisKASES of Plants; also diseases of spe- 
cific crops: e.g. Api»LE; Grape; Potato; Wheat; 
Oats ; Corn, etc. 

FUNGI, EniiiLE and Potsonois. A general 
name given to mushrooms, toadstools, pulTlialls. 
etc., that may or may not be eaten with safety 
by man. 

KniRLE Fungi. More than 700 sp(»cies have 
been found to be safe, and many are considered 
very nutritious. (See Mi'shroom. ) Perhaps 
Vol.. VIIT.— 2. 



the principal reason that fungi are not more 
generally eaten is not so much that their value 
is unknown, as that people are afraid even 
to touch the plants because certain species are 
known to produce illness and even death. In 
the interests of safety, therefore, every writer 
upon the subject of edible and poisonous fungi 
iterates the warning to avoid eating any fungus 
the edible qualities of which are not positively 
known to the would-be consumer beyond the 
slightest shadow of doubt. Since certain toad- 
stools (especially Amanita phalloides and Amani- 
ta muscaria, described below) are mistaken by 
the uninitiated for the common mushroom, all 
fungi found in the woods or in shady places 
(until they are proved to be wholesome) and all 
that have white or yellow gills should be avoided : 
the common mushroom grows in the open fields, 
and has pink gills which gradually turn to pur- 
plish-brown or black. A safe plan for the novice 
to adopt, even on becoming familiar with the 
twelve edible species described and illustrated, 
after being satisfied with their identification, ia 
to eat only a small portion of a fungus new to 
him, to note the results carefully, and to allow 
several hours to elapse before indulging more 
freely. In no case should he be guided by pleas- 
ant taste alone, because some of the species con- 
sidered unwholesome do not manifest any dis- 
agreeable quality. 

(1) Chantrelle (Cantharellus cibarius) common 
in light woods and on high ground, grows from 
two to four inches tall, expands from two to three 
inches, and has an irregular lol>ed orange or 
yellow caj), which when young is dome-like, but 
with age becomes expanded, and depressed at the 
centre. The gills are thick, short, branching, and 
wide apart.^ The stem, at first white and solid, 
later becomes hollow. Since this species is 
rather tough and dr^% only crisp heavy specimens 
should be selected for the table. A closely re- 
lated poisonous species, Cantharellus aurantia- 
cus, found in rank or decaying grass, closely 
resembles the above in color, but has thin, 
crowded gills of deeper tint than the cap. (2) 
The common field mushroom {Afjaricits campes- 
iris), which grows from two to four inches tall, 
is probably the conmionest, best known, and most 
easily distinguished of all. It is the only one 
that is cultivated to any extent. (See Misii- 
ROOM.) The cap is fleshy, from one and one-quar- 
ter to four inches broad, usually white, but some- 
times tawny or brownish above, and when in 
prime condition, pink below. With age, it 
changes to dark brown. Upon the stem is a 
collar, the remains of a veil, which in the young 
mushroom joins the margin of the cap to the 
stem. This mushroom has never been found 
growing in woods or .shady places, but always in 
open pastures, fields, and lawns. (3) The edible 
pore nuishroom (Boletus cdulis) , found most 
abundautly during the autumn in pine, oak. and 
chestnut woods, has a brown white-fleshed cap 
from four to six inches across, with convex tul>es 
at first white, but changing to yellow and then 
greenish, ^^'hen in the pale-yellow stage the 
plants are most tender and edible. The two to 
six inch stem l>ecomes light brown, with a net- 
work of pinkish veins near the top. (4) The 
varial)le nnishroom { Rusnula hetcropht/Ua) , a com- 
mon species found in woods from July to Novem- 
ber, is usually some shade of dingj' green, never 



FUNGI. 



12 



FUNGI. 



reddish or purple. The stem is white, solid, and 
firm; the gills, white, narrow, crowded, forked. 
The fleshy cap when peeled is white, of firm 
texture, and mild, sweet, nutty flavor while young 
and fresh; wilted and old specimens are not 
desirable even when free from grubs, which are 
specially fond of the plant. (5) Oyster mush- 
room {Agaricus ostreatus) , common on moist, de- 
caying tree-trunks throughout the United States. 
The cap is shell-shaped, three to five inches broad, 
dark when young, soon bleaching to brownish, 
and later yellow; stem white, short, or wanting, 
thickened upward; gills broad, rather distant, 
Avhite or sometimes yellowish. Flesh tender, ex- 
cept in old specimens, of pleasant, but not pro- 
nounced, flavor. Especially good when dipped in 
egg, and fried slowly like an oyster, (G) The 
fairy-ring {Marasmius oreades) grows in short 
grass of lawns, pastures, etc., but never in woods. 
Its common name is derived from its habit of 
growing in ring-like patches, which increase in 
diameter as the plants reach outward to new 
feeding ground. The mushrooms are small (one 
to two inches broad, and two to three inches tall ) , 
reddish at first, pale afterwards, solid, very 
tough, with broad, distant, free gills, alternately 
long and short. They have a weak but agreeable 
odor, and mild, sweet, and nutty taste, which is 
retained well when the mushrooms are dried by 
exposure to air or sun — the simplest way to pre- 
serve them. It is one of the best and the most 
easily digested. The hairy-foot {Marasmius per- 
sonatus) which grows in woods on dead leaves, 
etc., must not be mistaken for the fairy-ring, 
since it is imwholesome. This species has darker 
and narrower gills, and a hairy down at the base 
of the stem. (7) Morel {Morchella esculent a) , 
common in spring in old apple orchards and in 
woods, especially under butternut trees and on 
burned-over surfaces or places where wood ashes 
have been scattered. The pale yellow, buflf, or 
tawny cap is attached to the stout whitish hollow 
or stuffed stem by its base, is ribbed and pitted 
like honeycomb. The morel is one of the most 
easily recognized and the choicest species of edible 
fungi. Its near relatives { genus Morchella ) , which 
more or less closely resemble it, ar.e all edible. ( 8 ) 
CJavaria cincrea, a fungus without a cap, which 
may be found in the woods from June until frost, 
grows from one to three inches high, in tufts or 
colonies, and has thin or thick stems lighter than 
the numerous irregular, wrinkled gray branches. 
It is considered the best of the Clavarias, but is 
said to be injurious in large quantities and to be 
digested with difficulty by weak stomachs. (9) 
Horse-mushroom (Ar/aWcws arvensis)i9, considered 
by some writers to be a variety of the common 
mushroom, which grows in similar places, but is 
slightly larger (two to five inches tall, three to 
five inches or more broad), has gills which turn 
from whitish to pink, and then dark brown, and 
a stem which is either hollow or stuffed with 
floccose pith. By some it is considered inferior 
and by others superior to the common mushroom. 
(10) Cortinarius cwrulescens, an almost odorless 
species found among moss in woods, has a convex 
or plane yellowish cap two to three inches across, 
slightly rounded, thin, closely crowded, blue or 
purplish gills, which change to a dull cinnamon 
with age; and firm violet, pale or whitish stems 
about two inches long, which rise from bulbs more 
than an inch thick. (11) Horse-tail fungus ( Coprt- 



nus comatus) may be found after hard rains 
from August until frost, sometimes in spring, 
singly or in clusters, in a great variety of places, 
from rich soil to dumping-grounds. The cap is 
fleshy, at first oblong and white, but later a 
ragged bell-shape, and purplish black; the gills 
are crowded, broad, free from the stem, at first 
white, then pink, after which the plant becomes 
unfit for food, since it turns from purple to 
black, and dissolves into ink-like drops. The 
stem is hollow, often ten inches long, but mostly 
hidden under the cap. It is not of high flavor, 
but is of great delicacy when young. ( 12) Liver- 
fungus (Fis^wZiw^ hepatica)is a juicy red, fibrous- 
fleshed, non-rooting fungus, which may be found 
upon decaying trees and stumps, especially on 
oak, beech, and chestnut, after rains in summer 
and autumn. Under the name of beefsteak fun- 
gus it is highly esteemed everywhere for its 
rich nutritious flesh of acid flavor and agreeable 
odor. 

Poisonous Fungi. The number of fungi for- 
merly considered poisonous was very large; in- 
vestigation, however, has proved that many so 
regarded are not merely innocuous, but are good 
for food. The results are that not a few old 
beliefs have been upset, and others are made to 
totter. Poisonous fungi may be divided into two 
groups : those that contain local irritant poisons, 
which quickly act on the alimentary tract; 
and those that contain poisons which, after 
the lapse of several hours, act on the nerve- 
centres. Members of the first group, though 
exceedingly disagreeable in their effects, pro- 
duce no serious disturbance, and unless eaten 
in very large quantities or by persons in ill 
health, need not be considered dangerous. The 
administration of an emetic, followed after ac- 
tion by doses of sweet oil and whisky, or sweet 
oil and vinegar, is recommended. Unfortunately, 
members of the second group give no warning 
of their harmfulness either by an unpleasant 
taste or by local action on the digestive tract, 
and toxic quantities of the poison are usually ab- 
sorbed before symptoms appear. Should a poison- 
ous Amanita be eaten by mistake or through 
carelessness, "take an emetic at once, and send 
for a physician, with instructions to bring hy- 
podermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The 
dose is Y^^ of a grain, and doses should be 
continued heroically until the ^\ of a grain 
is administered, or until, in the physician's opin- 
ion, a proper quantity has been injected. \Miere 
the patient is critically ill, ^^^ of a grain may 
be administered." The treatment is effective 
only when the first sjnnptoms manifest tliem- 
selves, and not when late effects of the dangerous 
toadstool poisons are evident. 

The species illustrated and described herewith 
have, until recently, been considered poisonous, 
but some of them are either merely innocuous, 
injurious to only certain individuals in the same 
way that strawberries are, or are even more gen- 
erally wholesome. Every one, even the fungi ex- 
pert, should consider himself a novice until he 
has personally determined these two points. 

(1) Fly amanita or fly mushroom {Amanita 
muscaria) , common in woods, especially of pine 
and birch, has a cap four or more inches broad, 
which, in its varieties, exhibits many colors — 
blood-red, bay-brown, orange, lemon, white, and 
the tint of cooked liver. Usually the skin, which 



POISONOUS FUNGI 




COVVMIOMT, IVOS.ev DOOO. MCAO i COMPANY 



JUtlU* *.CN aCO LITM I 



1 FLY MUSHROOM - AMANITA MUSCARIA 

2 SATAN'S MUSHROOM - BOLETUS SATANAS 

3 EMETIC MUSHROOM - RUSSULA CMETICA 
<^ RUDOY-MILK MUSHROOM - LACTARlUS RUFUS 
5 TRELLIiCD CLATHRUS " CLATH R US CAN CB LLATUS 10 FCTID WOOO-WITCH - PHALLUS IMPUOICUS 

n RED JUICt MUSHROOM HYOROPHORUS CONICUS 



6 FIERY BOLETUS - BOLETUS PiPERATUS 

7 DEADLY AGARIC - AMANITA PHALLOIDES 
e SPRING MUSHROOM - AG ARICUS ( AMAN ITA | VER N US 
9 VERDIGRIS MUSHROOM - AGARICUS AERUGINOSUS 



FUNGI. 



13 



FUNGICIDE. 



is at first thick (sticky in damp weather) , checks 
more or less and peels in angular fragments. The 
flesh is yellow just beneath the skin, otherwise 
white and rather loose. The stem, which is white, 
scaly, long, stout, but soon hollow, is bulbous 
at the base, and bears a very soft torn frill or 
ring close to or even at its summit. The gills are 
white, sometimes yellow. This species is every- 
where reported as poisonous, but is said to be 
eaten by the Siberians to produce a sort of in- 
toxication. Its name, muscaria, is derived from 
its property of killing flies. (2) Satan's mush- 
room ( /iok'^ws satanus) is a somewhat rare species 
which grows in woods. Its cap, three to eight 
inches across, is usually brownish, yellow, or 
whitish, and rather sticky; tubes yellow, with 
bright red mouths, which later become orange; 
stem two or three inches long, thick and 
reticulated above. Its flesh, which is whitish, 
turning to reddish or bluish where injured, is 
mild, reputed poisonous, but eaten without dis- 
comfort by many. Since its evil effects seem 
to vary with the individual who partakes, it 
should either be avoided or tested with extreme 
care. (3) The emetic mushroom {Russula emeti- 
ca) has a cap three to four inches broad, rosy, 
changing to blood-red, then tawny; sometimes 
yellow at first and later white. Its shape changes 
from bell-form to flat, or with a depressed centre, 
and a furrowed tubular margin. The gills are 
white, rather free, broad, and distant. Reputed 
to be emetic and poisonous, but eaten with im- 
punity by many. (4) Ruddy milk mushroom 
{Lactarius rufiis) is a rare species which grows 
in damp woods and swamps. Its cap is two to 
four inches broad, at first convex, later concave, 
usually shining brownish-red; gills narrow, some- 
times forked, yellowish or reddish ; stem, two to 
four inches long, lighter than the cap; flesh, 
pinkish, extremely acrid, reputed very poisonous. 
(5) Trellised clathrus {Clathrus cancellatus) , a 
reputed poisonous fungus of beautiful red, white, 
or yellowish lattice-like form, and of very offen- 
sive odor. The latticed part rises from a white 
or fawTi-colored cup. (0) Fiery Boletus (Boletus 
piperatus), a common but variable species in 
woods and open plaices, is one to three inches in 
diameter, yellowish, light-brown, or reddish, con- 
vex or almost flat, on a stem one and one-half to 
three inches tall, reddish or bright yellow at its 
base. The flesh, white or yellowish, loses its 
acrid peppery flavor when cooked. Though re- 
puted poisonous, this species has been eaten with 
enjoyment by many. (7) Deadly agaric, deadly 
amanita, death-cup (Amanita phalloidcs) , a com- 
mon and very variable species found in woods 
from June until frost, is one of the most poison- 
ous of mushrooms. The cap is three to fo\ir 
inches across, shining white, lemon, grayish- 
brown, blackish-brown, or grayisli-brown with a 
black disk sometimes dotted, viscid in damp 
weather; stem, three to five inclies long, some- 
times much longer, white and rather smooth, hol- 
low above, larger, solid, and bulb-like below, 
rising from a sort of cup — hence the name 'death- 
cup'; and bearing near its summit a reflexed, 
swollen, white, usually entire ring; gills white, 
free. This species is perhaps most dangerous, 
because most often mistaken for the common 
mushroom (Agaricus campestris) . Since it grows 
in the woods, has white gills, white spores, and 
a cup-like base, the collector is to blame if he 



makes any mistake : the common mushroom does 
not grow in the woods, has pink gills, dark 
spores, and no cup at its base. ( 8 ) Spring mush- 
room (Agaricus or Amanita vernus) , considered 
to be a variety of the preceding, which grows in 
similar places, but during spring and summer. 

(9) The verdigris mushroom (Agaricus cerugino- 
sus) , common from July to November in woods 
and meadows, has a cap about three inches in 
diameter, covered with a green or blue slime; a 
long, scaly, hollow, bluish stem, and brown or 
purplish gills. It is reputed poisonous, probably 
because of its disagreeable odor, color, and taste. 

(10) The fetid wood-witch (Phallus imp udicus} 
grows during summer and autumn in woods, fence- 
corners, kitchen yards, and under wooden steps. 
Its cap expands but little, is about two inches 
from edge to summit, and is borne in a thick 
( 114 -inch) stem, six to eight inches tall, which 
rises from a white or pinkish cup two inches 
in diameter. This toadstool cannot be mistaken 
when full grown, because of its exceedingly of- 
fensive odor, which attracts blow-flies and* car- 
rion-beetles. The young plants are said to be 
very good when fried, but when mature the 
odor is against this species, and it is then con- 
sidered unwholesome. (11) Red-juice mushroom 
(Hygrophorus conicus) , foimd in woods and oi)en 
places from August to October, has a thin, frag- 
ile, acutely or obtusely conical yellow, bright 
red, or scarlet cap one-half to one inch across, 
with a lobed margin ; rather close, broad, yellow, 
free gills; and a hollow yellow stem, three to six 
inches long. Formerly this species was con- 
sidered poisonous, probably on account of its 
color; it is now proved not to be merely harm- 
less, but good for food. 

Consult: ]\Icllvaine, One Thousand American. 
Fungi (Indianapolis, 1900) ; Coville, Observa- 
tions on Recent Cases of Mushroom Poisoning irt 
the District of Columbia, Circular 13, Division 
of Botany, United States Department of Agri- 
culture (Washington, revised ed. 1897) ; Farlow", 
Some Edible and Poisonous Fungi, Bulletin 15, 
Division Vegetable Physiology and Pathology, 
United States Department of Agriculture (Wash- 
ington, 1898) ; Marshall, The Mushroom Book 
(New York, 1900) ; Taylor, Students' Handbook 
of M ushrooms in Ameri<^a (\\a&hh\ffton, 1897-98) ; 
Atkinson, Studies and Illustrations of Mush- 
rooms, Bulletin 138, Cornell University Agricul- 
tural Exjieriment Station (Ithaca, 18*97); Gib- 
son, Our Edible Toadstools and M ushrooms (Xew 
York, 1895) ; Peck, Mushrooms and Their Use 
(Cambridge, Mass., 1897) : id., ''Report State 
Botanist on Edible Fungi of New York," Annual 
Report Xew York State Museum, vol. iii., No. 4 
(Albany, 1900). 

FUNGIBLES. In the civil law, articles of 

personal pro|)erty, such as food, fuel, etc., loaned 
to another for the purpose of being consumed ; 
that is, such objects as cannot l)e used without 
being given away or consumed, which were the 
subjects of the civil law contract of wutuum. 
Objects of this nature, from the fact that they 
were got rid of one for another ifungantur), 
were called fungibles. See MuTiiUM. 

FUNGICIDE, fnn'jT-sId (from Lat. fungus^ 
mushroom -f cwderc, to kill). Any material that 
will destroy fungi or prevent the germination 
of their spores. Fortunately for agriculture, 
there are a number of substances which mav be 



PUNGICIDE. 



14 



FUNGICIDE. 



employed for this purpose. On account of their 
destructive influence, copper salts, which form 
the basis of many fungicides, are used in several 
of the most important. A few of the commonest 
and best fungicides are given herewith. When 
used upon foliage, the liquids must all be applied 
as a mist-like spray, especially to the under 
sides of the leaves, where many of the fungi 
gain entrance through the stomata, and only in 
sufficient quantity to moisten the surfaces, with- 
out standing on them or running off in drops. 
Neither should they trickle off dormant wood. 

Bordeaux mixture, accidentally discovered in 
I'rance about 1882, is the best general fungicide 
known. It consists of a solution of copper sul- 
phate and lime. The corrosive action of the 
former upon many kinds of foliage is neutralized 
by the lime, which also makes the mixture more 
adhesive. The following is considered the best 
method of preparation: In a wooden vessel dis- 
solve copper sulphate at the rate of one pound 
to a gallon of water by suspending the salt in a 
coarse bag just below the surface of the water. 
It will dissolve more quickly if suspended than 
if placed at the bottom. In another vessel slake 
stone lime with just enough water to cover it. 
This lime should contain little or no magnesium. 
When slaked, add water until the proportion is 
one pound of lime to one gallon of water. When 
needed for use^ these two stock-solutions, as they 
are called, are diluted with water, and then 
mixed with as much agitation or stirring as 
possible. The proportions in the final mixture 
should be six pounds of copper sulphate, four 
pounds of lime, fifty gallons of water for apply- 
ing to dormant wood and strong foliage, such as 
apples and currants; for young and for tender 
foliage, such as peach and plum, an extra pound 
of lime and twenty-five gallons more of water 
should be added. To test the neutrality of the 
mixture, a drop of ferrocyanide of potassium is 
added to a little of the compound, and if a 
brown color is observed, more lime must be 
added; if none, then the fungicide may be ap- 
plied with safety. The stock-solution of copper 
sulphate may be kept indefinitely; the lime for 
only a few days. Since the mixture deteriorates 
rapidly by the flocculation of lime ' particles, it 
should be mixed fresh for each application. 

Ammoniacal copper carhonate solution is al- 
most as good as Bordeaux mixture, and since it 
is clear, and therefore produces no stain, it is 
better than Bordeaux mixture for spraying on 
ornamentals and ripening fruits. It is made by 
dissolving one ounce of copper carbonate in one 
pint of ammonia, and adding ten gallons of 
water. 

Eau celeste is an important fungicide, but in 
inexperienced hands it may burn the foliage of 
many plants. It is made by dissolving one 
pound of copper sulphate in two gallons of 
water, adding one and a half pints of ammonia 
when cooled, and diluting with water to twenty- 
five gallons. 

Copper sulphate dissolved in water at the rate 
of one pound to ten gallons of water is of great 
value as a spray for fungi, lichens, algae, etc., 
upon dormant trees and vines. It should not 
be used on foliage because of its corrosive action. 
The seed of oats, wheat, barley, etc., may be 
soaked in this solution to destroy the spores of 
smut (q.v.). 



Sulphur has an important rank among fungi- 
cides, especially as a remedy for powdery mil- 
dews. In outdoor use it is dusted upon the 
foliage, but in greenhouses it is generally evapo- 
rated. Either the steam-pipes are coated with 
it, or it is more rapidly volatilized by heating 
it in a sand bath over an oil stove. Extreme 
care must be exercised to prevent ignition, since 
the fumes of burning sulphur are fatal to plants, 
as may be seen from their use in ridding green- 
houses of plant growths and spores upon the soil, 
benches, walks, etc. Of course, when so used, 
the houses are emptied of useful plants. 

Hot water may be applied when nearly boiling 
to kill certain fungi and insects without injuring 
the plants. Its ^ more valuable use, however, is 
for the destruction of smuts of cereals. For 
this purpose, also, solutions of formalin and of 
corrosive sublimate may be successfully em- 
ployed. The methods of using these fungicides 
will be described more fully in the article on 
Smuts. ^ 

Methods of Application. The apparatus 
needed to obtain the mist-like spray referred to 
above are nozzles, hose, and a force-pump. The 
nozzles are the most important part of the ma- 
chine. Those of the 'Vermorel' type are con- 




A FOHM OF 8PRAY-CAUT. 



sidered the most satisfactory for short range, 
and the ISfcGowan for long.- Most progressive 
orchardists use the former upon the ends of long 
bamboo tubes, the operators often being raised 
upon platforms as sh6^vn in the figure. A common 
form of apparatus is the so-called 'knapsack* 
pump, a tank which is strapped over the shoul- 
ders like a knapsack. It contains a very com- 
pact and powerful pump, and is convenient for 
small plots and for crops that have grown too 
large to permit the entrance of a wagon sprayer. 
Success in combating plant diseases depends 
upon the thoroughness with which the fungicides 
are applied. No fixed rules can be given as to 
times for spraying, but in general three or four 
applications should be given at intervals of ten 
days or two weeks. If much rainy weather 
intervene, one or two additional sprayings may 
be profitably given. In spraying fruit-trees and 
vines of all kinds^ the first application should 
be given just as the buds begin to swell, but 
before they show characteristic color. No spray- 
ing should be given when the plants are in blos- 
som, but one should follow the fall of the petals. 
Plant diseases are worse during some seasons 
than during others; hot, moist weather favors 
the rapid growth of many fungi. Perennial 



FUNGICIDE. 

plants should be sprayed every season to keep 
them in good condition; the increased yields of 
better crops will more than pay for the trouble 
and expense of spraying. Spraying is preventive, 
not remedial. 

Bibliography. Lodeman, The Spraying of 
Plants (New York, 1896) ; Weed, Spraying Crops 
(New York, 1895) ; Prillieu, Maladies des plantea 
agricoles (Paris, 1895) ; Hollrung, Chemische 
Mittel gegen Pflanzenkrankheiten (Berlin, 1898) ; 
Massee, Text-hook of Plant Diseases (New York, 
1899). Consult, also, numerous bulletins of the 
Agricultural Experiment Stations and of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D. C. See also Fungi ; Bacteria ; Basi- 

DIOMYCETES; ASCOMYCETES, etc. 

FUNGOID PARASITE. A name occasion- 
ally used for fungi which are parasitic upon 
plants or animals. See Fungi, Economic. 

FUN'GUS. A term applied in pathology, with 
several different meanings. Almost any growth 
from the skin or mucous membranes Avhich has 
a cauliflower-like or excrescent character may be 
referred to as a fungoid growth. The term fun- 
gus is also used in connection with certain vege- 
table parasites which incite disease. These may 
be divided into three groups: (1) Bacteria or 
fission fungi {Schi^omycetes) ; (2) yeast- fungi 
(Blastomycetes) ; and (3) mold-fimgi {Hypho- 
mycetes) . Bacteria and their relation to disease 
will be found fully described under Bacteria and 
Disease, Germ Theory of; also found under 
their respective titles. Y'easts occur in the stom- 
ach in some forms of indigestion, and have 
been found in the bladder in diabetes. A few 
cases of skin diseases have been reported in 
which the yeast-fungus was apparently the ex- 
citing agent. Tlie most common molds which 
are met with in pathology are (1) the Trycho- 
phyton tonsurans, which is the active agent in 
the disease known as tinea sycosis or ringworm 
(q.v.) ; (2) the Achorion Schoenleinii, which is 
the parasite of favus (q.v.) ; and (3) the Mi- 
crosporon furfur, which is the cause of pityriasis 
versicolor, a skin disease. 

FUNGUS-BEETLE, or Fiddle. An extraor- 
dinary' carabid beetle {Mormolyce phyllodes) of 
Java and the neighboring mainland, very variable 

in size, but some- 
times three inches 
long, yet so flat as 
to be able to creep 
into surprisingly 
thin crevices. It is 
brown, with black 
legs and antenme, 
and the elytra are 
thin, soft, translu- 
cent, and greatly 
expanded, giving it 
a very strange 
form. These beetles remain in dark places, under 
bark, etc., during the day, and are particularly 
fond of hiding behind the fungi growing on 
trees. Within these their eggs are laid, and the 
larvjf make their home, fwding, it is believed, 
on the larvffi of other insects. ITiis insect is 
known to the English residents about Penang as 
the ftddle-beetle, in allusion to the outline of its 
body. 




FUNGUH-HKKTLE. 



15 FUNK. 

FUNGUS-GNAT. One of the little flies of the 
family ^lycetophilidae, so called from the fact 
that many of them breed in fungi, including 
edible mushrooms. They are as a rule delicate 
and rather slender, with clear wings, but some- 
times the wings are smoky or have large dark 
spots. The larvae are slender, cylindrical mag- 
gots, more or less worm-like in appearance. The 
damage which they do in mushroom-beds is some- 
times very great, and it becomes necessary at 
certain seasons of the year to cover the growing 
mushrooms with gauze. 

FUN J, funj, or FUNG. A mixed Hamite- 
Negio people on the Upper Nile. They have not 
the woolly hair nor the flat nose of the negro, and 
the color varies much as that of the mulattoes 
in the United States. Their language also be- 
trays their Abyssinian origin. Tlie Shilluks and 
Dinkas are of the same stock. The Kingdom of 
Senaar was founded by them in the seventeenth 
century and lasted until overthrown by ^lehemet 
Ali, in 1821. See Bruce, Travels (Edinburgh, 
1805). 

FUNK, foonk, Franz Xavieb von (1840—). 
A Catholic theologian. He was born at Abts- 
Gmund, Wiirttemberg, and was educated at Tu- 
bingen, at the Seminary of Rottenburg, and in 
Paris, where he devoted himself chiefly to the 
study of political economy. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed professor of theology at Tubingen. His 
principal publications are: Opera Patrum Apoa- 
tolicorum (2d ed. 1901) ; Lehrbuch der Kirchen- 
geschichte (3d ed. 1898) ; Kirchengeschichtliche 
Ahhandlungen and Untersuchungen (1897-99). 

FUNK, Heinrich (1807-77). A German 
landscape painter, bom at Herford, W^estphalia, 
pupil of Schirmer at the Diisseldorf Academy. 
In 1836 he settled at Frankfort, and from 1854 
to 1876 ^vas professor at the Royal School of 
Art in Stuttgart. He was gifted with keen ob- 
servation, a fine sense of beauty of form and line, 
and his pictures are notable for perfect drawing, 
minute execution, and poetic conception, oft^n 
combined with splendid light effects. Among 
those in public galleries are: **Castle Ruin in 
the Gloaming" (1834), National Gallery, Berlin; 
"Lower Inn Vallev" (1846), and "Ruin by the 
Lake" (1852), Stiidel Institute, Frankfort: "The 
Kaisergebirge in the Inn Valley," and "Stormy 
Weather in the Eifel," Stuttgart Museum. He 
also left more than five hundred charcoal and 
pencil drawings of sterling quality. 

FUNK, Isaac Kavffman (18.39—). An 
American clergv'man, editor, and publisher. He 
was born at Clifton, Ohio, and was educated at 
WMttenberg College, in his native State. After 
being pastor of Saint Matthews English Lutheran 
Church, in Brooklyn, X. Y., for seven years, he 
made an extensive tour through Europe, North- 
em Africa, and Asia Minor (1872). Among the 
numerous religious publications founded by him 
after 1876 a*re the following: Metropolitan Pulpit 
(now the Homiletic lievictr), the Voice, a. well- 
known prohibition paper, and the Missionary 
Revietc. In 1889 the Literary Digest was es- 
tablished, and in 1895 the Standard Dictionary 
was published. One of the more recent projects 
undertaken by Dr. Funk is the Jctrish Encjfclo- 
pwdia. a repository of the histor}^ and traditions 
of the Jewish people from the earliest times to 
the present day, the first volume of which ap- 
peared in 1901. 



FUNK. 



16 



FUR. 



FUNK, Peter. A name used of persons em- 
ployed at auctions to offer bogus bids in order 
to raise the price. 

FUNNY BONE. A term used to designate 
really not a bone, but the ulnar nerve, which is 
so slightly protected in the groove where it 
passes behind the internal condyle of the humerus 
(q.v.) that it is often affected by blows on that 
part. (See Arm; Brachial Artery.) A pecu- 
liar electric thrill passes along the arm to the 
fingers whenever the nerve is struck or pressed. 

FUN'STON, Frederick (1865—). An Ameri- 
can soldier, bom at New Carlisle, Clark County, 
Ohio. He studied for two years at the Kansas 
State University (Lawrence, Kan.) ; was a mem- 
ber of the reportorial staff of the Kansas City 
Journal; became connected with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, in 1891 ; accompanied 
the Death Valley expedition to southern Califor- 
nia as assistant botanist; and in 1893-94 was in 
Alaska, where he made for the Department a col- 
lection of the local flora and obtained material 
for the field-report included in F. V, Coville's 
Botany of Yakutat Bay (Washington, 1895). In 
1896 he was appointed deputy comptroller of the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway; during 
the same year offered his services to the Cuban 
Junta; and later was commissioned captain of 
artillery, and distinguished himself as such at 
La Maehuca. He was promoted successively to 
be major and lieutenant-colonel (for bravery at 
Las Tunas) ; endeavored, by reason of wounds and . 
illness, to escape to the United States ; was cap- 
tured by the Spanish, and, although condemned 
to death, was finally set free. At the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American War he organized the 
Twentieth Kansas Volunteers, a force very sim- 
ilar to the well-known 'Rough Riders,' and be- 
came its colonel. From November, 1898, he served 
in the Philippine Islands, where, for bravery at 
'Calumpit, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
volunteers in 1899. Owing to illnass, he was 
relieved in 1899, and returned to the United 
States. He later returned to the Philippines, 
and on March 23, 1901, succeeded in capturing 
Emilio Aguinaldo, the insurgent leader, thus 
dealing an effective blow at serious native re- 
sistance. On March 30 he was commissioned 
Lrigadier-general, U. S. A. Consult the article 
by Scott in the Independent, vol. liii. (New 
York, 1901). 

FUR AND THE Fur Trade. ( OF. forre, fuerre, It. 
fodero, case, sheath, from Goth, fodr, AS. fodder, 
OHG. fuotar, Ger. Futter, sheath) , Many species 
of animals, especially those living in cold cli- 
mates, have a soft, silky covering called fur, 
which in some animals is mixed with a covering 
entirely different in texture, long and straight, 
called the over-hair. It is often this over-hair 
which gives the distinctive peculiarity and beauty 
to the fur. The use of the skins of beasts with 
the fur still on them, as clothing,* is of very 
ancient origin. The Chinese and Japanese used 
furs as articles of luxury at least 2500 years 
ago. Herodotus mentions their use by other 
ancient peoples. By the Romans furs were much 
prized, especially during the later days of the 
Empire. The Saracens also made great use of 
them, and from them the Crusaders brought them 
into general favor in Europe, where so much ex- 
travagance was exhibited in their use that in 
both France and England sumptuary edicts were 



issued against this fashion. But such laws, like 
most regulations of the sort, had little effect, and 
the demand for furs continued among all classes 
of people. It was to meet this demand that 
those pioneer explorers, the trappers and traders, 
penetrated the northern forests of America, and 
established little trading stations which proved 
the vanguards of civilization. Albany and Saint 
Louis, and many other flourishing American 
cities, are the outgrowth of these stations. In 
the early days the most valuable furs could 
be obtained from the Indians in exchange for 
glass beads or other trifles. At one time this 
trade was carried on, especially in Canada, by 
coureurs des bois; but the scandalous practices 
of these reckless rangers brought the trade into 
such disrepute that a licensing system was es- 
tablished. 

Beaver-skins were used in New Amsterdam 
and elsewhere in place of gold and silver for 
currency, and the figure of a beaver is a con- 
spicuous device on the escutcheon of the city of 
New York. The search for furs was one of the 
objects of the daring expeditions of the voyagers 
of French Canada, as the search for gold was the 
motive of the Spanish invasion of Mexico and 
South America. The famous Hudson Bay Com- 
pany originated in 1670, and claimed the entire 
country from the Bay to the Pacific, and from the 
Great Lakes to the Arctic Ocean, except such 
portions as were then occupied by Frenchmen and 
Russians. Toward the close of the eighteenth 
century, certain Canadian merchants formed the 
Northwest Fur Company, having their headquar- 
ters at Montreal, their operations being carried 
on in the districts watered by rivers that flow 
to the Pacific. This organization soon became 
a formidable competitor to the Hudson Bay 
Company. In 1821 the two companies united. 
In 1763 some merchants of New Orleans estab- 
lished a fur-trading post where Saint Louis now 
stands, under the management of the brothers 
Chouteau. For the first half of the nineteenth 
century the Saint Louis trade was from $200,- 
000 to $300,000 a year. One of the most famous 
of early American fur-traders was John Jacob 
Astor, of New York, who began by trading in a 
small way after his arrival in the country in 
1784. By 1810-12 his trade, conducted under 
the name of the American Fur Company, was 
enormous. An entirely new field for American 
enterprise was opened by the purchase of Alaska 
in 1867, which secured complete control of an im- 
portant seal-fishery. This field was so eagerly 
worked that it was found necessary to limit the 
taking of seals to the bachelor males, lest the 
animals should be altogether exterminated. 

Collectors and dealers in Canada and the 
United States forward their furs to the sea- 
board, chiefly to New York, for sale there, or 
for consignment principally to London and Leip- 
zig. Of the fur marts, London is the chief; for 
thitl^er tends, by the laws of trade, not only much 
of the produce of Asia and Europe, but also the 
fine peltries of Chile and Peru, the nutria from 
Buenos Ayres, the fur-seal of Cape Horn and 
South Shetland, the hair-seal from Newfound- 
land, as well as the inferior peltries of Africa. 
To prepare fur skins in a way to endure this long 
transportation is a simple and easy matter. 
When stripped from the animal the flesh and 
fat are carefully removed, and the pelts hung 



FUR. 



17 



FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 



in a cool place to dry and harden; nothing is 
added to protect them. Care is taken that they 
do not heat after packing, and that they are 
occasionally beaten to destroy worms. A marked 
exception is the case of the fur-seal, which is 
best preserved by liberal salting and packing in 
hogsheads. All other raw furs are marketed in 
bales. 

Few kinds of animals furnish a pelt of suitable 
weight and pliability^, and all of them differ 
widely in elegance of texture, delicacy of shade, 
and fineness of over-hair; and these differences 
determine their place in the catalogue of mer- 
chandise. These few animals are not very pro- 
lific, and many of them attain their greatest 
beauty in wild and uncultivated regions, although 
there are some notable exceptions. Being thus 
few in kind, and limited in quantity, the extinc- 
tion of the several choice varieties has been 
threatened through the persistent energy of 
trapi)ers. 

The principal North American fur-bearing ani- 
mals are beaver, muskrat, hare, and squirrel; 
the mink, sable, fisher, ermine, weasel, raccoon, 
badger, and skunk; the lynx, northern and south- 
ern ; bears of several kinds ; foxes of three or 
four varieties; two wolves; and most valuable of 
all, musk-ox, seal, and sea-otter. Of foreign fur- 
bearing animals the most highly prized are the 
chinchilla, coypu (nutria), and various monkeys, 
marsupials (opossum, kangaroo, etc.), and cats. 
(See articles under their names; also, Fur-Bear- 
ing Animals.) Many of the animals, however, 
enumerated in the American list are also natives 
of Northern Europe, whence their pelts come to 
market under other names. 

For manufacturing purposes, furs are classified 
into felted and dressed. Felted furs^ such as 
beaver, nutria, hare, and rabbit, are used for 
hats and other felted fabrics, in which the hairs 
or filaments are made so to interlace or entangle 
as to form a very strong and close plexus. The 
quality of the fur is better when the skin is 
taken from the animal in winter than in any 
other season, giving rise to the distinction be- 
tween 'seasoned' and 'unseasoned' skins. The 
removal of the fur from the pelt is a necessary 
preliminary to the preparation of fur for felting 
purposes. The long hairs are cut off by a kind 
of shears; and the true fur is then removed by 
the action of a knife, requiring much care in its 
management. In some sorts of skin the long 
hairs are removed by pulling instead of shearing; 
in others, the greasiness of the pelt renders neces- 
sary a cleansing process, with the aid of soap and 
boiling water, before the shearing can be con- 
ducted ; and in others, both pelt and fur are so 
full of grease as to require many repetitions of 
cleansing. For beaver-skins a machine of special 
construction is employed in cutting the fur from 
the pelt. 

Furs have their felting property sometimes 
increased by the process of carrotiug, in which 
the action of heat is combined with that of sul- 
l)iiuric acid. The chief employment of felted 
furs is described under Hat Manufacture. See 
also Felt. 

Dressed furs are those to which the art of the 
furrier is applied for making muffs, boas, and 
fur trimmings for garments. The fur is not sepa- 
rated fronj the pelt for these purposes; the two 
are used together; and the pelt is converted 



into a kind of leather to fit it for being so em- 
ployed. 

The process of dressing furs, while in its 
general outlines the same, differs in its details 
with the character of the fur. The fur of the 
seal is prepared as follows : The salt used in pack- 
ing is first thoroughly washed out, and every 
particle of flesh is carefully removed from the 
inside of the hide, after which the skins are 
stretched on frames and slowly dried. The 
process of thorough washing, this time in soap- 
suds, is repeated, and while the skin is still 
moist the long over-hair is removed with a 
knife, leaving only the short soft fur. This 
process is a delicate and tedious one. The skin 
side of the pelts, after being subjected to moist 
heat, is shaved down until a smooth, even surface 
is obtained. When the skin is again dry it is 
placed in a tub filled with fine hardwood saw- 
dust, which absorbs any moisture remaining, and 
is softened and rendered flexible by treading with 
the bare feet. It is now ready to be dyed. The 
coloring matter is applied with a brush to the 
tips of the fur and distributed by shaking the 
fur. It is then dried and brushed. The process of 
dyeing, drying, and brushing is often repeated 
as many as twelve times. 

FUR-BEARING ANIMALS, The group of 
animals whose pelts are utilized as fur garments 
or ornaments, forming the carnivorous family 
Mustelidae. This family, which includes, besides 
its typical weasels (Mustelinae), the skunks 
(Mephitinae), the badgers (^felinae), the otters 
(Lutrinse), and the sea-otters ( Enliydrinae ) , the 
honey-badgers, ratels, etc., is world-wide in its 
spread outside of Australia. It is in the North- 
ern Hemisphere, however, that the family is now 
most numerous and well represented; and it is 
in response to the demand of the cold winters of 
the subarctic regions, to which the most valuable 
of these animals are confined, that their coats 
have become the warm felts which mankind finds 
so serviceable and attractive. All are small ani- 
mals, the largest (the wolverene) being only 
about three feet long. Their bodies are in most 
cases slender, their legs rather short, their heads 
round, with very powerful jaws and teeth, and 
their tails (except in the skunks) are rather 
short. Great strength, nimbleness, and courage 
characterize them, and many exhibit a blocS- 
thirst beyond that of any other carnivore; never- 
theless, they have been tamed. Weasels have 
always acted as mousers in the East, and were 
so used in ancient Greco-Roman civilization. 
Ferrets still serve as vermin-catchers, and otters 
have been taught to fish, while badgers were 
formerly used in cruel sport. Most of them are 
terrestrial and live in burrows of their o^^•n dig- 
ging, but some are arboreal. They feed upon 
small mammals, birds, birds' eggs, fish, crusta- 
ceans, and insects; and all possess, in a greater 
or less degree, anal glands, from which they can 
discharge at will (sometimes shooting it a long 
distance) an acrid fluid, which is intensely of- 
fensive to the nostrils and mucous membrane of 
other animals. The chase of the leading members 
of this family has long l)een and still is an im- 
portant industry on the frontiers of Europe and 
North America, and thousands of pelts have been 
gathered annually without exterminating any of 
the race, though the habitats of many species 
have been much reduced. Statistics of the trade 
in furs in London show that during the last 



FUB-BEARING ANIMALS. 



18 



FURNACE. 



century the receipts of pelts there of Mustelidse 
alone, from North America exclusively, amounted 
to about 3,250,000 sables, 1,500,000 otters, 100- 
000 wolverenes, 3,000,000 minks, 25,000 sea- 
otters, 500,000 skunks, and 500,000 badgers, be- 
sides an unknown number of ermines, fishers, 
etc. "The scientific interest with which the 
zoologist, as simply such, may regard this family 
of animals, yields to those practical considera- 
tions of every-day life which render the history 
of the Mustelidse so important." Consult au- 
thorities mentioned under Mammalia, especially 
Coues, Fur-Bearing Animals (Washington, 1877). 
See Badger ; Ermine ; Ferret ; Fisher ; Mar- 
ten; Otter; Polecat; Sable; Sea-Otter; 
Skunk ; Weasel ; Wolverene ; and similar titles. 

FURBRINGER, fur^ring-er, Max Karl 
(1846—*). A German anatomist and writer on 
comparative morphology. He was born at Wit- 
tenberg, and was educated at Jena and Berlin. 
In 1888 he Avas appointed to a professorship at 
Jena. His publications include several valuable 
works on the anatomical structure and develop- 
ment of the Vertebrata, such as: Die Knochen 
und Muskeln der Extremitdten hei den sohlan- 
genahnlichen Saurien (1870); Zur Entwiclclung 
der Amphihienniere (1877) ; and Untersuchungen 
zur Morphologie und Systematik der Vogel 
(1888). 

FUB'CA ET FLAGEL'LUM (Lat., gallows 
and whip). In feudal relations, the lowest of 
servile tenures, in which the bondman was en- 
tirely at the lord's mercy, both in life and limb. 

FUBETIERE, fnr'tyar', Antoine (1620-88). 
A noted French philologist, lexicographer, and 
novelistic satirist. He was born in Paris, was 
trained for the law and the Churchy, but after- 
wards gave his life to letters. He published a 
volume of verse (1655), and tAvo satires, the 
Nouvelle allegorique, ou Histoire des derniers 
troubles arrives au royaume d'eloquence (1658), 
and Voyage de Mercure (1659). These won him 
an academic seat (1662). Already he had begun 
the preparation of a dictionary which, as its copy- 
right 'privilege' states, was to contain all French 
words, old as well as modem. For twelve years 
he labored on it, when in 1674 a foyal decree w^as 
issued forbidding any one to publish a dictionary 
till that of the Academy should appear. He 
published his own dictionary, notwithstanding, 
in 1684, ten years before the first dictionary of 
the Academy was ready. That body behind closed 
doors condemned him for plagiarism, a slander 
tardily refuted by the appearance of their own 
dictionary in 1694. Fureti^re was expelled from 
the Academy (1685), and his right to print in 
France revoked. He resisted with wit and cour- 
age in a shower of epigrams, but under the 
strain and the disappointment, he died in Paris, 
May 14. 1688, two years before his dictionary 
appeared at Rotterdam (1690). He was also a 
realistic novelist. Among his novels is Le roman 
bourgeois (1666). Fureti^re's dictionary was 
edited by Basnage in 1701, and again revised in 
1725. It furnished the basis for the Dictionnaire 
de Trcvoux that at length dis]>laced it. Consult 
Korting, flesehichtc des franzosischen Romans, 
vol. ii. (2d ed., Oppeln, 1891). 

FTTRFOOZ (fur'foz') RACE. From braehy- 
cephalic skulls found at the Trou de Frontal, 
Furfooz, Belgium, this type of mankind is sup- 



posed to date from the end of the Quaternary 
period, just at the commencement of the Polished 
Stone age. The first appearance of broad-headed 
man in Europe at Furfooz, as well as at Grenelle 
and Cro-Magnon, associated with longheads, took 
place at different dates in the Neolithic period. 
Mortillet places the Furfooz man in the Roben- 
hausen epoch of the Neolithic period, and also 
says that the associated relics have been dis- 
turbed. Consult: Le Prehistorique (Paris, 1900) ; 
Deniker, Races of Man (1900) ; S^gi, The Medi- 
terranean Race (London, 1901). 
FURIES. See Eumenides. 

FURIOSO, foo're-o'so, Bombastes. See Bom- 
bastes FURIOSO. 

FURIOSO, Orlando. See Orlando Furioso. 

FU'RIUS, Marcus Furius Bibaculus (c.l03 
B.C. — ?). A Latin poet, born at Cremona. He 
wrote iambics, epigrams, and a poem on Caesar's 
Gallic wars. "Jupiter hibermas cana nive con- 
spuet Alpes," the opening line in the poem on 
Caesar, is parodied by Horace ( Sat. II., 5, 41 ) . who 
substitutes Furius for Jupiter, and speaks of 
the poet as pingui tentus omaso, "distended with 
his fat paunch." It is probable that Furius 
also wrote the poem JEthiopis, containing an 
account of the death of Memnon, and that the 
turgidus\ Alpinus of Horace is really Bibaculus. 
He is compared by Diomedes with Horace and 
Catullus, and is enumerated among the Roman 
iambic poets by Quintilian (X. 1, 96). Consult: 
Bahrens, Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum 
(Leipzig, 1886) ; and Weichert, Dissertatio de 
Turgido Alpino S. M. F. Bibaculo (1822). 

FURLOUGH, fflr'lo (Dutch verlof, from 
Dan. forlov, leave, from for, Eng. for -f -lof, Dan. 
lov, Ger. Laube, Eng. leave, permission). A mili- 
tary term, applied to the leave of absence of 
the rank and file. It does not apply to com- 
missioned officers. In the United States Army 
furloughs in the prescribed form for periods of 
20 days may be granted to* enlisted men by 
commanding officers of posts, or by regimental 
commanders, if the companies to which they be- 
long are under their control. 

The number of men furloughed at any one 
time is not to exceed five per cent, of the en- 
listed strength. In England the furlough sea- 
son is confined to the winter months, generally 
from the 15th of October to the 15th of March. 
All soldiers with over twelve months' service, and 
qualified in conduct and musketry ability are 
entitled to six weeks' furlough. In France and 
Continental Europe generally, soldiers in the 
active army who have qualified in their duties, 
and can read and write, may, at the end of twelve 
months' sersnce, be sent on furlough for an in- 
definite period. See Armies. 

FURMAN, foor'mAn. Richard (1755-1825). 
An American Baptist clergyman, born at Eso 
pus, N. Y. He Avas pastor of the First Baptist 
Church of Charleston, S. C, fnmi 1787 until 
1822. During this period he AA^as also actiA^e as a 
legislator, and took part in the deliberations on 
the first Constitution of South Carolina. As one 
of the foremost promoters of the Baptist moA'c- 
ment, he Avas elected in 1814 first president of the 
Triennial Convention of Baptists. 

FURNACE (from OF. fornais, Fr. fournaise. 
It. fornace, from Lat. fornax, furnace, from for- 



FUR-BEARING ANIMALS 




1. WEASEL (Mustola ermlnea), In white winter op Er- 3. SABLE (Mustela zlbelllna). 

mine dress. 4. WOLVERENE OR GLUTTON (Quio luscus). 

2. WEASEL (Mustela ermlnea), In brown summer or 5. FERRET OR POLECAT (Mustela putorius). 

Stoat dress. 6. SEA OTTER (Latax lutrls). 

7. AMERICAN PINE MARTEN (Mustela Americana). 



FURNACE. 



nus, oven; connected with Lat. formus, Gk. dtp- 
u6s^ thermos, Skt. yharma, hot, Eng. ivarm) . A 
structure in which to make and maintain a fire, 
the heat of which is used for heating, generating 
steam, smelting ores, melting metals and glass, 
baking pottery, and for a great variety of other 
purposes in science and the arts. Furnaces may 
be divided into the following classes: (1) Fur- 
naces in which the fire and the material to be 
heated are placed in contact. To thia class belong 
the open blacksmith fire (see Forge), blast-fur- 
nace, cupola or foundry furnace, etc. ( See Found- 
ing and Iron and Steel for descriptions of blast- 
furnaces and converters and foundry furnaces.) 
( 2 ) Furnaces in which the fuel is in one compart- 
ment and the material to be heated in another, 
the material being heated by the llame and hot 
gases from the burning fuel. The most familiar 
form of this class of furnace is the reverberatory, 
employed in heating and melting iron and steel. 
(See Iron and Steel.) (3) Furnaces in which 
the material to be heated is within a close cham- 
ber or retort which is heated externally by the 
fire or by fiame and gases from the fire. Pot 
furnaces for making glass ( see Glass ) , and cru- 
cible furnaces for making crucible steel (see 
Iron and Steel) are examples. Furnaces may 
employ gas, powdered coal, and oil as fuel. The 
Siemens gas furnace is used in steel manufacture. 
( See Iron and Steel. ) Furnaces for generating 
steam and those for heating form in a measure 
classes in themselves. See Boilers ; Fuel ; Heat- 
ing AND Ventilation; Kilns. 

FURNEAUX, fnr-nO^ Tobias (1735-81). 
An English navigator and discoverer, born at 
Swilly, near Plymouth. In 176G he accompanied 
Wallis in the latter's voyage around the world. 
Three years after his return in 17(58, he com- 
manded the Adventure in Captain Cook's voyage, 
but became separated from him, and continued 
his exploration independently along the coast of 
Tasmania, naming the principal points on it. A 
group of the Low Archipelago was subsequently 
named after him by Cook. 

FURNEAUX ISLANDS. An Australasian 
group lying in latitude 17° S. and in longitude 
143° 6' E., between Australia and Tasmania 
(]Map: Australia, H (>). They were discovered 
in 1773 by Tobias Furneaux. 

FUR^NESS, Horace Howard (1833-). An 
American Shakespeare scholar, born in Phila- 
delphia. The son of William Henry Fiirness, n 
I'nitarian clerg^inan and author, lie graduated 
at Harvard in 1854. After a period in Europe, 
during which he received from Halle the degree 
of Ph.D.. he returned home, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1850. He contrib- 
uted to Troubat and Haly's Practice on Kjcct- 
ment, etc., and was a meml)er of the Seybert 
commission to investigate modern spiritualism, 
but his Variorum Shakespeari' is his peculiar 
work. This he began early, and during the next 
twenty years issued thirteen volumes, as follows; 
Romeo 'and Juliet (1871); Macbeth (1873); 
Hamlet (2 vols., 1877); Lear (1880); Othello 
(1886); Merchant of Venice (1888); .4s Von 
Like ft (1890); Tempest (1802); Midftummcr 
Night's Dream (1805); Winter's Tale (1808); 
Much Ado About Nothinff (1809>: and Twelfth 
yifjht (1801). .\ssociated with him in his work 
was Ins wife, herself axithor of a Concordance to 
Shakespeare's poems, and his son, Horace How- 



19 FURNITURE. 

• 
ard Furness, Jr. Everywhere the Variorum edi- 
tion has been received as a monument of scholar- 
ship, and the adoption, since 1886, of the text of 
the First Folio as the basis of the work, will by 
many be thought a distinct gain. Dr. Furness'a 
services to learning were recognized by Columbia 
and Harvard in the respective bestowmehts of 
Litt.D. and of LL.D. 

FUR'NESS, William Henry (1802-96). A 
Unitarian clergyman. He was bom in Boston, 
graduated from Harvard, studied theology at 
Cambridge, and was minister of the First Unita- 
rian Church of Philadelphia from 1825 to 1875. 
He was prominent in the anti-slavery movement. 
His writings include: Remarks on the Four Gos- 
pels (1838); History of Jesus (1850); The 
Unconscious Truth of the Four Gospels (1868) ; 
The Power of Spirit Manifested in Jesus of 
Nazareth (1877) ; The Story of the Resurrection 
Told Once More (1885). 

FURNESS, William Hen-by, Jr. (1828-67). 
An American artist. He was bom in Philadel- 
phia, early became interested in art, and studied 
in various cities of Europe. He commenced his 
career as portrait painter in Philadelphia, but 
soon aftenvards removed to Boston, where he 
met with great success. Among his sitters were • 
Charles Sumner, Lucretia Mott, and many other 
celebrities of the day. His portraits are ex- 
ceptional for good drawing and color, and their 
expression of characteristic traits. 

FURNESS, William Henry, 3d ( 1866—) . An 
American ethnologist, born at Wallingford, Dela- 
ware County, Pa. He was educated at Saint 
Paul's School, Concord, X. H., at Harvard, where 
he graduated in 1888, and at the medical school 
of the University of Pennsylvania ( 1801 ) . For 
scientific purposes he traveled much in South 
America, and writes interestingly of his re- 
searches there and elsewhere, in such books as 
Folklore in Borneo (1899); Life in the Luchu 
Ltlands (1899) ; and Home Life of the Borneo 
Head - Hunters, Its Festivals, and Folk • Lore 
(1902). In recognition of this and similar work, 
he was made a fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society and a member of other scientific associa- 
tions. 

FURNI ISLANDS, foor'n* (Lat Corassi(e 
or Corscw) . A group of small islands in the 
Grecian Archipelago, in about latitude 37° 35' N., 
and longitude 26° 30' E., between Xikaria and 
Samos; the largest of them is Fumi. 

FURNISS, Harry (1854-). An English 
caricature artist. He was born at Wexford, Ire- 
land, in 1854, of English parents. He began to 
figure as an illustrator at a very early age. At 
the age of 19 he went to London, contributed for 
many years to the Illustrated London News, and 
in 1880 begiui to draw for Punch. Four years 
later he joined the Punch staff, and his "Par- 
liamentary Views" in that journal l>ecanie es- 
pecially popular. He withdrew from Punch in 
1804, started the New Budget in 1805. and 
visited the United States in 1806-07. He is 
thoroughly English in sentiment, and depicts 
middle class English life with a fine sense of 
humor. 

FURNITURE. Properly, that which fur- 
nisher, of whatever nature it may l)e; and in this 
sense we s|>eak of horse furniture, table furniture, 
church furniture; and until ver>' modern times 



FURNITURE. 



20 



FURNITURE. 



the term included the fixed woodwork of a house 
or the like. Much the more general application 
of the term is, since the middle of the nineteenth 
century, to the articles constructed of wood in- 
tended for the use of persons occupying a house, 
and this with but an infrequent extension to ar- 
ticles of crockery, or metal, or of textile fabric. 
Thus, in speaking of the furniture of a bedroom, 
the mirror, the articles of pottery or porcelain 
upon the washstand, the bed curtains and cover- 
ings may indeed be included in the general 
phrase bedroom furniture, but in saying that one 
is about to purchase bedroom furniture the idea 
would be generally that of the bedstead, the bu- 
reau, tables, chairs, and the^like. It is in this 
limited and modern sense that the term is used 
in this article. 

The uses of furniture are chiefly these: Seats, 
because to many races of men it is found expe- 
dient to rest the body, that is, the trunk, upon a 
surface raised from ten to eighteen inches above 
the floor upon which the feet are supported; 
tables, which, being raised to a reasonable height 
above the floor (28 to 36 inches), are convenient 
alike to one sitting or standing, and may be used 
for yjermanent or temporary deposit of articles 
and for the food and the dishes which contain it 
at mealtime; simple receptacles, as chests, and, 
for very small articles, caskets, coffers, and the 
like; receptacles of more complex character and 
intended for the frequent deposit and frequent 
removal of the contents, as cabinets (a general 
term covering pieces of furniture of various 
forms ) , and chests of drawers under the different 
foreign names adopted into the language, as 
bureau, chiffonnier, commode; and also ward- 
robes^ for hanging or with shelves for the deposit 
of folded garments. These last named, in either 
form, are often confused with cupboards, and 
are called by names introduced from the' French, 
as armoire ; structures of shelving for the deposit 
of books and objects of art and curiosity, which 
structures may be either open or closed, and are 
covered by such names as bookcase, w'hatnot, and 
by foreign terms, such as Stag^re; and finally, 
conveniences for writing, combined with some 
moderate storage of stationery and books which, 
if they are classed by themselves, are not only 
tables, or chests of drawers, or sets of shelves, 
but are often a combination of all three, and are 
knowTi by such names as writing-desk, writing- 
table, secretary, davenport, and by foreign 
names, such as escritoire and secretaire. 

In Asia generally there is no such general use 
of raised seats as has become a matter of course 
to Europeans. They are known, but are rather 
places of honor. They are not necessarily 
^thrones' in the technical sense, because indeed 
the great throne of Persia and many chairs of 
state among the peoples of Northern India are 
large and square and cushioned, and are intended 
for cross-legged sitting; but those articles that 
mast resemble European chairs are, at all events, 
the 'seats of the mighty.' In general the people 
of India sit on rugs and hard, flat cushions like 
small mattresses. Places for sleeping are, on the 
other hand, very commonly raised from the floor, 
and bedsteads of some sort are in use throughout 
the Peninsula of India by all natives who are not 
of the very poorest class. This may be accounted 
for perhaps by the great number of poisonous 
serpents which in India more than elsewhere in 



the world are allowed to coexist even with the 
somewhat dense population. The furniture of 
the modern inhabitants of the Levant, such as 
the city dwellers of Cairo, Damascus, and Basra, 
consists primarily of a raised platform, called a 
deewan (divan). This is essentially a somewhat 
soft body, like a mattress, covered with a carpet 
or rugs, upon which it is agreeable to sit cross- 
legged or to recline or lie down, the head, shoul- 
ders, or the whole body being partly supported by 
cushions of different sizes and shapes. This 
deewan may be raised to the height of sixteen 
inches or so, either by a solid structure or by 
light woodwork. As a general thing it is, what- 
ever its height or size, set upon a raised part of 
the floor. Although this mattress is movable, 
and is frequently moved for purposes of cleaning 
the floor and walls beneath and behind it, it is 
not adjustable, and cannot be shifted about to 
different parts of the room, as can a sofa or chair. 
In some large rooms the raised floor is made so 
large that the deewan may be carried along three 
sides of it. Thus, in a plate given by Lane {The 
Modern Egyptians) of an interior in Cairo, the 
raised part of the floor is perhaps six inches 
above the rest, and upon this there is laid a 
mattress only about four feet wide and extending 
across the end of the room and along both sides 
for the whole length of the raised platform. 
Upon this mattress cushions are ranged along the 
wall, but all these are movable, and can be used 
in any wa}^, one or two at a time to support the 
arm or the back of the sitting person, or the 
head of one who Avould lie down. 

Of other furniture in a Levantine house there 
are chiefly fixed shelves along the walls, upon 
which are set the more decorative objects of 
utility, as vases and bowls, and small and low 
tables entirely movable, with no permanent place 
in the room, but carried about as the persons 
seated on the deewan have occasion to eat, to 
smoke, or to play at some game. There is occa- 
sionally a sort of cabinet, usually open, affording 
merely two or three shelves for the temporary 
deposit of a water-bottle or the like. The need 
of further furniture is removed by the use of 
cupboards in the wall, of which there are a 
great number of different sizes and fitted with 
shelves of difFerent depth and of different heights 
between the shelves. The absence of any dis- 
tinction between dining-room, sitting-room, and 
reception-room destroys entirely our notions of 
the proper furnishing of each kind of room. 

In a Japanese home simplicity of furnishing 
is carried still further than in the Moslem East. 
Closets in the walls fitted with shelves of differ- 
ent sizes in length, width, and height between 
shelves, and usually closed by sliding doors, are 
used for clothing, and also for the storage of con- 
siderable quantities of as yet uncut pieces. The 
space under an ordinary staircase may be oc- 
cupied by shelves and drawers ; shelves along the 
walls are used for lanterns, which are taken out 
at night, and for hats and the like; lengths of 
bamboo prettily combined serve for towel-racks 
and to suspend out-of-door garments; and a 
curious structure, composed of a vertical strip, 
which may be either a stiff board or a piece of 
textile fabric, carries a number of vases, cups, or 
round boxes of wood or bamboo, arranged in ver- 
tical series, into which receptacles many utensils 
may be thrust for safe keeping, and when made 



rUBNITURE. 



21 



FURNITURE. 



more decorative may serve for fresh flowers. 
The simplicity and obvious cheapness of all these 
things is very remarkable. Almost no attempt 
is made, even in the palaces of the old daimios, 
or in such parts of the Imperial palace as have 
not been altered in very recent times, to give to 
the interior that costly and luxurious air which 
Europeans think essential to their own dignity, 
or which they consider inseparable from beauty 
of design and perfect taste. To the Japanese, the 
most refined of decorative artists, simplicity is 
thought to be the most attractive effect, except 
for a given piece, upon which the full resources 
of art are to be lavished. In a room used for 
the reception of visitors there will be no wall 
decoration at all, because the walls are either 
occupied with cupboards or the like, or are opened 
up into recesses, of which something is said 
below, or are represented by sliding screens of 
paper strained on light wooden frames. These 
paper screens may indeed be richly painted with 
flowers and birds, or, in many cases, are covered 
with those colored, flowered, and embossed papers 
which we in the West purchase under the erro- 
neous name of 'Japanese wall-paper.' This, 
however, is rare; the decorative papers or the 
painted surfaces spoken of are used generally for 
I he entirely movable screens in two, three, or four 
leaves, which are sometimes very low (three 
feet ) , as suiting the needs of people who are seat- 
ed upon the floor, and sometimes of full height 
( six feet and six inches or even seven feet ) . It is 
sometimes asserted that the sliding screens them- 
selves, which form a part of the inclosure of the 
house, are never decorated, but there is positive 
evidence that in many eases richly adorned sur- 
faces are applied here as elsewhere. 

Of movable furniture, then, there is chiefly the 
cabinet with drawers and shelves, which is used 
mainly for the storage of very delicate objects; 
the writing-table, which may be five, six, or seven 
inches high, and from a foot to two and a half 
feet in length and of proportionate width; the 
boxes which contain paper for writing, which 
is often very decorative and needs especial care; 
and the small, light cases which contain a fire- 
box or fire-pot, and are intended for the use of 
smokers; the sword-rack, upon which the gentle- 
man of old Japan always laid his sword or swords 
on entering the house, the use being temporary 
only, for no sword would l)e kept there for any 
length of time ; and, finally, very small stands, 
such as we use to set off vases and other orna- 
mental objects, but which in Japan are used for 
actual utility, as, for example, to raise a dish 
with fruit or the like to a convenient height. Of 
utensils which are not conmionly made of wood, 
except in a few cases, the fire-pot is the most im- 
portant, and this, which is not unlike the brazero 
of older Italian usage, may sometimes be a heavy 
and almost permanent piece of furniture. In all 
the above list it is noticeable that hardly anything 
is more than three feet long or more than two feet 
liigh. The larger chests of drawers which are 
occasionally brought here from Japan seem to 
liave been rather traveling conveniences, as they 
wore commonly arranged for transportation on 
Ihe sliouldors of men by means of a long pole 
l)assod through rings or slots. 

The more elaborate decoration of such a room 
is confined to one small part of it, a kind of 
recess, single or double, within whicli is hung 



a picture mounted upon a scroll and unrolled for 
the occasion, or perhaps two such pictures, and in 
front of these a vase of flowers upon a rich stand. 
Even the possessor of a great collection of paint- 
ings, of bronzes, porcelains, lacquered boxes, and 
trays would show in this way but two or three 
of his possessions at a time. All the rest are 
kept stored away in the Kura or fireproof store- 
house, attached to each dwelling of any impor- 
tance. As for the bed, it consists of quilts, per- 
haps two or three, laid upon one another, and 
primarily upon the rice-straw mats which cover 
the floor. A wooden pillow supports the head — 
that is to say, the nape of the neck; and these 
pillows are often topjjed with a roll of some 
textile fabric stuffed with straw or perhaps buck- 
wheat hulls, upon which are laid sheets of paper 
fastened down by strings, and these sheets are 
pulled off one at a time, so that a clean surface 
is provided. Even where a mosquito-net is 
needed it is usually held upon a very light frame, 
without the slightest attempt at elaboration of 
any sort, so that even for these transparent 
curtains there are no bedposts and no testers. 

From the moment that one must have a chair 
or a bench or a couch to sit upon, it becomes 
natural and in a sense essential to have a raised 
bed-frame as -well, and, moreover, with the chair 
comes, of course, the high table in all its forms, 
for eating, for writing, for the playing of games. 
The Japanese writing-table may weigh a pound, 
but that of a family using chairs will be thirty 
inches high, and therefore wide and long in pro- 
portion, and may weigh forty pounds even when 
in the simplest and most utilitarian form ; while 
its size and shape invite elaboration and make it 
often massive and very costly. Alone among the 
peoples of Asia the Chinese have used, as far back 
as our knowledge goes, raised chairs and settles 
with such results as have been noted in Europe. 
The Chinese raised seat is indeed usually very 
high, and either fitted with a footstool or so 
broad and long that the feet can be drawn up 
upon it ; then this is made of solid and heavy 
wood, and often the larger surfaces, such as 
would in Europe be wooden panels, are pieces of 
marble or other decorative stone inlaid flush with 
the wooden frame. The use of this material, 
conducting heat from the body and therefore feel- 
ing cold to the touch, points to a custom which 
is known to exist of covering the whole piece of 
furniture with such a loose 'slip' as the French 
call the houssc: and it is probable that beneath 
this housse a thin cushion is sometimes laid upon 
the seat proper. Tables are made of many sizes; 
bedsteads are wrought into elaborate designs pe- 
culiar to the Chinese, as when the del or tester 
is supported, not by vertical posts, but by curved 
ends, which combine overhead to make an almost 
circular frame — a cylinder within which is placed 
the horizontal surface which serves as the bed 
proper. All this furniture in the more stately 
interiors is wrought into elaborate carvings in- 
vested with that smooth and permanent painting 
which we call, for want of a better name, lacquer- 
painting, and with gilding or the imitation of 
gilding in the same material as the solid color. 
A throne-like chair will have the horizontals of 
the back terminating in dragon-heads, each one 
holding in its mouth a gilded ball, which is loose 
and yet cannot l)o withdrawn; the arms and the 
supports of the seat will be carved in leafage of 



FURNITURE. 



22 



FURNITURE. 



brilliant design; the whole will often be excel- 
lent in composition, denoting the presence of an- 
cestral types of indefinitely great antiquity. And 
the reader is reminded that the furniture carved 
in dark-red wood, of which so much exists in the 
old families of Canton merchants, is not Chinese 
except in make — this is not the furniture which 
the Chinese would make for themselves. 

With respect, then, to the high seat and what 
depends upon it, the furniture of the most ancient 
nations of Europe and the immediate neighbor- 
hood of Europe, such as the Egyptians, seems to 
have taken the form which has never been, in 
essentials, abandoned since that time. Painted 
bas-reliefs and flat wall paintings of all historic 
epochs except the very earliest are known to us, 
and they never fail to contain representations of 
thrones and of chairs, stools and couches treated 
decoratively indeed and shown in such flat pro- 
jection that their entire structure is sometimes 
doubtful, but which, when the pieces preserved in 
European museums are compared with the paint- 
ings, may be sufficiently well understood. The 
use of metal, such as bronze, for such furniture 
as chairs and couches is peculiar, but such use 
existed still in the times of the early Roman 
Empire, as we know from the discoveries at Pom- 
peii, and it need not be supposed that the ma- 
jority of seats and bedsteads were made in this 
way — the bronze pieces have been preserved, while 
the wooden ones have decayed or have been de- 
stroyed by the earliest discoveries. There is in the 
Louvrfe a piece of wooden furniture composed of 
four solid uprights inclining inward very slight- 
ly, and having at top a box and below a compart- 
ment opened by doors in the sides. In other 
words, this is a small cabinet with two compart- 
ments. In the British Museum there are several 
pieces of furniture made of wood, though none 
of very great elaboration. The paintings above 
mentioned leave it generally uncertain whether 
the pieces represented are of Avood or metal. One 
thing, however, is certain, that Perrot (see bib- 
liography) is correct in his remark that "the in- 
terior of the Egyptian house was not empty and 
bare, like that of a modern Oriental house; there 
were to be seen everywhere seats with or with- 
out arms, tables of varied form, 'folding seats, 
stools upon which to put the feet, consoles upon 
which are placed vases full of flowers, and cab- 
inets for locking up articles of value." That the 
decoration by carving and color applied to such 
wooden furniture was rich and varied is known 
by the singular collection of small wooden objects, 
such as spoons and ladles and small trays, which 
are found in great numbers in the museum at 
Gizeh and in the Louvre. 

The Greeks, in the earlier historic days, lived 
a simpler life than the Egyptians. It must have 
been very rare in the time of Pisistratus of 
Athens, or at any time before the Persian War, 
that a household possessed more than one or two 
raised seats, which seats could be called chairs 
and were considered as places of honor. There 
were stools (klismos, threnus, klisie, diphros), 
of which, however, the exact forms cannot be dis- 
tinguished one from the other. And it is prob- 
able that the exact use of each name varied from 
time to time,, and even from town to town. The 
name thronos was applied to a dignified seat 
probably always furnished with a back and arms. 
Such a seat was given to each guest to whom 



honor was to be done. It appears, then, that the 
table used for eating was small and low, not 
necessarily lower than the thronos or couch, as 
shown in ancient bas-reliefs and the like, because 
in these an effort at perspective or at showing 
the whole figure of the person seated or reclining 
may be allowed for, but the table was evidently 
a movable object, brought on occasion and set 
beside the chair or couch. One is reminded of the 
similar custom during the Middle Ages, when, a 
guest of honor being seated in his armchair 
with a canopy over his head, a table was brought 
by the servants and put before him, upon which 
his meal was served, and which was then removed. 
A Greek interior was undoubtedly very bare of 
furniture. On the other hand, the beginnings of 
disposable wealth and of the taste for luxury are 
marked by the introduction of such massive and 
solid pieces as marble seats in courtyards, and 
in gardens fountains with decorated basins to 
receive the water, and tables of marble with 
massive uprights, while at the same time what 
few pieces of wooden and metallic furniture were 
placed in the living rooms were more richly 
adorned. Paintings upon the walls and mosaic 
floors were more in the way of Greek taste in the 
matter of decorative interiors than were pieces 
of movable furniture. 

The Eoman world under the later Republic and 
the Empire, recognizing both Oriental and Greek 
customs, and introducing other conveniences and 
richer adornments, used seats of many forms, 
among others bronze throne-like chairs and mar- 
ble chairs of very rich sculpture for the atrium 
and the peristyle or inclosed garden. Such seats 
as these required cushions, and the modem artist 
of archaeological proclivities who represents 
Greek ladies in their thin and scanty dress, 
seated upon marble exedrje, is undoubtedly guilty 
of an error which is not to be excused by the 
fact that he finds such things in ancient bas-re- 
liefs. Cushions were used in the amphitheatres 
to lay upon the stone seats, and so they were by 
the rowers of galleys. It does not follow that 
all representations in ancient art are accurate 
in minute detail, a fact which is well known to 
those Avho have trj^ to restore Greek and Ro- 
man costume from the statues and relief sculp- 
ture of antiquity. 

W^ith both Greek and Roman antiquity we have 
to keep in mind the much less universal closing 
of the apartments. It is a matter not perfectly 
understood how the people of Central Italy could 
have lived so much in the open air, and the same 
is true of Greece, where, though there is a warm 
summer, there is cool weather in the autumn 
and spring, and in the winter there are cold 
rains. Something like it is seen in Central Italy 
of our own time. Interiors so imperfectly closed 
Avere not likely to be very much filled with mova- 
ble furniture. The tendency would be always 
toward a few massive and costly pieces, and 
everything else of a slight and temporary char- 
acter. 

Similar traditions seem to have been of weight 
under the Byzantine emperors, but with this be- 
ginning of modern times there is noticeable a 
great addition to the elaboration of forms applied 
to seats and other utensils of woodwork. The 
number of pieces, bedsteads, couches, thrones, or 
armchairs of different kinds, is constantly in- 
creasing throughout the Middle Ages, both m the 



FURNITURE. 

Byzantine Empire and in the kingdoms of West- 
ern Europe, and this distinction is maintained: 
that in the East inlaying and painting in bril- 
liant colors is the accepted form of decoration, 
^vhile in the West at a very early time carving 
begins to supersede such flat adornment and be- 
comes very soon the one chosen style of decora- 
tion. A Byzantine armchair or small square 
table will be covered with the most delicate zig- 
zags and simple alternations of rounded and an- 
gular forms, inlaid in ivory and in metal upon 
wood of different colors, or, in cheaper pieces, 
these simple patterns are reproduced with paint- 
ing. But this custom, which still held in the 
countries which are now France, Germany, Spain, 
and Great Britain until the twelfth century, was 
even then modified by the use of carving, and in 
the thirteenth century elaborate sculpture drove 
it out completely. Then was seen the more curi- 
ous phenomenon which occurs under the Romans ; 
as the form in sculpture becomes more com])li- 
cated and takes the eye more perfectly, so that 
it comes to be thought a nobler thing than 
color, so painting ceases to be applied to stat- 
uary and even to architectural relief. In the 
same manner in France in the thirteenth century 
the elaborate sculpture in wood was still touched 
with gold and color, but with the fourteenth cen- 
tury that seems to have been abandoned and a 
court cupboard or a chair covered with carving 
was left in the natural color of the wood, the 
slightest protection only, by means of oil or 
the like, being allowed it. The small number of 
pieces of furniture which even a wealthy family 
would possess made possible the rich decoration 
bestowed upon each piece. In a strong castle of 
the fourteenth century the mistress might have 
indeed possessed her own large bedroom high in 
the walls, and with large windows opening on 
the court, and perhaps a spacious closet, or even 
a considerable series of closets for storage in im- 
mediate connection with it, but in her bedroom 
she lived, going only to the great hall for one 
meal in the day, and this rather from a sense 
of duty as the chatelaine than because it was 
agreeable to her. Her bedroom then would be 
furnished with a very elaborate carved and 
perhaps painted and inlaid l^edstead, which might 
be entirely fixed like a bunk in an officer's cabin 
in modern times, or the closed bedplace of a 
French peasant down to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, or might be movable in itself, but 
having a permanent and heavy tester from which 
curtains hung around the bed. It would have 
also a great bench on either side of the fireplace, 
and perhaps a carved and cushioned throne near 
the bed, which throne was the consecrated and 
traditional s<»at of the lord of the manor, the 
seigneur. Other seats were afforded by stone 
benches in the deep jambs of tlie windows and by 
light and not dfK-orative wooden stools which 
could bo moved about freely. There would be in 
addition only a table of no great pretensions, he- 
cause it was continually covered by one or an- 
other form of cloth, and at least one cabinet with 
richly carved doors opening into one. two, or 
three compartnionts not very elaborately sub- 
divided. The greater ])art of th<> clothing* of the 
family and of the curtains and the like which 
were not in immediate use were stored away in 
chests, which might l)e arranged along the walls 
of corridors or among the closets of which men- 



23 FURNITURE. 

tion has been made. Only a few and more costly 
articles would be kept in the cabinet of the bed- 
room, and with these the two or three manu- 
script volumes of some importance in leather 
covers and with clasps, which formed the only 
accessible books. Writing materials and the 
necessity of writing materials were unknoAN-n to 
the lords. These were the business of their 
secretary or scribe or clerk, usually an ecclesi- 
astic, who would carry his inkhorn and tab- 
lets about with him. The conditions were alto- 
gether favorable for the production of furniture 
of extreme richness and of gieat beauty. There 
was so little of it to make, and that little was 
so universally a matter of careful thought and 
preparation, that adornment came as a matter 
of course. 

With the beginning of the Renaissance in art, 
at the close of the Middle Ages, the constantly in- 
creasing tendency toward modem habits caused a 
great increase in the number of separate pieces of 
furniture ; and with this came at once the disposi- 
tion toward slighter methods of work and a less 
careful system of design. It is not to be denied that 
very magnificent single pieces were made at this 
time. The single armchair and the small or the 
larger cabinet would be massive and splendidly 
carved, ^nth elaborately wrought iron hinges and 
with extreme beauty of design. Indeed, it is known 
that such pieces were modeled in clay exactly 
as a modern sculptor models his group of human 
figures. The chief object of the designer of such 
a cabinet as we are considering would be the 
general dignity of form set off and aided by the 
carving upon all its surfaces, this carving being 
appropriate now to the panel and now to the 
square or rounded upright. Architectural forms 
were introduced into these cabinets also, and this, 
though of questionable propriety, has taken such 
strong hold upon our minds that it amounts to a 
traditional standard from which we cannot 
escape altogether. Still in connection with these 
pieces of exceptional splendor, set off. as they 
were by tapestries and by mural paintings of 
interest and importance, of religious or of legend- 
ary subject, there were multitudes of plain 
stools and tables, and the like, which were easily 
made by village car|>enters, and of which a few 
have come do\\Ti to us. Some trace of this 
custom is seen in the curious stools still in use 
in the choirs and sacristies of ancient European 
churches. These will l>e absolutely plain in form 
and an oval hole through the top allows of easy 
grasping by the hand ; they have no carving, no 
molding, no chamfering, nor are they elalmrate 
in form, but they are painted in some brilliant 
color, and have, perhaps, the emblem of a saint, 
perhaps the arms of the bishop upon them. The 
praying-chair (prie-dieu). as a piece of domestic 
furniture, seems to have been introduced in the 
fifteenth century. It is a modification of the 
ordinary church chair, a form which has existed 
since the Middle Ages, upon the low seat of which 
one might knwl, and in>on the back of which is 
secured a small shelf to support the ser>'ice book. 
There was, however, another form, more resem- 
bling a small bookcase with shelves below and a 
sloping top, and this allowed of considerable 
sculpture of its panels and frame. Such a pray- 
ing-desk as this would have no kneeling place; 
one kneeled upon a footstool or piled cushions. 

It is impracticable to follow the changing 



FURNITURE. 



24 



FURNITURE. 



forms of the richer furniture during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The marked changes 
seen in the eighteenth century are chiefly in the 
increase of the desire for luxurious comfort, that 
is to say, for low and soft seats with sloping 
backs, and tables of very diverse forms and of 
elaboration of outline and construction — all these 
refinements tending toward that exact fitting 
of the utensil to the immediate need which we 
think necessary to-day. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury, however, the ancient traditions of decora- 
tive splendor had not lost their power as much 
as they have to-day, and a person who could 
afford to have a large and well-made writing-table 
would not be content with plain wood and ma- 
chine methods of building and adorning with 
moldings and the like; he would have fewer 
pieces and they would be richer. The furniture 
of Louis XIV.'s time is still made for large and 
high and somewhat bare palace halls, and is 
bulky and massive, but here, as early as 1650, the 
use of veneering and the inlaying of different 
colored woods, and the use of gilded bronze for 
metal hinges and lock plates, and even for 
adornments of the angles and fittings of chests 
of drawers and tables, shows a marked change 
from the straightforward woodwork of early 
times. In this connection we are reminded of 
the silver furniture with which Versailles seems 
to have been supplied, in so far, at least, as the 
royal apartments were concerned, which furniture 
was sent to the melting-pot during the pecuniary 
distress of the last years of that long reign. 
In the next reign, that of Louis XV., silver furni- 
ture was used again, and in considerable quan- 
tities. In the Paris Exhibition of 1900 the 
splendid collection of French paintings of the 
time, made by Frederick the Great, was sent 
from Sans Souci to the PruSfeian royal pavilion 
on the Seine, and with this came, that the setting 
might be complete, the bronze busts and statu- 
ettes and the solid silver tables which adorned 
the Potsdam rooms where the pictures were hung. 
It is probable that none of the original make 
still exists in France. During the reign of 
Louis XV. the elaboration of form surpassed 
anything known to previous times ; the legs 
of tables were carved, the shape of the tops 
also was no longer square-cornered, but uneven, 
bounded on every side by curves which flow 
into one another, the upright sides of chests 
of drawers and bookcases were also worked into 
slight but telling curvature, and this tendency 
toward softened lines was emphasized by the 
mounting of every part with scrollwork and 
floral adornment of gilded bronze. The furniture 
of the time of Louis XV. marks, indeed, the cul- 
mination of the easy and luxurious habits of 
Europe before the French Revolution. There was 
a sudden change at the close of this reign, and 
the style named from the succeeding reign, that 
of Louis Seize, is marked by severe lines, 
straight and slight tapering legs of tables and 
the like, and minuteness of decoration, the inlaid 
patterns and the slight carvings being extremely 
refined in detail and small in their parts, and 
the inlay of delicate medallions of porcelain and 
the like being introduced for the first time, as if 
mere woodwork was unable to give the high 
finish and the minute subdivision required. 

Contemporaneous with the rich and splendid 
forms which we call by the names of the three last 



kings of the old monarchy there was made in Eng- 
land, and, to a certain extent, in the American col- 
onies, a simpler kind of furniture ; at first square 
and plain in its forms, although elaborately carved 
over large parts of the surface, but, after about 
1720, with forms suggested by the rich decorative 
work of France. Curved legs, with goats' feet and 
lions' paws, are given to tables, 'tallboys,' scru- 
toires, and armchairs throughout the eighteenth 
century, and the forms were not abandoned until 
the more delicate designs of Sheraton, Heppel- 
white, and their contemporaries in London had 
made familiar to English-speaking people the re- 
finements of the Louis Seize style. This Georgian 
furniture, often called in America Old Colonial, 
has the same charm which the contemporary Eng- 
lish architecture has — it is not stately, it is not 
very graceful, but it is felt to correspond with 
and to fit the small rooms, the quiet domestic 
interiors for which it was designed. In France, 
a very dignified style existed in the provinces, 
carving in low relief in the solid wood replacing 
the marqueterie and the gilded metal mountings 
of the capital. In Germany there existed during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a school 
of brilliant and somewhat fantastic decoration 
in color applied to standing bed-places, ward- 
robes, and the cases of tall clocks. (See Zell, 
Bauern-Mobel.) In Holland, in consequence of 
the strong feeling for landscape art, resulting 
from the achievements of the Dutch seventeenth- 
century painters, such pieces of furniture as were 
susceptible of it were often covered with land- 
scape painting, or the panels being painted thus, 
the uprights were covered with floral decoration. 
The course of natural development and change 
in all matters of decorative art was broken rude- 
ly by the French Revolution, and the political 
changes and aspirations which it brought with it. 
Even in France, where the instinct for fine art 
applied to the purposes of daily life was far 
more powerful than elsewhere, the years from 
1800 to 1850 were marked by ill-calculrfted at- 
tempts to secure novelty, and by continued de- 
cline. The famous stj'le of the Empire was 
almost wholly the creation of two or three 
designers trying to please Napoleon I., and it 
deserves little of the attention it has received 
in late years. (See De Champeaux in bibliog- 
raphy.) In the rest of Europe the furniture of 
the j'^ears before the great Exhibition of 1851 was 
clumsy and funereal in aspect, and generally 
tasteless in decorative detail. With the close of 
this epoch began the years of rapid and cheap 
manufacture of furniture in large factories, by 
means of which the requisite bedsteads, tables, 
and chairs of what might be thought elegant ap- 
pearance were turned out at a surprisingly low 
price. No refinement of design is possible in 
such work as this where a vast number of pieces 
are made from one design, itself calculated to 
offend no one and to seem respectable to many 
rather than attractive to one person. The eon- 
sequence of this rapid and cheap manufacture 
is that even the little hand work that is done 
tends to share the same characteristics of design, 
and a general reign of bad taste is the inevitable 
consequence. A reaction begins everj'^ few years, 
and has a little effect : it passes out of general 
notice, and is succeeded by another movement 
for bettering the condition of things. Thus, the 
Morris furniture of 1865 and following years was 



FURNITURE. 



25 



FURNIVAL'S INN. 



an attempted return to great simplicity of parts, 
an obvious constructive character in all the 
designs. Partly founded upon this, a system of 
design existed in England from 1875 to the close 
of the century, in which no past style could be 
said to dictate the disposition, but common sense 
and utility were carefully considered; all this, 
however, without great charm of form or delicacy 
of detail. On the Continent the forms of the 
eighteenth century were repeated again and again 
with generally a negative good taste seen in 
their use, but without anything very attractive — 
the furniture might be inoffensive, but it was 
without charm. On the whole, the best thing 
that the years from 1850 have to show is the 
work done by the few upholsterers, furniture- 
makers, and decorators of considerable preten- 
sions and doing a large business even at high 
prices. Some of the designs turned out by such 
houses in the American cities, as well as in the 
principal cities of Europe, are really of surpris- 
ing elegance and fitness for their purpose, but 
all this is done at prices which put such furni- 
ture wholly out of the reach of all but a few 
wealthy householders. The attempts made since 
1895 to create what is called a. new art are as 
yet too recent to be judged; it may be said, 
however, that the use of abstract curves, however 
appropriate to metal-work or to mural painting, 
has less application to wood on account of the 
very nature of the material, its strength lying 
in the direction of its straight parallel fibres. 
There is still no school of good furniture; the 
only chance of obtaining any is to employ a de- 
signer of individual force and large acquaintance 
with past styles, and to have his designs carried 
out by first-rate workmen. 

Bibliography. The general history of furni- 
ture is traceable in Racinet, Le costume histo- 
rique (London, 1876), as the plates and text of 
that work deal with the whole life of the peoples 
whose costume is considered. To a less extent 
this is true of the lesser works named in the 
bibliography under Costume; also Viollet-le- 
Duc's Histoire de Vhahitation humaine (Paris, 
1875). The illustrated history of furniture by 
Frederick Litchfield (London, 1893) attempts to 
cover the whole subject, but is, in the main, a 
compilation. It is valuable for reference. For 
antiquity, consult the plates of the works named 
in the bibliography under Assyria, Egypt, and 
other articles; also Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire 
de I'art dans Vantiqmt6 (Paris, 1882 et seq.), 
of which seven volumes had appeared in 1892, 
those for the historic ages of Greece and for 
Roman art not having appeared; for furniture 
since the beginning of the Middle Ages, De Cham- 
peaux, Le meuhlc (Paris, 1885), which forms two 
volumes of the Bihliothdquc de VEnseignement 
dcs Beaux-Arts, and is an excellent work show- 
ing great knowledge of the subject; also Jacque- 
mart, Histoire du mohilier (Paris, 1876) ; An- 
cient and Modern Furniture and Woodwork in 
the South Kensington Museum, with an Introduc- 
tion by Pollen (London, 1874). For special 
epochs, consult: Viollot-le-Duo, Histoire du mo- 
hilier fran<:ais; Zoll. Bauern-Mobrt aus drm 
baifvrischen Hochland (Frankfort. 1899), a folio 
with valuable colored plates; for English oak 
of the sixteenth and following cent\iries, Sanders, 
Half -Timbered Houses and Carved Woodwork 
(London, 1894) ; Hurrel, Measured Drawings of 



Old Oak Furniture; and several other books, con- 
sisting chiefly of plates; also for the Georgian 
period, Lyon, The Colonial Furniture of Xew Eng- 
land (Boston, 1891) ; Singletoij, The Furniture 
of Our Forefathers, with description of the plates 
by Russell Sturgis (New York, 1900) ; Lockwood, 
Colonial Furniture in America (New York, 
1901) ; Morse, Furniture of the Olden Time (New 
York, 1902). For Japan, consult Morse, Japan- 
ese Homes and Their Surroundings (Boston, 
1886) ; for the Orient, Lane, An Account of the 
Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians 
(London, 1871 ) , and books of travel in the nearer 
East; also the numerous notes added to Sir 
Richard Burton's Translation of the Thousand 
and One Nights (London, 1886-87), the text of 
this and other literal and minute translations 
from books written in Oriental languages. 

Numerous volumes of large plates, photographic 
and other, including catalogues of famous sales 
and of temporary expositions, universal and local, 
furnish an unlimited supply of illustrations of 
furniture, sometimes accompanied by valuable 
comment. See Boulle; Chippendale; Shera- 
ton; RiESENER, etc. 

FURNIVALL, ftlr'ni-vol, Frederick James 
(1825—). An English philologist. He was born 
at Egham, Surrey, England, February 4, 1825, 
and was educated at University College, London, 
and at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he was 
graduated B.A. in 1846, and M.A. in 1848. He 
was called to the bar in 1849. For ten years he 
was associated in philanthropic work with F. D. 
jNIaurice, teaching in the Workingmen's College. 
Devoting himself to philology, he succeeded in 
founding, for the publication of texts, the Early 
English Text Society (1864) , the Chaucer Society 
(1868), the Ballad Society (1868), the New 
Shakespeare Societv ( 1874) ,the Bro\\Tiing Societv 
( 1881 ) , the Wiclif Society ( 1882 ) , and the Shelley 
Society (1885). He has been honorary secretary 
of the Philological Society since 1854, and for 
some years edited their great English dictionary. 
He has personally edited numerous works, chiefly 
through the medium of the above societies, one 
of the most notable being A Six-Text Print of 
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1868-75). This he 
followed with the publication of a seventh text, 
and the MSS. of Chaucer's minor poems. Under 
his supervision were published forty-three fac- 
similes of the quartos of Shakespeare's plays. 
His introduction to the Leopold Shakespeare has 
been extensively circulated. In 1884 he was 
granted a Civil List pension of £150. On his 
sixtieth birthday the University of Berlin con- 
ferred on him the honorary degree of Ph.D. ; and 
on his seventy-fifth birthday he was electetl mem- 
ber of the German Shakespeare Society. 

FURNIVAL'S INN. One of the ancient inns 
of chaneerj', a (Til ia ted to the more famous Lin- 
coln's Inn. It derives its name from Sir William 
Furnival, whose family became extinct in the 
reign of Richard II. The inn stood in Holborn, 
and came into the possession of the societv in 
the first year of Edward VI. (1547). It had 
a long and honorable existence, but with the 
other chancery inns fell into disuse, and went 
out of existence about the middle of the eigh- 
tfenth century. For a description of the various 
inns or guilds of lawyers and their func- 
tions, see Inns of Coirt. 



FUROR. 26 

FUROR. A madman, representing intemper- 
ate wratli, in Spenser's Faerie Queene. He and 
his mother, Occasion, are overcome by Sir Guyon, 
the Knight of Temperance. 

FURRER, fnr'er, JoxAS (1805-61). A Swiss 
statesman. He was born at Winterthur, and was 
educated at Zurich, Heidelberg, and Gottingen. 
In 1839, and again in 1844. he was president of 
the Grand Council, and in 1845 he was appointed 
president of the Cantonal Diet. As one of the 
foremost advocates of the new Federal Constitu- 
tion, he was elected President of the Swiss Con- 
federation upon its adoption. He was three times 
reelected, and was a member of the Federal Coun- 
cil until his death. He wrote a work entitled 
Das Erhrecht der Stadt Winterthnr (1832). 

FURRUCKABAD, fiir'ruk-^-bad'. See Fa- 

RUKHABAD. 

FURS. In heraldrj^ (qv.), one of the three 
classes of tinctures, the other two being metals 
and colors. 

FURS, foorz, FORS, f6rz, or FURANI, foo- 
rii'ne. The Moslem negroes dominant in Darfur 
(Fur Land), in Eastern Sudan, betw^een Kordo- 
fan and Wadai. They are tall (1.730 mm., or 67 
inches), very black and prognathic, and have 
woolly hair. Their language is related to Nuba, 
and they, with the Nubas and Nubians, are placed 
with the Nigritians, or negro race once dominant 
throughout Egj^ptian Sudan. The political his- 
tory of the Furs, their dynastic wars of the six- 
teenth century, the prosperity of the monarchy 
under Solomon Solon at the beginning of the 
seventeenth, the ascendency of Islam with the 
development of agriculture and other industries, 
the conquest of the country by the slave-dealer 
Zebehr Pasha in 1874, and the Mahdist revolt, 
1881-92, are the prominent events in their history 
during the last four hundred years. 

FURSCH-MADI, foorsh'ma'd^, Emma ( 1847- 
94 ) . A French singer, born at Bayonne. Slie 
studied at the Paris Conservatory, and first ap- 
peared in a symphony concert conducted by 
Pasdeloup. She created the title rOle in Verdi's 
opera A'ida when it was first sung in Frencli 
at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels. After 
this she sang in London with mijch success for 
three years. In 1884 she came to New York, and 
sang at the Academy of Music, under Mapleson's 
management. She was engaged by Henry E. 
Abbey for the Metropolitan Opera House, and ap- 
peared there for the last time as Ortrud in 
Lohengrin (February 6, 1894). She taught sing- 
ing in the New York College of Music from 1891 
until her death, at Warrenville, N. J. Fursch- 
Madi was a great favorite in America, and was 
often heard in concert. She was three times mar- 
ried — first to M. Madior de Montjan, then to M. 
Verle, and lastly to Wurtz, the painter, 

FUR-SEAL. See Seal. 

FURST, fnrst. Jutjfs (1805-73). A distin- 
guished German Orientalist, born of Jewish par- 
entage, at Zerkow, Posen, He was educated for 
the rabbinical profession, and displayed at a very 
early age a remarkable power of acquiring knowl- 
edge. He studied at a gymnasium in Berlin, and 
entered the university there, but soon after re- 
turned to Posen, in 1825, to take a post as teacher. 
Gradually his convictions led him away from the 
faith of orthodox Judaism, and in 1829 he aban- 
doned the idea of entering the ministry and pro- 



FURSTENWALDE. 



ceeded to Breslau, where he continued his Orien- 
tal, theological, and antiquarian studies, which 
were completed at Halle, under Gesenius, Weg- 
schneider, and Tholuck. In 1833 he went to 
Leipzig, where he was first tutor (1833), and 
from 1864 professor, in the university. His 
labors in the Oriental field now continued un- 
interruptedly until his death, in 1873. His 
chief works are the following: Lehrgehdude 
der aramdischen Idiome (1835), a work which 
brought the Semitic languages within the field 
of comparative grammar, then in its infancy; 
ConcordanticB Lihrorum Sacrorum Veteris Testa- 
menti Hehraicce et Chaldaicce (1837-40), a 
painstaking revision of Buxtorf's Concordance of 
the Old Testament; Hehraisches und Chaldaisches 
Hondworterhuch ( 1857 ) ; and his Geschichte der 
hihlischen Litteratur und des jiidisch-hellenis- 
tischen Schrifttums (1867-70). He also wrote a 
Gesdhichte des Kardertums (1862-65), compiled a 
Bihliotheca Judaica (1849-63), and was editor 
(1840-51) of Der Orient. 

FURSTENAU, fur'ste-nou, Anton Bebnhard 
(1792-1852). A German flute virtuoso and com- 
poser for that instrument, born at Munster, 
Westphalia. He made numerous concert tours 
throughout Holland, Germany, and Russia, and 
in 1819 was appointed royal chamber-musician 
to the King of Saxony. In 1826 he accompanied 
C. M. von Weber upon the latter's ill-fated voyage 
to England. His works comprise more than 150 
compositions for the flute. His son Mobitz (1824- 
89) w^as also a flute virtuoso and a writer on 
music. He became president of the Society of 
Musicians at Dresden and custodian of the de- 
partment of music in the Royal Library (1852). 
As the result of his researches in the history of 
music and kindred topics he published Zur Ge- 
schichte der Musik und des> Theaters am Hofe 
zu Dresden (1861-62) ; Die Fahrikation musika- 
lischer Instrumente im siichsischen Vogtland 
(with T. Berthold, 1870). 

FURSTENBERG, fur'sten-berK. A media- 
tized principality in Southern Swabia, now di- 
vided among Baden, Wiirttemberg, and Hohenzol- 
lern. It gives its name to a noble family, 
branches of which exist in Baden and Austria. 
The Austrian family consists of the princes of 
Fiirstenberg, w^hose estates are in Bohemia, and 
of the landgraves of Fiirstenberg. who reside in 
Lower Austria. Other branches of the family 
are the counts of Fiirstenberg, in Westphalia, 
and the Russian Rhineland. 

FURSTENBUND, fur'sten-bynt (Ger., league 
of princes). The. A league of German princes, 
formed about 1780, under Prussian leadership, 
to resist the encroachments of Austria. Its 
founding was almost the last important act of 
Frederick the Great, and w^as premonitory of the 
future strife between Austria and Prussia for 
preeminence in Germany; but the importance of 
the union was lost sight of, for the time, in the 
events of the French Revolution. 

FURSTENWALDE, fur'st^n-val-dc. A town 
in the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, situ- 
ated on the right bank of the Spree, 30 miles east- 
southeast of IBerlin (Map: Prussia. F 2). It has 
a gj'mnasium. several fine churches, and monu- 
ments to Emperors William I. and Frederick III. 
There are manufactures of woolens, electric 
lamps, etc. Owing to its ownership of an adjoin- 



FURSTENWALDE. 



ing forest, 19 square miles in extent, Fursten- 
walde is, in proportion to its population, among 
the richest towns in Germany. Population, in 
1890, 12,900; in 1900, 16,662, chiefly Protestants. 
It is one of the oldest cities of Brandenburg, hav- 
ing obtained municipal rights in 1285. 

FURTADO, foor-ta'do, Francisco Jos6 
(1818-70). A Brazilian statesman. He was born 
at Oeiras (Piauhy), and was educated at the 
Academy of Law at Caxias, Province of Maran- 
hao, where he subsequently occupied the highest 
municipal offices. During the three years of his 
administration as President of Amazonas ( 1856- 
59 ) , the new province had a marked development. 
Still more efficient were his labors in behalf of 
the restoration of the finances after his appoint- 
ment as Minister of State in 1864. He was a 
resolute opponent of slavery, and as a member 
of the Senate in 1870 was instrumental in secur- 
ing the adoption of the initial legal measures 
toward its abolition. 

FURTH, furt. A town of Middle Franconia, 
Bavaria, situated at the confluence of the Rednitz 
with the Pegnitz, five miles northwest of Nurem- 
berg (Map: Germany, D 4). It has a modern 
Rathaus, built in Italian style, with a lofty 
tower, and a seventeenth-century synagogue. In 
the Church of Saint Michael there is an excellent 
late-Gothic ciborium. Fiirth vies with Nurem- 
berg in the manufacture of the famous 'Nurem- 
berg Goods.' Among its chief manufactures are 
accordingly mirrors, toys, gold leaf, bronzes, spec- 
tacles and optical instruments, wooden articles, 
etc. The trade in these manufactures and in 
hops is very active and extensive. Population, 
in 1890, 43,206; in 1900, 54,142, including 12,- 
480 Roman Catholics, and 3017 Hebrews. Al- 
though mentioned as early as the beginning of 
the tenth century, Fiirth did not obtain a munici- 
pal charter until 1818. It was burned by the 
Croats in 1634, and passed from Prussia to Ba- 
varia in 1806. At the Alte Veste, three miles 
southwest of the city, Gustavus Adolphus was de- 
feated by Wallenstein in a memorable battle in 
1632. The first steam railway in Germany was 
that between Nuremberg and Fiirth, opened in 
1835. 

FURTHER INDIA. See Indo-China. 

FURTWANGLER, fi.irt'v6ng-ler, Adolf ( 1853 
— ) . A German archneologist. He was born at 
Freiburg, and studied in his native city and at 
Leipzig and Munich. In 1876 he obtained the 
scliolarship of the German Archa?ological Society, 
Avhieh enabled him to travel for two years abroad. 
During his sojourn in Greece (1878-79) he par- 
ticipated in the archaeological excavation at 
Olympia. Afterwards, with the exception of four 
years at the University and Museum at Berlin 
(1880-84), he occupied the chair of archaeology 
at Munich. Besides several valuable treatises on 
tlie excavations at Olympia, and various descrip- 
tive catalogues of the vases and other antiquities 
in the museums at Berlin and Munich, his pub- 
lications include: I'linius und seine Quellen 
iihcr die hildnidcn Kiinstc (1877) ; ifcisterwcrke 
iirr griechischcn Plastik (1893, Eng. trans. 
1 894 )' ; Uehcr Statuenkopicn im A Ifertum ( 1 896 ) . 
FURY AND HECLA STRAIT. A narrow 
ohannel in the Arctic regions. Iving in latitude 
70° N. and longitude from 82° to 86*' W., 
which separates Melville Peninsula on the south 
Vol. VIII.— 3. 



27 FUSAN. 

from Cockburn Island on the north, and con- 
nects Fox Channel on the east with the Gulf of 
Boothia on the west (Map: Canada, 3). Ac- 
cording to its discoverer and explorer. Captain 
Parry, it is impassable on account of the ac- 
cumulated ice with which it is packed. It re- 
ceived its name from the vessels used by Cap- 
tain Parry on his voyage in 1822. 

FURZE^ ftlrz (AS. fyrs, of unknown origin), 
Ulex. A genus of plants of the order Legimii- 
nosae. The common furze {Ulex Europceus) , also 
called whin and gorse, is a shrub about two 
or three feet high, extremely branched; the 
branches green, striated, and terminating in 
spines; the leaves few and lanceolate; the flow- 
ers numerous, solitary, and yellow. It is common 
in many of the southern parts of Europe, and in 
Great Britain, although it does not reach any 
considerable elevation on the British mountains, 
and often suflers from the frost of severe winters. 
Furze is sometimes planted for hedges, but is not 
well suited for the purpose, occupying a great 
breadth of ground, and not readily acquiring suf- 
ficient strength; besides, it does not, when cut, 
tend to acquire a denser habit. It is useful as 
affording winter food for sheep, and on this ac- 
count is burned do\vn to the ground by sheep- 
herders when its stems become high and woody, 
so that a supply of green succulent shoots may be 
secured. It is sometimes cut and fed to other ani- 
mals. A double-flowering variety is common in 
gardens. A very beautiful variety, called Irish 
furze, because originally found in Ireland, is 
remarkable for its dense, compact, and erect 
branches. A dwarf kind of furze {Ulex nanus) 
occurs in some places, and is perhaps only a 
mere variety; if so, there is but one species 
known. 

FURZE-CHAT. See Whinchat. 

FUSAN, foo'siin', or PUS AN. The chief sea- 
port of the populous Province of Kiung-sang, in 
Southeastern Korea, seven miles from the mouth 
of Nan-tong River, in latitude 35° 6' N., longi- 
tude 129" 3' E., and the terminus of the rail- 
way from Seoul, of which the first section to 
Chon-yang was opened in October, 1902. The 
port was opened by treaty to Japanese trade 
in 1876, and to general trade November 26, 
1883. The native town has about 600 houses, 
with a population of 5000 souls. The Japan- 
ese settlement is opposite Deer Island, under 
the control of the consul, assisted by the elec- 
tive numicipal council, and a police force in 
uniform of Western style. Locally, it is called 
Kan (the post), the Japanese having maintained 
a military post there since 1592. The town is 
supplied with water from the neighboring hills by 
pipes and hydrants. In 1902 there were 10.000 
foreign residents, of whom 85 were Chinese, 22 
Europeans, and the rest Japanese. The harbor is 
formed by several islands, the largest of which 
is Deer Island, and the largest vessels can come 
close to the landing-places. The tide rises seven 
feet. Tlie climate is very healthful, summer 
bringing perfect sea-bathing. There are hot 
springs at Tong-nai, a city distant eight miles, 
nnd the local centre of trade, with a population 
of 33,160. Lines of steamers connect Fusan with 
Japan, Shanghai, and Vladivostok. A submarine 
cable to Nagasaki has been in operation since 
November, 1883. The chief imports are cotton 



FUSAN. 



28 



FUSION. 



goods, petroleum, and Japanese manufactures; 
the exports are hides, beans, dried fish, whale- 
meat, and rice. In 1899 the imports amounted to 
$2,389,000, and the exports $1,822,000, against 
$4,700,000 in 1897. Consult Bishop, Korea and 
Her Neighbors (New York, 1898). 

FUSARO, foo-za'ro. Lake. A lake, 3% miles 
long, in the Province of Naples, Italy, one-half 
mile west of Baja (q.v.) and one and one-quar- 
ter miles south of the ruins of Cumse (q.v.), of 
which it was perhaps the harbor (Map: Italy, 
C 10). It has always been famous for its oysters, 
and the restaurant and gardens of the Ostri- 
coltura, and the casino built on the lake by 
Ferdinand I., have many visitors in spring and 
autumn. The ancients called it Acherusia Palus. 
Two canals connect it with the sea. 

FUSBERTA, fooz-ber'ta. The name of Rinal- 
do's sword in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. 

FirS'BOS. The Minister of State, who kills 
Bombastes, in Rhodes's burlesque Bomhastes 
Furioso. 

FUSE. See Fuze. 

FUSEE, ffi-ze' (from OF. fusee, thread, from 
ML. fusata, spindleful, from Lat. fusus, spindle). 
A spirally grooved cone in a watch or chronome- 
ter, connected at its base with a chain which is 
wound up on the pyramidal cone. The opposite 
end of this chain is attached to the box contain- 
ing the spring, which rotates by the force of 
the uncoiling spring. The object of the peculiar 
form of the fusee is, as the force of the spring 
is weakened by uncoiling, to give a longer lever- 
age at the other end of the chain (on the fusee), 
and so to counteract the loss of power in the 
spring, thereby maintaining as nearly as possible 
a uniform rate of driving force. See Watch. 

FUSEL (fu'sel) OIL, or FOUSEL OIL (Ger. 
Fusel, spirits of low grade; perhaps from Lat. 
fusilis, fluid, from fundere, to pour) . A frequent 
impurity in spirits distilled from fermented po- 
tatoes, barley, rye, etc., to which it communicates 
a peculiar and offensive odor and taste, and an 
unwholesome property. (See Alcohol.) It is 
obtained from impure spirits in the form of an 
oily liquid having a penetrating odor, boiling at 
131° to 132° C, and having a specific gravity of 
about 0.811 at 19° C. It has a much stronger 
intoxicating effect than ordinary alcohol, and is 
highly injurious to health. The substances found 
in fusel oil belong to three classes of carbon 
compounds — viz. alcohols, acids, and esters. The 
alcohols of fusel oil include: Methyl alcohol 
(wood spirit, CH^OH) ; ethyl alcohol (spirits of 
wine, CJi^OH) ; propyl alcohol (CH^OH) ; iso- 
butyl alcohol (CHoOH) ; amyl alcohol (CjHn 
OH) ; and hexyl alcohol (CcH^^OH). The acids 
found, either free or combined in fusel oil, in- 
clude: Formic acid (HCOoH) ; acetic acid 
(CHjCOoH) ; propionic acid (C,H,CO,H) ; butv- 
ric acid (CH.COoH) ; valerianic acid (C4H0 
CO,H) ; caproic acid (aH„COJI) ; oenanthylic 
acid (CeHi,,CO,H) ; caprylic acid (C^HisCO^H) ; 
pelargonic acid (CsHi^CbjI) ; and capric acid 
(C9H19CO2H). The principal constituents of 
fusel oil are the amyl alcohols. The composition 
of fusel oil contained in different spirits varies 
w-ith the source from which the spirits are de- 
rived. Fusel oil is used in making artificial fruit 
essences and in the manufacture of alkaloids. 
See Amyl Alcohols; Distilled Liquors. 



FUSELI, foo'ze-le, Henry. See Fuessli. 

FUSHIKI, foo-shc^e, or FUSHIGI. A sea- 
port town of Japan, situated on the western coast 
of Nippon, 32 miles northeast of Kanazawa. It 
was made a free port in 1889. Population, about 
19,000. 

FUSHIMI, foo-she'm^. A town of Japan, sit- 
uated on both banks of the river Ujigawa, 3^4 
miles from Kioto (Map: Japan, D 6). It is 
noted as the place where a battle occurred be- 
tween the Imperialists and the adherents of the 
Shogun, in Januarv, 1868. Population, in 1898, 
21,515. 

FUSIBLE METAL. A term applied to cer- 
tain metallic alloys characterized by the rela- 
tively low temperatures at which they melt. 
Among the more important of these alloys are 
d'Arcet's metal, Rose's metal, Wood's metal, and 
Lipowitz's metal. D'Arcet's metal consists of 
8 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, and 3 parts 
of tin; it melts at 79° C. (174.2° F.). Hose's 
metal consists of 1 part of lead, 1 part of tin, 
and 2 parts of bismuth; it melts at 94° C. 
(201.2° F.). Wood's metal consists of 4 parts 
of tin, 3 parts of cadmium, and 15 parts of bis- 
muth; it melts at 60° C. (140° F.). Lipowitz's 
metal consists of 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin, 
3 parts of cadmium, and 15 parts of bismuth ; 
it melts at 65° C. (149° F.). Of course, by 
varying the relative composition of these alloys 
a variety of other fusible metals may be obtained, 
and the melting-points of these may be made to 
answer the purposes for which they are intended. 
For example, the constituents of d'Arcet's metal 
may be mixed in the proportion of 5 parts of 
lead, 8 parts of bismuth, and 3 parts of tin, and 
then the melting-point will be 94.5° C. (202.1° 
F. ) . Many fusible metals, especially d'Arcet's, 
have the property of expanding as they cool, 
while still soft, and are therefore used for tak- 
ing proof impressions of dies, each line being 
exactly reproduced in the cast made of the alloy. 
Fusible metals have also been employed for mak- 
ing safety plugs for boilers. When the steam 
reaches a pressure corresponding to the melting- 
point of the alloy, the plug gives way and the 
steam escapes. It is found, however, that the 
melting-point of the alloys is liable to change, 
and hence these metallic safety plugs are hardly 
reliable. See Melting-Point. 

FUSILIERS, fu'zil-erz'' (Fr. fusilier, from 
fusil, musket. It., ML. focile, steel for striking 
fire, from Lat. focus, hearth ) . Historic regi- 
ments of the British Army, deriving their title 
from the fact that they originally carried a 
lighter fusil or musket than the remainder of 
the army. In point of age the fusilier regi- 
ments are next in seniority to the Coldstream s 
and other guard regiments, and consequently 
are more or less prominent in the military his- 
tory of Great Britain. In time of peace their 
uniform differs from other infantry regiments 
only in the matter of headgear, which in their 
case is a busby (q.v.) similar, though smaller, 
in shape to the one worn by the Footguards. 

FUSINO-POINT. See Melting-Point. 

FUSION. See Heat. 

FUSION (Lat. fusio, fusion, from fundere, to 
pour). A concept which has played a large part 
in recent psychological discussion, but the mean- 



f 



FUSION. 



ing of which cannot be said to be finally and pre- 
cisely settled. It denotes a connection of sense 
elements of an extremely intimate kind — a con- 
nection so close that the resultant compound 
process seems rather to be a fusion or weld than 
a mere association of elements. The best instance 
of a fusion is the sound of a musical note or 
clang in which a number of tonal elements are 
blended to give a single' resultant perception 
which, in certain cases, may counterfeit the sim- 
plicity of sensation itself. See Clang-Tint. 

Fusion, as thus defined, might be nothing more 
than a limiting form of simultaneous associa- 
tion (q.v.). Wundt accordingly classifies simul- 
taneous associations as : ( I ) Fusions ( intensive, 
e.g. tones, and extensive, e.g. sights and touches) ; 
(2) assimilations, including discrimination and 
recognition; and (3) complications, connections 
of elements from different sense departments 
(e.g. of visual impressions and the organic sen- 
sations accompanying bodily movement). As 
thus understood, fusion does not necessarily im- 
ply any change in the connected sensations. We 
may suppose that the}' are intimately associated, 
owing to their habitual and constant concur- 
rence; some one of them dominates the group, 
forcing the others into obscurity, so that the 
whole is apprehended as a whole, and not as a 
sum; but still analysis is possible, and when it 
takes place the obscure components may turn out 
to be the same in all respects as they would be 
if given in isolation. Fusion, in other words, 
miglit be merely a modern name for James Mill's 
indissoluble association. ' In point of fact, the 
question is more complicated. 

( 1 ) We must, in the first place, take account 
of Wundt's law of psychical resultants. This 
law declares that "every mental complex shows 
attributes which may, indeed, be understood 
from the attributes of its elements, when these 
elements have been once presented, but which are 
by no means to be regarded as the mere sum of the 
attributes of these elements." Thus the musical 
note or chord has attributes, on its perceptival and 
affective sides, which do not attach to the com- 
ponent simple tones. So, too, spatial and tem- 
poral arrangement — extension, duration, order in 
space or time — i| conditioned upon a certain col- 
location of sense elements ; but neither space nor 
time is an intrinsic attribute of any sensation. 
It follows, then, that for Wundt both the inten- 
sive and the extensive fusions are, in reality, 
something more than indissoluble associations; 
the fusion is not only a whole, but a new whole, 
something that can he understood but not predi- 
cated from the nature of its elemental constitu- 
ents. The law of psychical resultants has been 
much criticised, on the ground that it involves a 
belief in 'mental chemistry' for which the facts 
give no warrant; on the ground, more particu- 
larly, that it is impossible to derive space from 
the non-spatial and time from the non-temporal. 
Nevertheless, many psychologists of higli stand- 
ing accept the doctrine of 'consolidated contents' 
or 'consolidated attributes'; the doctrine, i.e. 
that associated complexes contain processes or 
show attributes which are set up by the as.socia- 
tion as such, and are not discoverable when the 
eh'uionts are separately examined: and this doc- 
trine is but a variant of Wundt's law. 

(2) The laws of tonal fusion have been worked 
out in great detail by Stumpf. This author is 



29 FUSION. 

very far from accepting a principle of mental 
chemistry; but, at the same time, he differenti- 
ates fusion from simple association. According 
to Stumpf, there is in a collocation of tones, 
after all other hindrances to analysis have been 
removed, a tendency to fusion, or to a resultant 
oneness of impression, due to the character of the 
sense material itself. When full allowance is 
made for habitual association, for misdirection 
or distraction of attention, for lack of practice, 
and what not, this 'sense phenomenon' of being 
fused still remains. It is not that a new process 
or attribute is set up; it is simply that, just as 
visual extents, owing to their intrinsic nature, 
associate, so do tonal qualities, owing to their 
nature as tones, fuse or blend. This position has 
recently been disputed; but the evidence for it is 
too strong to be lightly overthrown. 

We turn to a consideration of the laws of 
tonal fusion. ( 1 ) If we grant Stumpf s postu- 
late, it is clear that we may speak of degrees of 
fusion, according as the tendency to fusion, in- 
herent in tonal material, is more or less complete- 
ly realized. The musical interval of the octave 
may readily be confused, even by practiced ob- 
servers, with a simple tone; the octave, then,, 
represents the highest degree of fusion. On the 
other hand, the intervals of the major and minor 
second and major and minor seventh are rarely 
taken to be unitary, even by unpracticed and 
unmusical hearers; these intervals, then, repre- 
sent the lowest degree of fusion. Between the 
two extremes stand, in order from better to worse 
fusion, the intervals of the fifth, of the fourth, 
of the major and minor thirds and sixths, and of 
the subminor or natural seventh and the tri- 
tone. W^e have, in other words, a scale of six 
fusion degrees within the octave of the musical 
scale. The facts are summed up in the primary 
fusion law that "the degree of fusion is a func- 
tion of the vibration ratio of the component 
tones" (Stumpf). In general, the consonances 
are the best fusions, the dissonances are the 
worst, and the imperfect consonances occupy an 
intermediate position. 

Certain other laws of fusion may be formu- 
lated as follows: (2) The dependence of intra- 
octave fusion upon the vibration ratio of the 
component tones persists over all regions of the 
musical scale. Above and below the limits of 
this scale the discrimination of d^rees of fusion 
becomes difficult or impossible. (3) The degree 
of fusion is independent of the intensity, abso- 
lute and relative, of the component tones. A 
weak chord fuses as does a loud chord; and a 
loud tone, accompanied by weak tones, gives the 
same fusion degree as would be produced if the 
same tones were all sounded at equal intensities. 
(4) Stumpf asserts that the fusion degrees of 
intervals wider than the octave are identical with 
those of the corresponding intra-octave intervals. 
Thus, the "ninths have the same fusion as the 
seconds, the tenths as the thirds, the double oc- 
tave and triple oi'tave as the octave." This law 
is not generally accepted. We must, of course, 
not be misled by the fact that discrimination of 
the tones of the tenth, as compared with those of 
the third, is facilitated by the greater distance 
separating them upon the tonal scale. This has 
nothing to do with degree of fusion: our analy- 
sis may be made easier or more difficult by the 
concurrence of extrinsic conditions, while the 



FUSION. 30 

degree of fusion remains absolutely the same. 
The question is: When analysis of the third and 
of the tenth has been performed, and the ob- 
server is able by effort of attention to single 
out the component tones in both complexes, do 
the third tones 'go together' (blend) as well as 
or "better than the tenth tones ? Is the sense re- 
lationship, which we term fusion degree, the 
same or different in the two cases? The answer 
seems to be that the tenth, though a better fusion 
than, e.g. the tritone (a member of the intra- 
octave group lying next below the group of thirds 
and sixths ) , is still a worse fusion than the third, 
to which it corresponds. (5) Except in certain 
specific cases, falling under the laws already 
formulated, clang-tint does not influence degree 
of fusion. (6) Spatial separation of the tones, 
though it facilitates analysis, does not affect de- 
gree of fusion. (7) If two tones are simultane- 
ously ideated (reproduced, as, sounding together, 
in memory or imagination ) , the resultant idea 
always evinces the degree of fusion that the same 
tones would show in perception. (8) The pitch 
of a fusion is never that of a tone lying midway 
between the pitches of the component tones, but 
rather the pitch of some one of these components. 
''In a continuously sounding compound clang," 
as heard by a musical observerj "the whole ap- 
pears to possess the pitch of its deepest tone, 
even if this be not the loudest" (Stumpf). Un- 
musical observers are apt to estimate the pitch 
of a simple clang as somewhat lower than that 
of a compound clang based upon the same funda- 
mental tone. 

Other instances of fusion are to be found in the 
complexes of organic sensation that form the 
body of the feelings (q.v.) ; in the qualitative 
taste-smell mixtures (the taste of coffee or lem- 
onade) ; in the perceptions (weight, resistance) 
mediated both by external skin and by the sense 
organs of muscle, tendon, and joint; perhaps in 
all the impressions that we call colors (mixtures 
of color proper and of brightness) ; and, accord- 
ing to Kuelpe, in such affective formations as 
emotion, impulse, and feeling. It is, however, 
doubtful whether the connections of sensation 
and affection can be brought under the same 
conceptual heading as the fusion, connections of 
sensations. 

Consult: Stumpf, Tonpsychologie, vol. ii. 
(Leipzig, 1890) ; Wundt, Grundriss der Psycholo- 
gie (Leipzig, 1897; Eng. trans., London, 1898) ; 
id., Orundzilge der physiologischen Psychologic 
(4th ed., Leipzig, 1893) ; Kuelpe, Outlines of 
Psychology, translated b,y Pillsbury and Titch- 
ener (London, 1895) : Titchener, Experimental 
Psychology (New York, 1901). 

FUSION DISK, or FUSING DISK. See 

Metal-Wokking Maciiiis'ery. 

FUSIYAMA, foo'sS-yii'ma. See Fujiyama. 

FUST, foost, or FAUST, Johann ( ?-c.l466). 
A German promoter of the invention of printing. 
He was a well-to-do citizen of Mainz, and became 
Gutenberg's partner in the new business of print- 
ing. He furnished the capital and took a mort- 
gage upon the business, being shrewd enough to 
realize the value of Gutenberg's discovery. Guten- 
berg, on his part, provided the necessary appa- 
ratus. In 145.5 Fust prosecuted Gutenberg for 
money advanced, and upon the latter's non-pay- 
ment seized enough of the apparatus to cover the 



FUSTIC. 

mortgage, and continued the business with his 
son-in-law, Peter Schoffer. In 1462, at the sack 
of Mainz, the workmen were scattered and the 
secret of the art of printing became common 
property. By 1465 their shop was again active. 
Copies of the work of Fust and his partners are 
still in existence. The best-known publication 
of himself and Gutenberg is the Latin 'Bible of 
forty- two lines/ or the Mazarin Bible; of Fust 
and Schoffer, a Psalter (1457), the first book 
published with a complete date, and especially re- 
markable for the beauty of the initials, w^hich 
are printed in red and blue from types made in 
two pieces. See Gutenberg; Printing. 

FUSTEL DE COULANG-ES, fus't^F de koo'- 
laNzh', NuMA Denis (1830-89). A French his- 
torian, bom in Paris. After teaching history in 
i\iniens, Paris, and Strassburg, he returned in 
1871 to Paris, where he became the successor of 
Geffroy at the university, and several years later 
was appointed to the chair of mediaeval historj' 
(1878). His principal works are: Memoire sur 
Vile de Chio ( 1857 ) ; Polyhe, ou la Grece conquise 
par les Romains (1858) ; La cite antique, Etude 
sur le culte, le droit, les institutions de la Grece 
et de Rome (14th ed. 1895) ; Histoire des institu- 
tions politiques de Vancienne France (1875-90) ; 
and La Gaule romaine, I'invasion germanique et 
le royaume des Francs (1888-91), which was 
awarded the grand prix 'Jean Raynaud.' For 
his biography, consult Guiraud (Paris, 1896). 

FUSTIAN, f us'cha-n ( from OF. fustaine, from 
ML. fustianum, fustian, from Ar. Fustat, a sub- 
urb of Cairo, from which the material first 
came ) . A cotton fabric having a pile like velvet, 
but shorter, and which is manufactured in nearly 
the same manner as velvet, by leaving loops 
standing upon the face of the fabric, and%then 
cutting them through so as to form upright 
threads, which are afterwards smoothed by shear- 
ing, singeing, and brushing. See Velvet. 

The different names given to fustian cloths 
depend upon their degree of fineness, and the 
manner in which they are woven and finished. 
Thus, smooth kinds, of a strong twilled texture, 
are called moleskins when shorn before dyeing, 
and heaverteens when cropped after dyeing. Cor- 
duroy, or king's cord, is produced by a peculiar 
disposition of the pile-threads. In all fustians 
there is a warp and filling, or weft thread, inde- 
pendent of the additional filling-thread forming 
the pile; but in corduroys the pile-thread is only 
'thrown in' where the corded portions are, and is 
absent in the narrow spaces between them. For 
a technical description of fustians, velveteens, 
and corduroys, see Posselt, Technology of Tex- 
tile Design (Philadelphia, 1895). 

FUSTIAN. See Sylatester Daggerwood. 

FUSTIC ( from Fr. fustoc; ultimately connected 
with Lat. fustis, stick ) . A name given to two 
kinds of dye-wood used for producing a yellow 
color, and, with chemical additions, other colors, 
such as brown, olive, and green. The name in 
France (fustic) seems to be connected with 
fustet, name of the Venice sumac {Rhus coti- 
nus), a shrub found in the south of Europe, and 
to have been transferred to a very different plant 
(Chlorophora tinctoria) , a tree of the natural 
order IVloracese, a native of the West Indies, 
Mexico, and Northern South America. Fustic is 
a large and handsome tree with wood which is 



FUSTIC. 



31 



FUTURE ESTATE. 



sometimes used in mosaic cabinet-work and turn- 
ing, but chiefly in dyeing, for which its large 
content of yellow coloring matter specially fits 
it. Since the color is rather dull, it is more used 
for pro<lucing other colors. Old fustic, or yellow- 
wood, is employed for dyeing woolens and also to 
impart to them, when mixed with indigo and salts 
of iron, green and olive colors. It furnishes a 
yellow coloring matter termed moritannic acid, 
which may be obtained in crystals by evaporating 
its watery solution. The bichromates of potash 
and of lead, as well as some of the coal-tar 
products, have to a great degree superseded the 
use of old fustic. Young fustic, the wood of 
Rhus cotinus, contains a yellow coloring matter, 
to which the name fusteric has been given. It is 
generally used in combination with other dyes, 
in order to strike some particular tint. These 
terms, old and young, began to be employed about 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, from the 
mistaken notion that the one, in small pieces, 
A\as the wood of the young tree, and the other, 
in comparatively large logs, of the same tree in a 
more mature state. The osage orange {Madura 
aurantiaca) of North America is nearly allied to 
old fustic, and its wood also affords a yellow 
dye. See Osage Orange ; Sumac. 

FUSULINA, ffi'su-li'na (Neo-Lat., from Lat. 
fiisus, spindle). An important genus of fossil 
perforate foraminifera, characteristic of the 
Upper Carboniferous and Permian limestones. 
The shell, which varies in size from one-quarter 
to one-half inch among the different species, is 
usually fusiform in shape, and is made up of a 
number of spirally inrolled whorls, of which the 
chambers are divided into many chamberlets by 
primary and secondary partitions. The known 
species, about fifteen in number, are found in 
the Upper Carboniferous limestones, and often 
also in those of the Permian age, and in many 
places are so abundant that they actually con- 
stitute the mass of the rocks. Such Fusulina 
limestones, appearing as if made up of grains of 
wheat, are common in certain parts of Europe, 
Asia, Japan, and are also found in tlie Missis- 
sippian and Southwestern States of the United 
States and elsewhere in North America. The 
Fusulina limestone of Japan has a fine dark-gray 
ground with brighter colored Fusulina grains 
scattered over the surface, and because of its 
beauty has been extensively cut into vases and 
other ornajnental objects, in which form it may 
be seen in- nearly every collection of Japanese 
curios. Schwagerina, with shell of spherical 
form, is an allied genus of quite similar horizon 
and distribution. See Foraminifb:ra ; Carbonif- 
ERoi'S System. 

FUSUS (Lat., spindle) . A genus of largo gns- 
lrop(Ml molhisks, the spindle-shells, allied to the 
British whelks and American conchs, and con- 
taining many well-known shells. For particulars 
and illustrations, see Roaring Buckie; Spindle- 
SiiEix; Whelk. 

FUTA-JALLON, fy'tA' zhft'lflN', or FOOTA- 
JALLON. A mountainous region in West Afri- 
ca, a part of French Guinea, and bordered by 
SC'nf'gal on the north and Port\igueso Guinea on 
the west. Its area is about 42.500 square miles. 
Owing mainly to the elevation, which is about 
4000 feet, the climate is rather favorable; and 
the fine forests lend beauty to the region. The 
Senegal, Gambia, and other rivers head within its 



confines. It is a mineral district, furnishing 
copper, iron, and some gold. Its fertile soil pro- 
duces coffee, rice, maize, and cotton. The coun- 
try is well adapted for stock-raising, and the 
number of cattle is considerable. The territory 
is regarded as among the best in that part of 
Africa, but it is as yet little developed. 

Futa-Jallon was divided into four administra- 
tive circles by the French in 1902, each circle 
being under the French commandant of the re- 
gion. At the head of the native government are 
the princes, called Almami, of the two leading 
ancient families. Each prince rules for two 
years, and his powers are subject to the action of 
an assembly of nobles. The crowning of the 
Almami takes place amid great festivities in 
the university town of Fugumba, in the oldest 
mosque in the land. The capital is Timbo, a 
village of 1500 inhabitants, and interesting for 
its palaces. Tuba is the largest city. Lab6, 
also, is important, and Sokokoro is in a charming 
locality. The population of Futa-Jallon is given 
as about 600,000, mostly Fulbe. They came from 
Senegal in the sixteenth century and subjugated 
the natives. (See Fulah.) In 1881 the French, 
through a representative of the French adminis- 
tration in Senegambia, first concluded a treaty 
of peace with the Almami rulers of Futa-Jallon, 
It was not, however, until 1893 that a French 
protectorate was established, and a firm footing 
secured in connection with the Government of 
French Guinea (q.v.). Consult: IKilter, Leber 
die Capverden nach dem Rio Grande und Futa 
Dschallon (Leipzig, 1884); Noirot. A traversle 
Fouta-Diallon et le Bamhouc (Paris, 1885). 

FUTA-TOBO, or FOOTA-TORO, t6'r6'. A 
territory in West Africa, in the northern part 
of French Sen^^l. A portion of it was annexed 
by France in 1860. It is, for the most part, a 
level and fertile country, with extensive tamarind 
forests. There is iron ore, and considerable pig 
iron is produced. The estimated population is 
114,000, chiefly Fulbe. 

FUTTEHPUR, fut'te-poor'. See Fathipir. 

FUTTIQARH, fiit'ti-giir', or FATHIGARH. 
The military cantonment of Farukhabad (q.v.). 
Population, about 12,400. 

FUTTYGURH, fut'ti-gur'. See Futtigarh. 

FUTURE ESTATE. An estate in lands 
which is limited to come into possession and en- 
joyment at some time in the future. By the 
common law of England the number of such 
estates was strictly limited, being confined to 
reversions and remainders. These had the com- 
mon characteristic of fitting exactly upon some 
precedent estate less than a fee simple, and could 
not take effect in derogation of a fee nor after 
an interval of time during which the fee was 
suspended or in abeyance. Thus a future gift 
to B one year after A's death, or to C one year 
from date, would, at common law, have been 
simply void, as not coming within the description 
of a remainder. See Remainder; Reverston. 

As a consequence of the ancient practice of 
conveying land to one man to the use of another, 
ond as the result of the Statute of IWs. passed 
in the twenty-seventh year of Henry VIII. 
(15.35), and of the Statute of Wills, five years 
thereafter, new classes of future estates of a 
more flexible character became possible. Tliese 
were known as springing and shifting uses, and 



FUTURE ESTATE. 



32 



FUZE. 



executory devises. They consisted in future limi- 
tations, not coming under the description of re- 
mainders and reversions, but taking effect in the 
future without a preceding 'particular' estate, 
or in derogation of a preceding estate in fee. 
Thus a gift of land to the use of B, to take 
effect on the happening of some future event, or 
to the use of A and his heirs, and, in the event of 
B's returning from abroad, to the use of B and 
his heirs, would vest a future estate in B, the 
former as a springing use ( q.v. ) , and the latter 
as a shifting use (q.v.). Either of these estates, 
if given by last will and testament, would take 
•effect as an executory devise ( q.v. ) . Though 
these distinctions are still valid in England and 
many of the United States, they have in many 
jurisdictions been abolished by statute, while in 
a few States, as in New York, all future estates 
of real property have been put on the same 
footing, even the fundamental distinction between 
remainders and the executory limitations above 
described having been done away with. In gen- 
eral, therefore, future estates of all kinds can 
now be directly created by deed as well as by 
last will and testament. 

Strictly speaking, there can be no such thing 
as an estate in personal property, and it was 
formerly the law that the ownership of such 
property was indivisible. This meant that if 
a chattel, as a jewel or a leasehold estate, was 
given to one for life, it became his absolutely, 
and no legal interest therein could be given over 
to any one else. But by a series of judicial 
decisions of the last century in England and 
America this narrow rule of the common law has 
been changed, and it is now possible to create 
legal future estates, or interests, in personal 
property as well as in real. Such interests are 
not deemed to be remainders, however, even 
where they take effect, like legal remainders of 
real property, upon the determination of a pre- 
cedent interest therein, but are classified as 
future interests of the executory type, like 
springing and shifting uses, and the like. 

The foregoing enumeration exhausts the list 
of the future estates generally recognized in 
our legal system. Other rights in land looking 
to a future enjoyment thereof may, indeed, exist, 
but they all fall short of being estates or 
interests in the land, as those terms are under- 
stood in law. Of this character are rights of 
entry for condition broken, rights of forfeiture 
for waste or other cause, rights of escheat and 
eminent domain, and the right remaining in one 
who has conveyed away a qualified or limited 
fee. None of these reach the dignity of future 
estates, though one of them, the right of entry 
for breach of condition, has been rendered alien- 
able by statute in England and a few of the 
United States. Of an intermediate character, 
also, are the respective interests of husband 
and wife in the estate of the other, while the 
relation of coverture continues. The 'inchoate' 
dower right of the wife and the curtesy 'initiate' 
of the hus])and are not, strictly speaking, future 
estates, but they approach closely to that descrip- 
tion. See Estate. 

Future estates of all kinds are generally alien- 
able by deed or will, and, if ostat-es of inheritance, 
are transmissible by descent just like present 
estates. . Though the property in which the 
estate is claimed is for the time being in the 
lawful possession of another, the future estate 



is secure from loss or destruction. It is un- 
affected by any conveyance or other act of ab- 
solute ownership which the present, or particu- 
lar, tenant may choose to exercise over it. In 
this respect it differs from a mere equitable 
interest, present or future, in property, which 
may be lost by conveyance of the property to an 
innocent purchaser. But all future estates that 
are contingent in character are subject to the 
rule against perpetuities, which renders void any 
future interest which is not to rest within a 
lifetime and twenty-one years after the date oi 
the creation of the estate. See Perpetuity. 

FUX, fooks, JonANN Joseph (1660-1741). A 
musical composer and theoretician, born at Hir- 
tenfeld, in Styria. Until his appointment a* 
organist at the Schottenkirche, Vienna, in 1696, 
nothing authentic is knoAVTi of him. In 1715, 
having held several court offices, he was ap- 
pointed first or head kapellmeister, an office 
which he held up to the date of his death, 
serving with marked favor under three suc- 
cessive emperors. His secular compositions, and 
his operas in particular, give little evidence of 
genius; his fame as a composer resting more 
on his sacred music, and especially on the cele- 
brated Missa Cannonica, a contrapuntal master- 
piece written entirely in canon form. His treatise 
on counterpoint, written in Latin originally, and 
entitled Gracilis ad Parnassum, w^as first pub- 
lished at Vienna in 172.5, meeting with so much 
favor that by the year 1791 it had been published 
in English, French, Italian, and German. Haydn 
and Mozart are known to have studied and 
profited by it, while Cherubini, Aibrechtsberger, 
Piccini, Martini, Vogler, and numerous other 
well-known composers and teachers either adopt- 
ed or sanctioned it. Although he wrote or com- 
posed over 400 works, few of them were ever 
published. He died in Vienna. A very excellent 
biography is Kochel, Johann Joseph Fux (Vien- 
na, 1872). 

FUZE, or FUSE (abbreviation of fusee, from 
Fr. fusil, gun, steel for striking fire. It., ML. 
facile, steel for striking fire ) . The name of a 
variety of devices employed for firing explosives 
in military shells and mines and in blasting 
operations, etc. The simplest form of fuze, and 
the one which is most familiar, consists of a rope- 
like tube filled with some slow-burning compound, 
one end of which is inserted in the explosive, and 
to the other end of which the light is applied. 
Such fuzes are made to burn at a certain rate of 
speed, and the time of explosion can, therefore, 
be regulated definitely by varying the length of 
the fuze. The Bickford match, which is used in 
blasting, burns at the rate of from two feet to 
four feet per minute. In modern practice blasts 
are most generally fired by electric fuzes. These 
are of two general classes. In both two naked 
copper wires pass through a cork or plug of some 
non-conducting material, and project inside a 
metal cylinder in the open end of which the 
plug is inserted. In tension fuzes the ends of 
the wires are not connected, and in quantity 
fuzes the ends of the large copper wires are con- 
nected by a very fine wire, commonly of platinum. 
The metal cylinder is filled with some explosive 
compound, commonly fulminate of mercurj% 
which explodes with a detonation. The outer 
ends of the two copper wires are connected with 
two wires wliich lead to the poles of a battery 



FUZE. 33 

or other electrical generator, often a magnetic 
machine. 

In operation, the metal cylinder with its ex- 
ploding charge is inserted in the mine or blast 
to be fired, and the wires are connected with the 
electric generator. Upon, completion of the cir- 
cuit the current passes through the explosive 
compound in the detonator, forming a spark in 
the tension fuze and heating the fuze wire in 
the quantity fuze^, and in either case causing the 
compound to explode and thus explode the mine 
or blast. Electric fuzes are used for firing sub- 
merged mines in warfare. By means of the elec- 
tric fuze a large number of mines or blasts can 
be fired simultaneously. See Blasting. 

Fuzes for projectiles are either time or per- 
cussion, or a combination of both. Percussion 
fuzes generally have a plunger held by a safety 
ring or other device away from a cap of ful- 
minate until, by the shock of discharge, they 
are armed, and the plunger left free to run for- 
ward, when the shell strikes its target, and strike 
the cap. Time fuzes have a plunger held safe 
by a pin which is taken out when inserted in the 
gim ; the discharge then shears off a frail sup- 
port (the plunger lugs) and drives the plunger 
on to the cap at once, igniting a train of powder 
(time train) which burns during flight. Com- 
munication of flame to charge can be made only 
through the connecting tube, a small hole 
punched at a point corresponding to the time 
desired before explosion. The percussion prin- 
ciple is generally combined with this to insure 
explosion on impact if the time train should fail 
to act;, and the mechanism which is shown in the 
illustration is generally situated at the base of 
the fuze. 

eaSecon^la. 

JVurtffer -jtSBKKfil^ Cone Cover' 

Cofrr/aosition. MJUSBfUi ..TXme 7>vun. Cort9 

Tt'rsjtffJVrv U-JU I HMI'' 

CannecttnyTU^e.^lM ^J^JS , M l, . - Cc>mjor»a«a7bwltr^i^f 

fhunlerCfuamiw\ ^^^^^^^K^^^^.—Awviar' CTtarye. 

■Ti/t/bU flirty ^^^^^^^1^^^ " -^^""^^ Z/iftt 

JPrifnefiShcata- <flu^^^ " 1 1^ rioj^erjSleevn 

^aao Coir»f*. -. . _ . ^tEUKK^ 
/Scale. 

fM ii fi iii f ' f U nckes 

FBANKKORD AHSENAL COMBINATION FUZB. 

In spherical shell, a train of powder pre89ed 
into a wooden tube was cut to length proportion- 
ate to time of bursting. Ignited at the outer 
end by discharge, this tube conveyed the com- 
bustion to the charge. For ricochet fire over 
water, a water-cap of brass with a zigzag chan- 
nel prevented extinction by immersion. An im- 
proved fuze, chiefly used for spherical shell, wns 
the Boriuiinn. It was of ])ewtor and was punolied 
on a time scale. Greater accuracy was obtained 
by more uniform burning of the better time train. 



FYZABAD. 

Consult Bruff, Ordnance and Gunnery (New 
York, 1900). See also Pkojectiles ; SHBAP^-EL. 
FYFFE, fif, Charles Alan (1845-92). An 
English historian, born at Blackheath, England, 
and educated at Balliol College, Oxford, where he 
graduated in 1868. He took his M.A. in 1870, 
and in the following year was elected a fellow of 
University College, and later was appointed 
bursar, which position he held for many years. 
He acted as war correspondent for the London 
Daily News during the early months of the 
Franco-Prussian War, and in the same capacity 
was in Paris during the Commune, narrowly 
escaping execution as a spy. He studied law 
at Lincoln's Inn and the Inner Temple in 1873- 
76, and in 1877 was admitted to the bar, but 
never practiced. In 1875 he published a small 
History of Greece, in a series of History Primers, 
which was well received. This success encour- 
aged him to attempt a larger work, and he 
began writing his History of Modem Europe, 
which was published in three volumes in 1880, 
188G, and 1890. It is a vigorous and careful 
account of the political history of Europe from 
the outbreak of the French Revolution to the 
Treaty of Berlin in 1878, and as a clear, con- 
cise, and well-proportioned sketch of this period 
it has not been surpassed. Fyffe was a Radical 
in politics, was one of the founders of the Free 
Land League, and was an unsuccessful candidate 
for Parliament from Oxford in 1885. 

FYNE, fin, Locii. An arm of the sea running 
north and northeast from the Sound of Bute, in 
the south of Argyllshire, Scotland, to beyond 
Inverary, in the north, and bounded by the Dis- 
trict of Cowal on the east, and by those of Argyll- 
Knapdale and part of Cantire on the west (Map: 
Scotland, C 3). It is 43 miles long, 2 to 8 miles 
broad, and 40 to 70 fathoms deep, and receives 
at its head the waters of the Fyne River and a 
little lower down the Shira and Aray. It has 
important herring fisheries. 
FYRD, ferd. See Militia. 
FYT, fit, Jan (e.1609-61). A Flemish painter 
and etcher, born in Antwerp. He was a pupil 
of Jan van Berch. In 1629 he became member of 
the Guild of Saint Luke, and in 1650 he was 
elected member of the Guild of the Romanists, 
becoming dean in 1652. He visited Italy and 
spent some time studying in Rome. His painting 
is characterized by sunny effects, harmony of 
color, and remarkable detail, especially in the 
painting^ of the fur of animals and the plumage of 
birds. His subjects embrace animals hunting, 
fighting, and dead. He has been named the great- 
est animal painter of the Flemish School, and 
was associated with Jordaens and Willeborts ; the 
latter painted the figures, while Fyt added the 
animals. He died in Antwerp in 1661. His 
etchings include three series of animal subjects: 
they show the same vigor and animation in style 
as his paintings. There are three paintings at 
the Louvre, Paris; the "Bear Hunt" is in 
Munich; and he is well represented in Vienna 
and Paris. 

FYZABAD, fi'zili-bUd'. See Faizabad. 



G 



GThe seventh letter and fifth con- 
sonant in the Grseco - Roman al- 
phabet. The greatest innovation 
made by the Romans when they took 
over the Greek alphabet was in the 
development of G. Up to the mid- 
dle of the third century B.C. the letter C was 
employed in Latin inscriptions for both c and g. 
The familiar abbreviations C. and CN. for Gains 
and Gnseus prove this fact beyond question. 
The inconvenience, however, of having only one 
character to distinguish the two sounds made 
necessary a slight differentiation, which finally 
gave the form G for the sonant guttural ( gr ) , and 
C for the surd guttural (c hard). The new 
character first appears in the epitaph on Scipio 
Barbatus, which Kitschl thinks cannot have been 
carved later than B.C. 234. This G took the 
seventh place in the alphabet, which had been 
occupied by Z in the' old Italic alphabet. (See 
Alphabet; Letters.) With reference to the 
name, it may be added that the Greek designa- 
tion gamma has been usually supposed to be an 
adaptation of the Semitic gaml or giml, and to 
mean a camel. But in fact gim,l and gaml mean 
nothing as words, and although either may be 
the Semitic triliteral root meaning 'ripe,' there 
is no word of any such form from that root. 

Phonetic Character. In English, g has the 
values ( 1 ) of a voiced guttutal explosive 
made by voiced breath being checked between 
the body of the tongue and the palate, as in 
got, organ, glad; (2) of the so-called 'soft' or 
palatal g ( (Z + 2;/i ) , as in generous, gentle (this 
sound is sometimes aided orthographically by the 
addition of a d, as in hridge, judge) ; (3) in 
some words taken from French it has the value 
of zh, the voiced, broad sibilant as in mirage, 
rouge; (4) it is sometimes silent before n and 
m, as gnaw, sign; (5) in the combination ng at 
the end of syllables it denotes merely that the n 
is a guttural and not a dental nasal; (6) the 
combination gh has frequently the sound of 
f, as slough, or of w, as hough. The voiced ex- 
plosive g comes chiefly from ( 1 ) Indo-Ger. gh, 
as in Eng. lotig, Ger. lang, Lat. longus, Gk. 
5oXtx6s, Skt. dirghas; (2) the g of words which 
have come into English from other languages, 
as grain, Lat. granum. The following are some 
of the changes between g and other letters: Acre, 
Lat. ager, Gk. Aypos, or again knee, Lat. genu; 
kin, Lat. genus; y ester (day), Ger. gesfcrn, Lat. 
hesternus. There is a constant tendency toward 



palatalization of g, as in the Old English par- 
ticiples in y, corresponding to Germanic ge, 
A modern instance of this tendency is seen in 
the pronunciation of Morgen as Moryen in the 
so-called Berliner Dialekt of Germany. The 
Normans in England could not sound the w, 
and so substituted for it gu. This gives doublets 
in English like guard and luard, guarantee and 
warranty. G sometimes disappears, as in Eng. 
enough, G«r. genug ; and Eng. master, Lat. ma- 
gister. 

As A Symbol. G in music is the fifth tone of 
the natural diatonic scale of C, and in the 
treble clef is written on the second line, or in 
the first space above. In the bass clef it stands 
in the first line or in the fourth space. 

GAAL, gal, Jozsef (1811-66). An Hungarian 
author. He was born at Nagy KSroly, in 1811; 
studied at the College of Buda, and at the Uni- 
versity of Pesth, and entered soon afterwards the 
administrative career, being attached to the 
Hungarian Council of Lieutenancy. He played a 
somewhat important part in politics, and took 
part in the Revolution of 1848. Gaal began 
writing early, and proved equally successful when 
gossiping in the columns of Kossuth's famous 
Pesti Hirlap, translating a masterpiece of Cer- 
vantes, filling the periodicals with tales and 
novels, or furnishing original works for the Na- 
tional Theatre. The sketches of country life as 
it was^ and as it still continues on the vast 
plains of Hungary, are nowhere more vividly and 
more truly exhibited than in Gaal's comedies and 
tales. The following are some of Gaal's original 
compositions: Szirmay Ilona, a novel in two vol- 
umes (1836) ; Peleskei Notarius (The Notary of 
Peleske, 1838), a comedy in four acts; Szvato- 
pluk, a tragedy in five acts. Tales: Pusztai Ka- 
land (An Adventure on the Hungarian Prairies) ; 
Tengeri Kalandaz Alfodsti (Seafaring Adven- 
tures in Lower Hungary) ; Hortohagyi 4jszaka 
( A Night on the Heath of HortobAgy ) . During 
the sojourn of the Hungarian Diet at Debreczin 
(1849), Gaal was editor of a journal combating 
extreme radical views. As early as 1837 he was 
made a member of the Hungarian Academy. Con- 
sult the edition of Gaal's novels and tales by 
Badics (Budapest, 1880-82). 

GABARET, gi'bd'rA', Jean de (c. 1620-97). 
A French Colonial Governor, born on the Island 
of Re. He was made a commodore in 1653, and 
lieutenant-general of naval forces in 1689. At 
the siege of Tobago, West Indies, he was ther 



34 



GABARET. 



35 



GABELLE. 



first to enter the harbor (February 27, 1677). 
He also fought in the battle of La Hogue (May 
29, 1692), and in 1693 was appointed Governor 
of Martinique, which island he not only success- 
fully defended against the English, but greatly 
improved. He improved the 'Black Code,' and, 
in the interest of the slave population of the isl- 
and, submitted a report outlining a method of 
gradual emancipation, and at the same time 
recommending the deportation of the negroes to 
the French possessions in South America, where 
they might ultimately prove valuable as colo- 
nists, and pointing out that white immigration 
to Martinique would thus be encouraged. 

GABB, William More (1839-78). An Ameri- 
can paleontologist. He was born in Philadelphia, 
where he attended the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences. From 1862 to 1865 he was in charge of 
the paleontological branch of the geological sur- 
veying expedition in California under Josiah D. 
Whitney, and in 1868 and 1873 undertook geo- 
logical surveys in Santo Domingo and Costa 
Rica. His principal publications, which refer 
chiefly to these expeditions, include the first and 
second volumes of the Geological Survey of Cali- 
fornia (1864) ; "On the Topography and Geology 
of Santo Domingo," in Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society (1873); "On the To- 
pography of Costa Rica, with Map," in Peter- 
mann's Mittheilungen ; and "Ethnology of Costa 
Rica," in the Transactions of the American Philo- 
sophical Society. 

GAB'BATHA (Gk. Tafi^add). A proper noun 
found in John xix. 13, as the Aramaic equivalent 
of the Greek term A(66<ttpwtos, Lithostrotos, 
Pavement. The Aramaic word represented by the 
(J reek is generally supposed to be gahhetha, the 
status emphaticus of gahba, a height or eminence. 
No such word has yet been discovered in extant 
Aramaic documents, and the derivation and exact 
meaning of the term are uncertain. The same un- 
certainty must be confessed in regard to the 
location of the 'Pavement' in the city of Jeru- 
salem. No mention of the same is foimd in other 
writers, nor is the place where Jesus was tried 
by Pilate certainly known. 

GAB^BO (dialectic It,, of obscure origin). 
A crystalline igneous rock of granitic texture, 
composed largely of the minerals lime-soda feld- 
spar and pyroxene, but often containing also a 
considerable quantity of olivine. The average 
chemical composition is silica, 49 per cent.; 
alumina, 20 per cent.; iron sesquioxide, 3 per 
cent.; iron protoxide, 7 per cent.; magnesia, 7 
per cent. ; oxide of lime, 9 per cent. ; oxide of 
sodium, 3 per cent, ; water, 2 per cent. The pro- 
portions of the constituent feldspar and pyroxene 
in gnl)bros vary widely, hence thov grade toward 
])eri(l()tite and ])yroxenite (qq.v.) on the one 
hand by reduction of the proportion of feldspar; 
and on the other toward anorthosite (q.v.), by 
reduction of the proportion of pyroxene. Gabbro 
which contains olivine is distinguished as 
olivine gahbro. The usual pyroxene of gabbro is 
dialliige, but when tlie place of this mineral is 
])arlinlly or wholly taken by hypersthene the 
rock is known as a hypersthene gabbro or norite. 
The processes known as weathering tend to 
change both the olivine and pyroxene of olivine 
gabbros into the hydrated magnesium siljcnte 
serpentine, hence olivine gabbros are very often 



found to alter to serpentinous or serpentine rock 
(q.v.) ; the alteration is even more common and 
complete in peridotite ( q.v. ) . Gabbros have a 
very large development in the Lake Superior re- 
gion of America and in the western isles of 
Scotland. The word gabbro is used in Italy, and 
is said to have been introduced into geological 
science by Von Buch in 1809. 

GABELENTZ, ga'be-lents, Hans Conon von 
DEB (1807-74). A distinguished German philol- 
ogist, born at Altenburg. He studied at the 
universities of Leipzig and Gottingen (1825-28), 
and held various positions in the Government 
of Saxe- Altenburg, rising in 1848 to the head 
of the Ministry. He devoted himself to the study 
of little-known languages, Asiatic, African, and 
American, and strove to lay a foundation for the 
comparative study of all languages. In his work 
Uebcr das Passivum (1860) he drew examples 
from two hundred and eight tongues. Among 
his other works are: EUments de la grammaire 
mandchoue (1833); Grundziige der syrjanischen 
Grammatik (1841); a critical edition of the 
Gothic translation of the Bible by Ulfilas, with a 
Latin translation and a Gothic glossary and 
grammar (in collaboration with J. Lobe, 2 vols., 
1843-46) ; JJeber die melancsischen Sprachen (2 
vols., 1860 and 1873). He was one of the found- 
ers of the Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des ilorgen- 
landes, and contributed to it and other periodi- 
cals many papers upon obscure languages and 
general philological science. 

GABELENTZ, gil'be-lgnts, Hans Georg Conon 
VON DER, son of Hans Conon von der Gabelentz 
(1840-93). A German philologist, born at Posch- 
witz, Saxe-Altenburg. After studying law in Jena 
and Leipzig, and holding several State positions, 
he was appointed in 1878 professor extraordinary 
of Oriental languages at the University of Leip- 
zig, and to a similar chair in the University of 
Berlin in 1889. Besides numerous contributions 
to the philological journal which his father had 
founded, he translated a Chinese work on 'The 
Absolute,' entitled Thai-Ki-Tu, and published 
(1876) a grammar of the Chinese classical lan- 
guage, Chincsische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1881); 
Die Sprachirissenschaft (1891); and Handbuch 
zur Aufnahmefremdcr Sprachen (1892). 

GABELLE, gi'bi^l' (Fr., probably from AS. 
gafol, tax, from the Celtic; cf. Corn, gavel, ten- 
ure, Ir., Gael, gabhail, conquest, from gab,- to 
give, to take; comiected with Goth, giban^ Get. 
geben, Eng. give). A term originally used in 
France to designate every kind cf indirect tax, 
but more especially the tax upon salt. This 
impost, first established in 1286, in the reign of 
Philip IV., was meant to be only temporary, 
but was declared i>crpetual by Charles V. Salt 
was made a Government monopoly, and every 
family in the kingdom was obliged to buy a cer- 
tain weekly amount at a fixed price. The price 
varied in the different provinces. Those that 
were most heavily taxed were called pays dc 
grandc gahcllCy and those that were least heavily 
taxed, pays dc petite gabclle. Les provinces 
f ranches and Ics pays ri^dimes were those prov- 
inces which had purchased exemption from the 
tax. It was unpopular from the first, and the 
attempt to collect it occasioned frequent disturb- 
ances. It was finally suppressed in 1790, The 
name gabelous is. however, still given by the 
oonnnon ]>eople in France to tax-gatherers. 



GABELSBEBGEB. 



36 



GABLE. 



GABELSBEBGEB, gii'bels-berg-er, Franz 
Xaveb (1789-1849). The founder of stenography 
in Germany. He was born and educated at 
Munich, and was long engaged as private secre- 
tary in the Ministry of the Interior in that city. 
After publishing various text-books and charts 
for schools, he devoted himself exclusively to 
stenography, repeatedly gave public exhibitions 
of his proficiency, and ultimately received the un- 
qualified commendation of the Academy of Sci- 
ences. His method is based upon phonetics. The 
system has been widely adopted in Germany, 
and has been introduced also into about twenty- 
five European languages. His principal works 
are: Anleitung zur deutschen Redezeichenkunst 
(1834; Eiig. trans., by Henry Richter under the 
title of Graphic Shorthand, 1899), which has 
furnished the basis for all further investigations 
of the kind in Germany, and has passed through 
numerous editions; 'Neue Vervollkommnungen in 
der deutschen Redeschreihekunst (2d ed. 1849) ; 
and Stenographische Lesehihliothek (1838). A 
monument was erected to his memory in Munich 
in 1890. 

GAB'EBLUN^ZIE MAN, The. A Scottish 
ballad which belongs to the early sixteenth cen- 
tury, and has been ascribed to James V. It con- 
cerns the fortunes of a wandering beggar. 

GABES, gii'bes. See Cases. 

GABES, Gulf of. See Cabes, Gulf of. 

GABH'BA, Battle of. A battle which the 
tribe of Fionn waged, about a.d. 284, against its 
enemies, as recounted by the Irish-Gaelic legends. 

GABII, ga'bi-i. An ancient city of Latium, 
10 miles east of Rome. It plays an important part 
in Roman legend, as the city where Romulus and 
Remus were educated, and later as conquered by 
Tarquinius Superbus. After this it is seldom men- 
tioned, and though it was later a municipium, 
gradually fell into complete decay. It again be- 
came prosperous during the reign of Tiberius, 
when its cold sulphur springs attracted attention, 
and after the time of Hadrian seems to have 
flourished until the third century, when its name 
disappears except as the seat of a line of bishops 
until the ninth century. The principal relic of 
the ancient city is a ruined temple, probably 
dedicated to Juno, on a hill now crowned by the 
ruins of the mediaeval fortress of Castiglione. 
Excavations on the site have yielded many note- 
worthy works of art, as the "Artemis of Gabii" 
now in Munich. Quarries of an excellent building- 
stone, peperino, which was largely used by the 
Romans, existed in the neighborhood of Gabii. 
The Romans termed a peculiar method of girding 
the toga cinctus Gahinus. It seems to have dif- 
fered from the ordinary method in that in- 
stead of the belt a portion of the toga was itself 
the girdle, while another part was drawn over the 
head. Used on certain solemn occasions, as the 
opening of the Temple of Janus on a declaration 
of war, and at certain sacrifices, it seems to have 
been brought to Rome from Gabii at an early 
date, along with other matters of augury or 
ritual. 

GABIN'IUS, AuLus ( ?-c.47 b.c). A Roman 
politician. He was tribune of the plebs, B.C. 66, 
and in that year proposed and carried the fa- 
mous Gabinian law, conferring upon Pompey the 
command of the war against the pirates. After- 
wards he was praetor (61), and became consul 



in 58, when he supported the banishment of 
Cicero. At the end of his consulship he went to 
Syria as proconsul (57) ; invaded Egypt; and 
against a decree of the Senate, restored Ptolemy 
Auletes to the PJgyptian throne ( B.C. 55 ) . On 
his return to Rome (54) he was accused of trea- 
son and extortion. He was acquitted of treason, 
but though defended by Cicero, was condemned 
to perpetual banishment for extortion. He was 
recalled by CfEsar in 49, and in the next year 
was sent to reinforce Q. Cornificius in Illyricum, 
where he died. 

GA'BION (OF., Fr. gabion, from It. gabhione, 
large basket, gabion, augmentative of gabbia, 
gaggia, cage, Fr., Eng. cage, from Lat. cavea, 
hollow place, from cavus, hollow). A device for 
strengthening earthworks, in field or temporary 
fortifications. It may be constructed of what- 
ever materials the circumstances afford; but usu- 
ally it is a hollow cylinder of basket-work, vary- 
ing in diameter from about 20 inches to 6 feet, 
according to the nature of the work for which it 
is intended. It has the advantage of being readily 
portable and capable of many uses. See Forti- 
fication. 




GABIBOL; ga'Be-rOF, Solomon ben. See 

AVICEBRON. 

GABL, ga'b'l, Aloys (1845-93). An Austrian 
genre painter, born at Wiesen, Tyrol. He was a 
pupil at the Munich Academy of Schraudolph, 
Ramberg, and finally of Piloty. His poverty, the 
result of a disease of the eye, drove him to suicide 
at Munich. His genre scenes closely resemble in 
characterization and humorous conception those 
of his famous countrymen Defregger and Mat- 
thias Schmid, but surpass them in striking light 
effects. They include: "Recruiting in Tj^rol" 

(1873) ; "His Reverence as Umpire" (1876) ; "A 
Munich Tavern" (1880) ; "Vaccination Room in 
Tyrol" (1885), the last in the New Pinakothek 
at Munich, and one of the choice specimens in 
that collection; and "Return of the Huntsman" 

(1892). 

GABLE (OF., Fr. gable, from OHG. gabala, 
gabal, Ger. Gabel, fork, AS. geafl, fork, from 
Ir. gabul, gobul, Welsh gafl, Bret, gavl, gaol, 
fork). The triangular part of an exterior wall 
at the end of a building having a roof sloping 
both ways from a longitudinal ridge, between the 
top of the side walls and the slopes of the roof. 
The whole wall of which the gable forms the top 
is called a gable-end. The form appears first in 



GABLE. 



37 



the pediment (q.v.) of Greek temples which, on 
account of its rich sculptures, became so impor- 
tant a part of temple architecture. It was not, 
however, until the Romanesque period of medi- 
aeval architecture that the gable came into gen- 
eral use as a constructive and decorative form. 
Some Romanesque gables in Central France, 
forming the summits of church facades, are ex- 
tremely rich in ornamentation. Such gable fa- 
cades throughout Europe became a decorative 
feature and often, instead of following the lines 
of the structure behind, were given independent 
lines, forming a screen facade. The form was 
extended, then, to minor parts of the building, 
often for purely decorative purposes. The de- 
velopment of tracery in the Gothic styles led to 
the use of delicate openwork gables, adorned 
with crockets and finials and covered with a 
lacework of decoration. Such gables — termed 
goblets in their smaller forms — were used in 
great profusion in the more decorative parts of 
Gothic architecture, such as doorways, windows, 
canopies, pinnacles, etc., where they are intro- 
duced in endless variety. In the mediaeval towns 
of Northern and Central Europe almost all the 
houses had gabled facades on the street, produc- 
ing great diversity and picturesqueness of effect, 
as may still be seen in many towns which have 
been little modernized. The towns of Belgium 
and Germany especially still retain this medi- 
aeval arrangement. In the Gothic and the Renais- 
sance periods, the simple outline of the gable in 
these countries became stepped and broken in the 
most fantastic manner. See Corbie Steps. 

OABLENZ, ga'blents, Ludwig Karl Wilhelm, 
Baron (1814-74). An Austrian general. He was 
born at Jena, Saxe-Weimar ; entered the Austrian 
service in 1833, and fought in Italy and Hungary 
in 1848. In the war of 1859 against Italy, he 
took a distinguished part in the battles of Ma- 
genta and Solferino; commanded the Austrian 
army corps in the Austro-Prussian War against 
Denmark in 1864, at Trautenau, and won the 
only Austrian victory of the War of 1866 against 
Prussia. After Sadowa he became a member of 
the Austrian Upper House, was appointeil com- 
manding general in Hungary in 1869, and retired 
in 1871. Financial difficulties drove him to 
suicide. 

GABLONZ, gii'blonts (Bohemian Jahlonec). 
A busy manufacturing town of Bohemia, Aus- 
tria, situated in a mountainous district about 
1650 feet above sea-level, on the Neisse, seven 
miles east-southeast of Reichenberg (Map: Aus- 
tria, D 1). Gablonz is one of the centres of the 
Bohemian glass industry, its specialties being 
glass beads, buttons, and imitation gems. There 
are also manufactures of bronzes, textiles, belts, 
and colored papers. The expert firms number 
over 100. Mineral baths are fo\md in the vicin- 
ity. Population, in 1890, 14,653; in 1900, 21,086. 

GABOON, gi\-boon'. See Gabun. 

GABORIATT, gft'bA'r^'A'-. Emile (1835-73). 
A French novelist who conspicuously made crime 
and its detection his subjects. He was born at 
Saujon, November 9. 1835. His first popular 
writings were humorous sketches contributed to 
minor Parisian journals. With little grasp of 
character or grace of style, with no true literary 
qualities indeed, he achieved a European reputa- 
tion as a reviver of the romances of rascality, and 



GABRIELI. 

as an inaugurator of the detective story, in con- 
nection with which he made a careful study of 
the Paris police system of his day. His fiction 
was thus a direct reflection of phases of the 
French Romantic School. The best of his numer- 
ous and frequently translated volumes are: 
L'affaire Lerouge (1866); Le dossier No. 113 
(1867); Monsieur Lecoq (1869); La corde au 
cou (1873); and La degringolade (1876). He 
died in Paris, September 28, 1873. 

GA'BRIEL (Heb., Man of God). In the Je\y- 
ish angelology, one of the seven archangels. His 
function seems to be especially to reveal God's 
will and purposes. He appears in the Book of 
Daniel as the interpreter of the prophet's vision 
regarding the ram and the he-goat (viii. 16), 
and as bringing the explanation of the seventy 
weeks (ix. 21). In the New Testament he an- 
nounces to Zacharias the birth of John the Bap- 
tist (Luke i. 19), and to Mary the birth of 
Christ (Luke i. 26). In post-biblical Jewish 
literature Gabriel is frequently introduced. The 
Targus to II. Chron. xxxii. 21 says that Gabriel 
destroyed the host of Sennacherib. According to 
the Talmud, it was he who showed Joseph the 
way to his brothers (Gen. xxxvii. 15-17), and he 
together with other angels buried the body of 
Moses (Deut. xxxiv. 6). He is the prince of fire, 
and the spirit who presides over the thunder and 
the ripening of fruits. When Nebuchadnezzar be 
sieged Jerusalem, Gabriel is said to have entered 
the temple by command of God before the As- 
syrian soldiery, and burned it, thereby frustrat- 
ing their impious intentions. It was he that pre- 
vented Yashti from obeying the King (Esther i. 
12), and rewrote the record of Mordecai's service 
in the history after it had been erased. Gabriel 
has also the reputation among the rabbis of a 
most distinguished linguist, having, for example, 
taught Joseph the 70 languages spoken at Babel. 
The Mohammedans also hold Gabriel in great 
reverence. According to the claim of Mohammed 
in the Koran, it was he who revealed the sacred 
book. He is called the spirit of truth, and is re- 
garded as the chief of the four most favored 
angels who form the council of God — a number 
corresponding to the system in the book of Enoch 
(ch. xl.), where Gabriel, Michael, L'riel, and 
Penuel are the angels standing near the throne 
of God. 

GABRIEL, Brothers of Saint. An organ iza- 
tion in the Roman Catholic Church founded in 
1835 by a French priest named Deshayes (died 
1841). Its purpose was the education of the 
young, especially the blind and deaf-mutes. By 
the year 1851 they had 91 houses; and in 1880 
they conducted 122 elementary schools, 3 board- 
ing-schools, 8 institutions for deaf-mutes, and 2 
for the blind. Their mother house is at Saint 
Laurent -sur-S^vre in La Vend^. 

GABRIEL HOUNDS. A sujx^rnatural pack 
which gives tongue at night, and thus gives warn- 
ing of approaching sorrow. A peculiarity of tho 
phenomenon is that the cry always seems to come 
from the sky instead of from the earth. The 
name is also applied to wild geese, whose noise 
when flying suggests that of hounds. They are 
introduced in Charles Reade's novel Put Your- 
self in His Place. 

GABRIELI, gU^rA-fi'l^, Andrea (c.1510-86). 
An Italian organist and composer, born in Ven- 



GABBIELI. 



38 



GAD AMES. 



ice. He was a pupil in composition of Adrian Wil- 
laert, and became first organist of Saint Mark's 
in 1584. In 1574 he wrote the music for the re- 
ception of Henry III. of France, two cantatas for 
eight and twelve voices, respectively, printed in 
1587. He was famed for his choral works, 
masses, motets, and madrigals, and was the first 
to write a fugue, a form hitherto not attempted 
by the contrapuntists. His best work is Psahni 
Davidici qui Pcenitentiales Nuncupantur (1583). 
A number of his works were printed with those 
of his nephew Giovanni, such as some organ 
pieces, Jntonazioni d'organo (1593, lib. i.), and 
Ricercari per Vorgano (1595, lib. ii. and iii.). 

GABBIELI, Giovanni (1557-1612). An Ital- 
ian composer, born in Venice. He was the nephew 
and pupil of Andrea Gabrieli, and became the first 
organist at Saint Mark's (1585). He was the 
greatest representative of the contrapuntal school 
of the sixteenth century, and was considered the 
peer of Lasso and Palestrina, even surpassing the 
latter master in the richness of his tone-color. 
He was noted as a teacher, and had many schol- 
ars from Germany, where his compositions were 
early known and appreciated. He was one of 
the first to develop independent instrumental 
music in choral works. The early editions of his 
works are rare, but single pieces are to be found 
in many of the sixteenth and seventeenth century 
collections of music. His works are a Benedictus 
for 12 voices; Psalmi Pcenitentiales 6 Vocuni 
(1583) ; Madrigali a 6 voci o istromenti (1585) ; 
Madrigali e ricercari a 4 'VOci (1587) ; Ecclesias- 
ticce Gantiones ^-^ Vocuni (1589); Sacrce Sym- 
phonice, for 6-16 voices or instruments (1597) ; 
another book for 6-19 voices ( 1615) ; and Canzone 
e sonate a 3-32 voci (1615). Consult Winterfeld, 
Johann Gabriel und sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1834). 

GABRIELLI, Catterina (1730-96). An 
Italian opera singer. She was born at Rome, the 
daughter of a cook in the employ of Count Ga- 
brielli, who, accidentally hearing her sing, adopted 
her as his protegee, and had her voice trained by 
Garcia and Porpora. Although possessed of a 
magnificent voice, and meeting with uniform suc- 
cess throughout her career as an artist, she is 
remembered more as the mistress ,of Don Ferdi- 
nand of Parma, and later as the companion of 
the profligate Catharine II. of Russia. Her artis- 
tic rivalry with Marchesi was felt so keenly in 
Milan as to lead to popular disturbances. She 
spent the last years of her life in Rome. 

GABRIEL'S INSURRECTION. In Ameri- 
can history, an insurrection of negro slaves in 
the vicinity of Richmond, Va., in August, 1800, 
organized by a young slave named Gabriel, for 
the purpose of murdering the whites. The plot 
was discovered, Governor Monroe ordered out the 
militia, and many of the blacks were captured 
and executed. 

GABRILOWITCH, ga - bre'l6 - vich, Ossip 
(1878—). A Russian pianist. He was born at 
Saint Petersburg, and when still a child entered 
the conservatory there. He became one of Rubin- 
stein's favorite pupils, and after winning the 
Rubinstein prize in 1894, continued his studies 
with Leschetitzky in Vienna. Two years later 
he made his debut at Berlin, and thereafter gave 
concerts in Russia, England, Austria, Sweden, 
and the United States. His first appearance in 
this country was in 1900, and then, as upon his 



subsequent visits, he received an enthusiastic 
welcome. He is an exceedingly virile and sympa- 
thetic player. 

GABXJN, or GABOON, ga-boon'. A river, or 
more properly an estuary, on the western coast 
of French Congo ( q.v. ) , about 45 miles long 
and about 10 miles wide (Map: Congo Free 
State, A 2 ) . It admits of the entrance of deep- 
draught vessels and formerly gave its name to the 
entire colony of French Congo. It receives the 
waters of the Como, and some minor tributaries. 

GACHARD, ga'shar', Louis Prosper (1800- 
85). A Belgian archivist and historian. He was 
born in Paris, removed to Belgium in 1830, and 
became a Belgian subject in 1831. In the same 
year he was made keeper of the public records. 
He was a member of the Belgian Academy, secre- 
tary of the Royal Historical Institution, and 
president of the Heraldic Bureau. Gachard trav- 
eled extensively in search of documents bearing 
on Belgian history, and published many authori- 
tative works based on his researches. His prin- 
cipal writings are: Correspondance de Guillaume 
le Taciturne (1847-58) ; Correspondance de Phi- 
lippe II. sur les affaires des Pays-Bas (1848-59) ; 
Retraite et mort de Charles-Quint (1854) ; Rela- 
tion des troubles de Gand sous Charles-Quint 
(1856); Don Carlos et Philippe II. (1863); 
Actes des Etats-generaux des Pays-Bas (1866) ; 
Histoire politique et diplomatique de Pierre-Paul 
Rubens (1877). 

GAD (perhaps an abbreviation of Gaddlel, Gad 
is god). According to the biblical account, a 
son of Jacob and his concubine Zilpah (Gen. 
XXX. 11), the eponymous ancestor of the tribe of 
Gad. This tribe was promised land on the eastern 
side of the Jordan on condition that they should 
help the other tribes to conquer the territory west 
of the river (Num. xxxii.). This condition they 
fulfilled (Joshua i. 12-18, iv. 12), and then settled 
in their own territory (Joshua xii. 1-9). It may 
be concluded from this tradition that Gad was a 
warlike tribe (see I. Chron, xii. 8), and secured 
its east-Jordanic settlement through conquest. The 
territories of the tribe are ill-defined. They lay 
between the settlements of Reuben on the south 
and those of Manasseh on the north, but there is 
a confusion in the biblical accounts, making it 
hard to determine the boundaries of the three 
tribes east of the Jordan. There is no literature 
preserved which originated in this region. When 
the kingdom was divided in the days of Reho- 
boam. Gad joined Jeroboam and the northern 
kingdom (I. Kings xii. 20). The tribe was 
taken captive to Assyria by Tiglathpileser (B.C. 
734), and is heard of no more. The name 
Gad, like that given to his brother Asher, may 
have been originally the designation of a deity 
of good fortune, worshiped in various parts of 
Palestine. The fact that a Hebrew clan settled 
in the district which is embraced under the term 
Gilead in the broader sense is considered as 
pointing to the cult of this deity as the patron of 
the clan, whose connection with the other Hebrew 
tribes was never very close. The district con- 
tained, however, a number of ancient sanctu- 
aries, such as Penuel and Succoth, which must 
at one time have been places to which pilgrim- 
ages were made. See Asher ; Gilead. 

GADAMES, ga-dii'mes, GHADAMES, or 
RHADAMES, rft-dil'mgs. An oasis and town in 



GAD AMES. 



39 



GADDI. 



the Vilayet of Tripoli, North Africa, the cen- 
tre of divergent routes to Tunis, Tripoli, Ghat, 
and Tidikelt, on the northern border of the 
Sahara, 310 miles southwest of Tripoli (Map: 
Africa, El). Gadames is an important entrepot 
for manufactures and foreign goods from Tripoli 
to the interior, and for exports of ivory, beeswax, 
hides, ostrich-feathers, gold, etc., from the inte- 
rior of Tripoli. Its gardens produce dates, barley, 
wheat, millet, etc., and are watered by the hot 
spring (89° Fahr.) from which the town had its 
origin. The climate is dry and healthful, though 
very hot in summer. A wall surrounds the oasis 
and town, and the streets are covered over for 
protection from the rain and sand storms. Ga- 
dames has six mosques, seven schools, and a 
Roman Catholic mission. Population, about 7000. 

The town is the modem representative of the 
ancient city of Cydames, a stronghold of the 
Garamantes, the capture of which by Cornelius 
Balbus gave the Romans a great part of the 
wilderness. The town constitutes an ethnic me- 
nagerie. The inhabitants, living in well-guarded 
inclosures, include Berbers, Arabs, the Atriya, 
or negro freedmen, and emancipated half-castes, 
each group speaking its own language and also 
Berber as a common medium of intercourse. They 
are called 'born traders.' Consult Keane, in Stan- 
ford's Africa, vol. i. (London, 1895), for list of 
explorers and political history. 

GAD'ARA. The modern Umm Keis, or Mkes, 
once a prominent city of Palestine, now in ruins. 
It was on the western extremity of a ridge of the 
Bashan plateau, six and one-half miles east of 
the Jordan, and six miles southeast of the Sea of 
Galilee. The site, 1194 feet above sea-level, com- 
mands a magnificent view of the Jordan Valley. 
At the foot of the ridge, three miles to the north, 
flows the Sheriat el-Menadireh, the ancient Jar- 
muk or Hieromax. 

Gadara is first mentioned in the history of the 
Greek period. Josephus's statement that it was 
a Greek city implies that it was one of the many 
places in Palestine occupied by Greeks after Alex- 
ander's conquest. (See Decapolis and Pales- 
tine.) Polybius states (v. 71, xvi. 39) that it 
was twice taken by Antiochus III. of Syria, in 
B.C. 218, and again in B.C. 198, in his wars with 
Egypt for the possession of Palestine. It re- 
mained nominally subject to Syria until about 
B.C. 100, when with other Greek cities east of the 
Jordan it was taken, after a ten months' siege, 
by the Jewish King, Alexander Jannseus, and 
partially destroyed. When Pompey reduced Syria 
to a Roman province (B.C. 05-03), he rebuilt Ga- 
dara, as a favor to his freedman Demetrius, a 
Gadarene. The restored city was thenceforward 
the fast friend of Rome. On its coins it made 
use of the Pompeian era in commemoration of 
Ponipey's kindness. Augustus, after the battle 
of Actium, gave Gadara to Herod the Great, much 
against the wishes of its citizens. For its loy- 
alty to Rome it s\ifTered greatly at the hands of 
the revolted Jews in the war of 06-70 A.n. At the 
request of its wealthy citizens, Vespasian gave 
it a body of troo])s for protection against the 
Jews. From notices in ecclesiastical history it 
appears that it continued to flourish until the 
Molianunedan conquest. 

The situation of (Gadara was favorable for 
commerce, and it was a ])rosperous city, called 
by Josephus the metropolis of Perea. It was one 



of the important members of the Decapolis (q.v.) 
and a centre of Greek culture. Meleager the poe^ 
Theodorus the orator, Philodemus the Epicure- 
an, Menippus the cynic, and others prominent in 
post-classical literature were Gadarenes. Its ruins 
are extensive and magnificent. It had two thea- 
tres, and the remains of the colonnade that once 
lined the main street are among the most re- 
markable in Palestine. Its water was supplied 
by an aqueduct from the Batanean hills, over 
40 miles distant. The ancient cemetery east of 
the city is noted for the construction of its 
tombs, each with several separate chambers with 
doors swinging on stone hinges. The present in- 
habitants live in these tombs. In Roman times 
the city was famous for its warm springs. They 
are in the river valley, mainly on the north 
bank. About them quite a suburb grew up, 
Amatha by name, and extensive ruins of baths 
and other buildings of the once famous resort 
are now found there. The springs are still fre- 
quented by Bedawin, who consider the place 
neutral ground. Probably Gadara has no con- 
nection with biblical history. See Gebasnes, 
Country of the. 

GADDANE, gid-dR'na. A wild Malayan peo- 
ple in Isabela and Cagayan provinces, Luzon. 
See Philippines. 

GADDI, gad'd^. A family of Florentine paint- 
ers. The founder was Gaddo Gaddi (c.l259- 
1332), and famous especially for his mosaic pic- 
tures, especially the "Coronation of the Vir- 
gin" over the door of the Cathedral of Florence, 
the "Assumption" in the Cathedral of Pisa, and 
part of the mosaics in the dome of the Florentine 
baptistery. He was associated with Cimabue. — 
His son, Taddeo Gaddi (c.l300-66), was a pupil 
of his godfather, Giotto, and preeminently the 
most talented of his followers. His masterpiece is 
the "History of the Virgin," in a series of fres- 
coes in the Baroncelli Chapel at Santa Croce, Flor- 
ence, in which he shows true religious feeling and 
poetry. Two signed altarpieees by him are at 
Berlin (1334), at Naples (1336). and others 
at ^legognano, near Poggibonsi. The "History of 
Christ" and that of Saint Francis, on the presses 
in the sacristy of Santa Croce, are attributed 
to him. In his youth he assisted Giotto in the 
frescoes of Saint Francis at Assisi, As an archi- 
tect he is reputed, mainly on Vasari's authority, 
to hav^e continued Giotto's work on the Cam- 
panile at Florence, and to have built tlie Ponte 
Vecchio. The frescoes of the Cappella degli 
Spagnuoli, in the cloisters of Santa Maria Novel- 
la, are also attributed to him by Vasari. Mod- 
ern authorities generally discredit these attri- 
butions. Many of his numerous works have 
perished. — His son, Agnolo Gaddi (1333-96). 
became, after his father's death, the pupil of 
Giovanni da Milano, and continued the artistic 
traditions of the family. His finest early work 
is the series of frescoes on the "Legend of the 
Virgin's (tirdle" in the Cathedral of Prato, which 
illustrate the lighter, more picturesque and genre- 
like style which he afl'ected, preparing the way 
for Masolino (q.v.) and other early Quatrocent- 
ists. His ability as a decorator and composer is 
even better illustrated by the series of the "His- 
tory of the Finding of the Cross" in the choir of 
Santa Croce at Florence, with numerous realistic 
details, which are further important as having 



GADDI. 



40 



GADSBY. 



inspired Piero della Francesca in his Arezzo fres- 
coes. Consult: Vasari, Delia vite del piu eccel- 
lenti pittori, scultori et architetti, edited by 
Milanesi (Florence, 1878-85) ; Crowe and Caval- 
caselle, History of Painting in Italy, vol. i. (Lon- 
don, 1864). 

GADE, ga^de, Niels Wilhelm (1817-90). A 
distinguished Danish musician and composer, and 
the recognized founder of the Scandinavian school 
of music. He was born at Copenhagen, the only 
child of a cabinet and instrument maker, whose 
trade the son was ^required to adopt. Within a 
few months, however, the boy abandoned it, and 
made known his determination of becoming a 
musician. A course of study under the leader of 
the Court orchestra, Wexschall, and the practice 
and experience gained by his membership in the 
organization, enabled him at the age of sixteen 
to make his debut as a concert violinist. He also 
studied theory under Berggreen, a well-known 
organist, and became' a devoted student of the 
classics and a disciple of the new romantic 
school of music. In 1841 he won the prize offered 
by the Copenhagen Musical Association, submit- 
ting to the arbiters his first great composition, 
Nachkldnge von Ossian. Aided by the King, he 
was enabled in 1843 to go to Leipzig to complete 
his studies, and in 1844 undertook, in the ab- 
sence of Mendelssohn, the direction of the Ge- 
wandhaus concerts, becoming permanent con- 
ductor upon the latter's death in 1847. In 
1850 he' settled in Copenhagen, where he became 
organist, director of music, and master of the 
Chapel Royal. He was elected one of the foreign 
members of the Berlin Academy of Arts in 1874, 
and in 1876 the Danish Folkething voted life pen- 
sions of 3000 crowns to the two most eminent 
musical composers, selecting Gade as one. In 
addition to his prize compositions, he composed 
five symphonies, a quintet, an octet, and several 
vocal pieces, with orchestra, among them the well- 
known Erl King's Daughter; The Springtide 
Phantasy; The Crusaders; and many smaller 
compositions. He died at Copenhagen. 

GADES, ga'dez. See Cadiz. 

GADFLY, or HORSE-FLY. A fly of the 
family Tabanidaj, distinguished from other two- 
winged flies by having the last segment of the 
short antennae ringed and not terminating in a 
bristle. The proboscis is fleshy, and envelops 
pointed horny processes by means of which the 
skin is punctured. The head is broad and short 
and the eyes are huge. About 1500 species are 
named. All are powerful fliers, and the females 
suck the blood of quadrupeds and man ; although 
they, like the males, can also live on the sweets 
of plants. As an extreme' adaptation the genus 
Pangonia of India and Nubia is remarkable, for 
the proboscis of the female is in some species 
three or four times as long as the body, and is 
stiff and needle-like, so that it can easily pierce 
thick clothing. The larvjB of the Tabanidse are 
some of them aquatic; others live' in the earth; 
others in decaying wood. Like the adults, they 
are predaceous, sucking the juices of insect- 
larvae, of worms, and of snails. The pupa looks 
much like the chrysalis of a butterfly. 

The common representatives of the Tabanidse 
may be uniform black, with a bluish tinge, as 
in the case of the large mourning horse-fly {Ta- 
hanus atratus) , or of medium size, with green 



heads or golden eyes; the latter are also known 
as 'deer-flies.' To protect horses driven over in- 
fested roads — such as those passing through pine 
woods — netting should be used. An application 
of fish oil and carbolic acid to points not easily 
reached by the tail is recommended. Consult, 
in addition to works mentioned under Fly: 
Osten-Sacken, "Prodrome of a Monograph of the 
Tabanidae of the United States," in Memoirs of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. ii. 
(Boston, 1875-78) ; Williston, "Notes and De- 
scriptions of the North American Tabanidae," in 
Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 
vol. X. (Lawrence, 1888). 

GADIDJE (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from Neo-Lat. 
gadus, cod, from Gk. yd8og^ gados, sort of fish ) . 
A family of soft-rayed fishes of north temperate 
and Arctic waters, including about 25 genera and 
140 species. Except one genus (Lota), all are 
marine, and among them are many of our most 
important food-fishes, such as the common cod, 
pollack, haddock, etc. See Cod; and Fisheries. 

GADOLIN, ga'd6-Mn, JOHAN (1760-1852). A 
Swedish chemist. He was professor of chemistry 
at the University of Abo, Finland. His writings 
include: Einige Bemerkungen iiher die Natur des 
Phlogiston (1788), and Systema Fossilium, 
Analysihus Chemicis Examinatorum (1825). The 
mineral gadolinite was named after him. 

GAD'OLINITE (so called in honor of J. Gad- 
olin). An orthosilicate containing glucinum, 
iron, yttrium, besides varying amounts of didymi- 
um, lanthanum, and other oxides. It crystal- 
lizes in the monoclinic system, and is dark green, 
brown, or black in color. This mineral occurs 
chiefly in coarse pegmatitic veins associated with 
allanite. It is found near Falun and Ytterby, 
Sweden, and also on the island of Hittero, Nor- 
way. The principal locality in the United States 
is BlufTton, Llano County, Tex. Special interest 
attaches to gadolinite, owing to the rare metals 
which it contains. Velvety black, opaque gems 
have been cut from this mineral, but for col- 
lectors' use only. 

GADOW, ga'dd, Hans Friedrich (1855—). 
A German-English naturalist, born in Pomerania. 
He studied at Berlin, Jena, and Heidelberg, in 
the last place under Gegenbaur. From 1880 to 
1882 he was in the Natural History Department 
of the British Museum, and since 1884 he has 
been Strickland curator and lecturer on zo<)log>' 
at Cambridge University, England. He has pub- 
lished: A Classification of Vertebrates (1898); 
"Aves," in Bronn's Classen und Ordnungen rfr<? 
Thierreichs; and Amphibia and Reptiles (1901), 
besides collaborating with Newton in his Dic- 
tionary of Birds (1893-96) and contributing ex- 
tensively to the literature of investigation in 
zoology. 

GADSBY, gadz'bi, Henry Robert (1842—). 
A leading English composer, born at Hackney, 
London. At seven years of age he became a 
probationary chorister of Saint Paul's Cathedral, 
and served nine years in the choir. Although 
he studied for a, little while under a local teacher, 
he was practically a self-taught musician. His 
first appointment was as organist of Saint Peter's 
Church, Brockley, and in 1884 he succeeded Sir 
John Hullah as professor of harmony at Queen's 
College, London. He was also on the faculty of 
the Guildhall School of Music. He is the author 



GADSBY. 



of a standard text-book on harmony, and has pub- 
lished numerous cantatas, part songs, incidental 
music to plays, church services, anthems, songs, 
etc., as well as many important orchestral com- 
positions. 

GADSBYS, The Story of the. A story by 
Kudyard Kipling, published in London in 1890. 
It is written in dialogue form, and is a study of 
llie efl'ect of matrimony upon an English army 
ollicer in India, and the gradual enfeebling of his 
military ambition through responsibilities and 
affection for his family. 

GADS'DEN. A town and the county-seat of 
Etowah County, Ala., about 60 miles northeast 
of Birmingham; on the Coosa River, and on the 
Chattanooga Southern, the Louisville and Nash- 
ville, the Southern, and other railroads (Map: 
Alabama, C 2) . It is in a productive timber and 
mineral region, and has large trade interests; 
also lumber-mills, blast-furnaces, foundries, and 
machine-shops, car-works, and manufactures of 
handles, sash, doors, and blinds, flour, wagons, etc. 
Settled about 1845, Gadsden was incorporated 
in 18G7. The government is administered under 
a charter of 1883, which provides for a mayor, 
chosen every two years, and a municipal council, 
elected on a general ticket. Population, in 1890, 
2901; in 1900, 4282. 

GADSDEN, Christopher (1724-1805). An 
American patriot. He was born in Charleston, 
S. C, and was sent to England by his father, a 
wealthy merchant, to be educated. In 1741 he 
returned to Charleston. For some time he was 
employed in a counting-house in Philadelphia, 
where later he embarked in business on his own 
account. Returning to South Carolina, he was, 
in 1765.. elected a delegate to the Intercolonial 
Convention held in New York City to protest 
against the Stamp Act. In 1774 he was a mem- 
ber of the first Continental Congress in Philadel- 
phia. After the outbreak of the Revolution he 
was commissioned colonel, and took part in the 
campaigns in the South and in the defense of 
Charleston in 1776, being promoted brigadier- 
general in the fall of that year. In 1778 he was 
a member of the State Constitutional Convention 
of South Carolina. Elected Lieutenant-Governor 
of the State, he signed the capitulation of Charles- 
ton when that city fell into the hands of Sir 
Henry Clinton, in May, 1780. He himself was 
released on parole, but a few weeks later was ar- 
rested by order of Lord Cornwallis and conveyed 
to Fort Augustine, where he remained a prisoner 
for ten months, refusing to accept freedom on 
])arole. He was finally exchanged, before the close 
of hostilities, in 1781. In 1782 he was elected 
Governor of South Carolina, but refused to ac- 
cept the office, pleading that he was too old. 

GADSDEN, James (1788-1858). An Ameri- 
can soldier and diplomatist, born in Charleston, 
S. C. lie graduated at Yale in 1806, and entered 
the United States Army soon afterwards. He 
siMved with marked efficiency in the War of 1812, 
was appointed aide-de-camp to (Jeneral Jackson 
in 1818, participated in the Seminole War, was 
appointed military inspector of the Soiithern Di- 
vision in 1820, and subsequently conducted the re- 
moval of the Seminole Indians to the southern 
part of Florida. In 1853 he was sent to Mexico 
as United States Minister, and in December of 
that year concluded the treaty which provided 



41 GADWALL. 

for the readjustment of the boundary between 
the two countries, and the acquisition by the 
United States of the tract of land subsequently 
known as the 'Gadsden Purchase' (q.v.). 

GADSDEN PURCHASE, The. A tract of 
land lying partly within the present New Mexico 
and partly within the present Arizona, purchased 
from Mexico by the United States in 1854. It 
embraces 45,535 square miles, is bounded on the 
north by the Gila River, on the east by the Rio 
Grande, and on the west by the Colorado, and 
has an extreme breadth from north to south of 
120 miles. For this the United States gave the 
sura of $10,000,000, while Mexico, besides mak- 
ing the cession, agreed (1) to the abrogation of 
the eleventh article of the Treaty of Guadalupe 
Hidalgo (q.v.), and (2) to the abandonment of 
all damage claims arising from Indian incur- 
sions between 1848 and 1853. The land was re- 
garded as of little use for agricultural purposes, 
and was purchased largely with a view to settling 
boundary disputes in that quarter between the 
two governments and to securing a desirable 
route for the projected Southern Pacific Railroad. 
The treaty of sale was negotiated with Santa 
Anna by James Gadsden (q.v.), then Minister 
to ^Mexico, in December, 1853, and, after under- 
going modifications in the United States Senate, 
was finally ratified and proclaimed on June 30, 
1854, Congress passing the necessary legislation 
on August 5th. The sale met with much opposi- 
tion in Mexico, and caused the banishment of 
Santa Anna in 1855. For the text of the 
treaty, consult Haswell, Treaties and Conven- 
tions (Washington, 1889). See the map in the 
article I'nited States, Extension of the Ter- 
ritory OF THE. 

GADS'HILL. A hill, 256 feet high, in the 
county of Kent, England, 214 miles northwest 
of Rochester, on the London Road, celebrated 
by Chaucer, famous as the scene of Falstaff's 
encounter with Prince Henry, and noted as the 
home of Charles Dickens. 

GADSKI, giid'sk^ (Tauscher), Johanna 
(1871—). A German prima donna, born at An- 
clam, Prussia. She was educated at Stettin, 
but made her operatic dC'but in New York, as 
BrUnhilde, and subsequently appeared in many 
Wagnerian rfiles. In England she sang at 
Worcester Festivals and at Covent Garden, meet- 
ing with the same success that characterized her 
extended American tour of 1898-99. In the latter 
year she also sang in Bayreuth. 

GADWALL (of doubtful etymolog>'; hardly 
from gadf to run about -f well, as the variant 




BILL OP OADWALU 



spelling gadwelly influenced by popular etymology, 
implies), or Gray Dick. A fresh-water duck 
(Chaulelasmus strepera), not quite so large as 



GADWALL. 

the mallard, nor often seen in the Eastern United 
States, but common in the interior and in Flor- 
ida. It breeds from Kansas northward, and 
during the summer is circumpolar in its distri- 
bution. In the winter it migrates as far south 
as the Gulf of Mexico, Southern Asia, and the 
north of Africa. In color the gadwall is* chiefly 
black and white, with some brown, buff, and 
chestnut. This duck breeds in marshes, and 
lays from seven to nine cream-white eggs. Ex- 
cept at the breeding season, it is usually seen in 
small flocks, and an individual is sometimes to 
be found in a flock of other ducks. It is a 
favorite game duck, and highly esteemed for the 
table. 

G-ffi'A (Lat., from Gk.Tara, Gaia) , or Ge. The 
earth, honored among the Greeks as a goddess, 
though her personality is never very sharply de- 
fined. The Theogonies of the mythologists, though 
difl'ering in details, represent her as the first-born 
of Chaos, and by Uranus (q.v.) the mother of the 
Titans (q.v.), Cyclopes (q.v.), and the hundred- 
handed monsters. Angered at Uranus's treat- 
ment of his children, she helped Cronus mutilate 
his father. When Cronus in his turn was de- 
posed by Zeus, Gaea, angry at the' fate of her 
children, the Titans, produced the Giants, who 
warred against the gods, and, after their over- 
throw, the monster Typhoeus. When he was con- 
quered by Zeus, Gaea became reconciled to the 
new dynasty. In accordance with the varying 
points of view from which the earth was regard- 
ed, we find Gaea reverenced not merely as the 
universal mother, but as a goddess of death and 
the shades, and as an oracular divinity, though 
^^gae, in Achsea, seems to have been the only 
place where an oracle of Gaea existed in his- 
toric times. In art, Gaea appears chiefly in con- 
nection with the birth of Erichthonius (see 
Erechtheus) and the Gigantomachia ; in both 
scenes she appears as rising out of the earth, 
only the upper part of the body being visible. 

GAEDERTZ, ged^erts, Karl Theodor (1855 
— ) . A German dialect poet and historian of lit- 
erature. He was born at Liibeck, and was edu- 
cated at Leipzig and Berlin. His extensive 
knowledge of cameralistics, law, philology, and 
of various other sciences^, as weU as his wide 
acquaintance with Germanic literature, secured 
for him an appointment, in 1891, as custodian 
of the Royal Library in Berlin, of which he 
became chief librarian in 1900. His publica- 
tions include a number of valuable monographs 
on German poets and on the history of the Ger- 
man drama, among his best productions in this 
field being the following: Goethe's Minchen (2d 
ed. 1888) ; Aiis Fritz Reuters jungen und alten 
Tagen (vol. i., 3d ed. 1899) ; Emanuel Geihel. 
Ein deutsches Dichterlehen (1897); Bismarck 
^nd Renter (1898) ; Bei Goethe zu Gaste (1900). 
His original productions in Plattdeutsch com- 
X)rise a comedy, Eine Komodie (2d ed. 1881), 
and a collection of poems, Julklapp! Leeder un 
Liiuschen (3d ed. 1899). 

GAEKWAR, gfi'kwar (Marathi. herdsman), 
or GUIKOWAB, ge'kA-wilr. The designation of 
the Mahratta ruler of Baroda (q.v.), one of the 
native States in India. Tlie Gaekwar originally 
was an oflicer in the establishment of the rajahs 
of Satara, who were nominally the supreme 
rulers of the Mahrattas (q.v.). The Gaekwar 
finally became hereditary second in command of 



42 GAELIC LEAGUE. 

the Mahratta armies. Pelaji, who became Gaek- 
Avar in 1721, by predatory excursions, gradually 
acquired authority over Gujarat, and his son, 
Damaji, who succeeded in 1732, still further 
extended the bounds of his ample dominions. 
The latter threw off his allegiance to the Peish- 
wa (q.v.) ; but, being taken prisoner by treach- 
ery, was compelled to yield one-half of his do- 
minions and do homage for the other half. 
Annund Rao, who ascended the throne in 1800, 
was the first prince of the line who had inter- 
course with the British. The throne of the Gaek- 
war being contested by an illegitimate brother, 
Annund Rao secured the aid of the British Gov- 
ernment at Bombay, and agreed by treaty, March 
15, 1802, to receive a British subsidiary force. 
Suaji Rao, who became Gaekwar in 1819, was 
frequently on hostile terms with the British 
Government, and in 1838 part of his State was 
sequestrated. In 1840 he made his submission, 
and, among other concessions, abolished suttee. 
His successor, Mulhar Rao, inherited the family 
vices, and in 1873 a commission inquired into 
his conduct. He was subsequently accused of 
attempting to poison the British Resident, and 
tried before a commission, which disagreed about 
his guilt; but he was deposed on account of his 
general misrule, and Gopal Rao, a prince of the 
Khandesh line, was appointed his successor. 

GAELIC (ga'lik) LANGUAGE AND LIT- 
ERATURE. See Celtic Languages; Irish 
Gaelic Literature; Scottish Gaelic Liteba- 

TURE. 

GAELIC LEAGUE. An organization de- 
voted to the preservation, cultivation, and ex- 
tension of the Gaelic language, particularly in 
Ireland. From the time of the Statute of Kil- 
kenny in 1367, when laws were enacted forbidding 
the use of the Irish language, dress, or surnames 
within the limits of the Pale, on penalty of 
death or confiscation, every effort had been made 
by the English Government to crush out or dis- 
courage the native language; and on the estab- 
lishment of the so-called National Schools in 
1833, the instruction in w^hich was in the English 
language, the Gaelic language, even then spoken 
by a majority of the Irish peasantry, received its 
most decisive blow. Through the eff'orts of the 
'Society for the Preservation of the Irish Lan- 
guage,' about twenty-five years ago, some par- 
tial concessions were obtained for the language in 
the schools, but with little practical result, 
owing to the indifference of the local authorities. 
Matters were apparently at their lowest mark in 
all things national when, in 1893, the Gaelic 
League was organized, chiefly through the effort 
of Douglas Hyde (q.v.) and Father O'Growney 
( q.v. ) , the two most accomplished Gaelic scholars 
in Ireland. An active educational campaign was 
at once begun throughout the countrj^, resulting 
in the establishment of branches of the League in 
every important centre. In 1898 the movement 
spread to America. Gaelic is now taught in a 
large number of National schools, and in nearly 
all the Catholic Church parish schools in Ireland, 
the last report showing about 3500 students of 
Gaelic in Dublin alone. Trinity College, Dublin, 
and the Roman Catholic Seminary of Maynooth, 
maintain Gaelic chairs, and a revival in Gaelic 
literature has since developed, including a re-- 
vival of Gaelic music and the drama. In the 
United States and Canada there were in 1902 



GAELIC LEAGUE. 



43 



GAFFKY. 



about forty branches of the League, each of which 
conducted classes for the study of the language, 
besides rendering efficient help to the Irish or- 
ganization. Gaelic or Celtic chairs are also 
established at Harvard University, the Catholic 
University of America, ^Washington, and at 
Notre Dame University, Indiana. Substantial 
aid has been rendered by the Hibernian Order, 
which endowed the Washington chair, and has 
regularly contributed to the work in Ireland. A 
similar movement has been inaugurated for 
Scotland and the Isle of Man by a Pan-Celtic 
organization which includes Wales, Brittany, and 
Cornwall in its scope of operations. 

GAETA, g^-a'ta. A city and seaport, and one 
of the strongest fortresses in Italy, on the Gulf 
of Gaeta (q.v.), 74 miles by a winding railway 
northwest of Naples (Map: Italy, H 6). The 
promontory of Gaeta, on which it is situated, 
looks from the distance like a tumulus, and ac- 
cording to tradition was the tomb of Caieta, the 
nurse of ^neas; hence the ancient name of the 
city, Portus Caieta. The promontory is cro^^^led 
by the Torre d'Orlando, the tomb of Munatius 
Plancus, the friend of Augustus. It is 160 feet in 
height and 160 feet in diameter, and resembles 
the much smaller tomb of Csecilia Metella at 
Rome. On the rocks below is the town in a beau- 
tiful setting of country houses and orange groves, 
while the Torre Angiovina in the citadel affords a 
splendid prospect of coast and sea. Objects of 
antiquarian interest are the campanile of the 
Cathedral of Saint Erasmus, and the remains of 
a Roman amphitheatre and a Roman theatre. 
Oaeta is a centre of the coasting trade, and 
markets fish, oil, wine, and fruit. It was orig- 
inally a Greek colony, and in ancient times was 
crowded with magnificent public buildings. Like 
Amalfi and Naples, it resisted the barbarian 
invaders, and becoming part of the Byzantine 
Empire — and later independent — ^^vas also a 
stronghold of civilization against the Lombards 
and Saracens. In 1134, however, it fell before 
Roger II., and was annexed to the Norman King- 
dom of Sicily. During the centuries that fol- 
lowed it was the sport of various masters, and in 
1806 was gloriously defended for six months 
against Mass^na by Prince Lud^^^g von Hessen- 
Philippsthal, who is buried in the citadel. It 
was the refuge of Pius IX. (q.v.) from 1848, 
when he fled from Rome, until 1850. From 
November, 1860. until February 13, 1861, Fmncis 
II. of Naples, the last of the Bourbon kings, was 
besieged here by the forces of Victor Emmanuel, 
and compelled to surrender. Population, in 1881, 
0429; in 1901, 5528. 

GiETUOilA (Lat., from Gk. PatTouXfa, Qaitmi- 
lia) . In ancient times, the name given to a re- 
gion in Northern Africa lying south of Mauri- 
tania and Numidia, and embracing the western 
part of the Desert of Sahara. Its inhabitants 
belonged to the great aboriginal Berber family 
of North and Northwestern Africa. They were 
not in general black, though a portion of them 
dwelling in the extreme south toward the Niger 
had approximated to this color through inter- 
mixture with the natives and climatic causes. 
The Gfptulians were savage and warlike. They 
came into collision with the Romans for the first 
time during the Jugurthine War. when they 
served as light horse in the army of the Xumidiaii 
King. Cornelius Cossus Tventulus led a force 
Voii. VIII.— 4. 



against them, and for his success received a 
triumph and the surname of Gaetulicus (a.d. 6). 
They have been identified with the Tuaregs, the 
Gutzula of Southern Morocco, the Godola of the 
Coast, the Ghedala of Northwestern Sudan, and 
the Gashtulas in Algeria. 

GAFF (from OF. gaffe, hook, from Ir. gaf, 
hook) . A spar, to which the head, or upper edge, 
of a fore and aft sail is bent. The end next the 
mast is called the jaws; to form them two pieces 
of wood are bolted to the end of the gaff and the 
forward side of them cut out in the form of a 
semicircle so as to fit against the mast, to which 
it is held by a rope extending around it from jaw 
to jaw. The after end of the gaff is called the 
peak, because it usually stands much higher than 
the jaws when the sail is set. On board sloops 
and schooners gaffs are hoisted and lowered by 
ropes called halyards — those near the peak being 
the peak-halyards, and those at the throat, near 
the jaws, being the throat-halyards. In square- 
rigged ships, the spanker and trysails are the 
only ones having gaffs. These gaffs do not ordi- 
narily hoist or lower, and, instead of jaws, have 
eyebolts holding the forward end to the mast or 
to a traveler working on a batten on the mast; 
the latter method is best, as it permits the gaff to 
be lowered when the sail is reefed. In furling, 
these sails are drawn in to the mast and up to 
the gaff by ropes called brails. 

GAFF ABEL, gi'fa'rel', Paul Loris Jacques 
(1843—). A French historian, born at Moulins, 
and educated at the Superior Normal School. He 
held the chair of history at Besangon, and after- 
wards became professor of history and geography 
and dean in the faculty of letters at Dijon. His 
contributions to colonial history are particularly 
valuable. His more important works include: 
Etude sur les rapports de VAmerique et de Vancien 
continent avant Christophe Cdomb (1869) ; Les 
colonies francaises (1880); L*Alg&rie: histoire, 
conquite et colonisation (1882); Les explora- 
tions frangaises de 1870 A 1881 (1882); Les 
campagncs de la premiere R&puhlique (1883); 
La conquite de VAlg&rie jusqu*d la prise de Con- 
stantine (1887); Les Francois au del(i des 
nters: Les d^couvreurs fran^is du XlVeme au 
XVTvme si^clc ; Cotes de Guin4e, du BrMl et de 
VAm&rique du Nord (1888) ; Campa{fnes du Con- 
sulat et de VEmpire (1888) ; Campagncs du pre- 
mier' Empire (1890) ; and Le 86nigal et le <Soi4- 
dan fj'ancais (1890). 

GAFFKY,. g&i^^, Georg Theodob Auoust 
(1850—). A German physician, born at Han- 
over and educated at Berlin. In 1888 he was 
appointed professor of hygiene at the University 
of Geissen. As a member of the Imperial Bu- 
reau of Sanitation in 1883-84 he accompanied the 
expedition sent out, under the auspices of Rol>ert 
Koch, the celebrated bacteriologist, to investigate 
the conditions attending the epidemics of cholera 
in EgA'pt and India. In this capacity he was 
enabled to accumulate the valuable material em- 
bodied in the report subsequently published in 
collaboration with Dr. Koch, and entitled nericht 
iihrr die Thiitigkeit der ztir Erforschung der* 
Cholera 1SS3 nach Aegypten und Indien entsand- 
ten Kommission (1887). His other publications 
include: Experiment ell erzeugte Septicfimic 
(1881); Zur Aetiologie des Ahdominaltyphus 
(1884). These and other important treatises 
by GaflTcy have api>eared prin<'ipally in the 



GAFFKY. 



44 



GAGE. 



Mitteilungen issued by the Imperial Bureau of 
Public Sanitation. 

GAFF-TOPSAIL CAT. A sea catfish {Fe- 
lichthys marinus ) , common a,long the eastern 
coast of the United States and frequently as- 
cending streams. It reaches a length of 30 
inches, is not valued as food, and takes its name 
from the shape of its large dorsal fin, frequently 
exposed above the surface. See Plate of Catfish. 

GAG (corrupted from the Spanish name 
aguaji ) . A large grouper ( Mycteroperca micro- 
lepis) , of a variable bluish color, of the South 
Atlantic and Gulf coast of the United States, 
called by Spanish fishermen 'aguaji.' It frequents 
reefs and banks, reaches a weight of 50 pounds, 
and is an important food-fish. See Grouper. 

GAGALI. See Podocarpus. 

GAGARIN, ga-ga'ren. A princely family of 
Russia. Some of its most prominent members 
were Matvei Petrovitch, Governor of Siberia, who 
suffered death in 1721 by order of Peter the Great 
on suspicion of aspiring to an independent sov- 
ereignty. Alexander Ivanovitch (died 1857) was 
a distinguished soldier of the Crimean War, and 
was assassinated by the Prince of Suanethi, 
whose province he was about to annex to Rus- 
sia. Pavel Pavlovitch (1789-1872) was a mem- 
ber of the council of emancipation of the serfs, 
and from 1864 to 1865 president of the Council 
of Ministers. Ivan Sergeyevitch (1814-82) was 
fvecretary to the Russian Embassy at Paris, turned 
Catholic in 1843, and became a Jesuit missionary. 
He was the author of many ecclesiastical books 
and pamphlets, among them Les starovdres, 
V^glise russe et le pape ( 1857 ) ; Les hymnes de 
Veglise russe (1868). 

GAGE (Fr. gager, from Lat. vadium, a pawn 
or pledge ) . An old term of English law, signify- 
ing a pledge or pawn of property as security 
for the performance of a legal obligation. It has 
lost its independent position in our legal system, 
and is now found only in the combination mort- 
gage ( mort gage, dead pledge ) . 

Estates in gage were of two kinds — vivum 
vadium, and mortuum vadium, the live pledge 
and the dead pledge. Vivum vadium was where 
an estate in lands was given in security for a 
debt, on condition that the estate 'should remain 
with the lender until he had made good the 
sum lent out of the profits of the land. Mor- 
tuum vadium was a pledge of land or goods to 
be held by the pledgee until the debt be paid 
or the obligation performed by the pledgor. See 
Mortgage; Pledge. 

GAGE, Frances Dana Barker ( 1808-84) . An 
American reformer and writer, the daughter of 
Col. Joseph Barker. She was born in Marietta, 
Ohio, and early distinguished herself by lecturing 
on total abstinence, woman's rights, and anti- 
slavery. She removed to Saint Louis in 1853, and 
suffered the usual persecutions to which all 
prominent abolitionists were subjected. Return- 
ing to Ohio, she devoted herself largely to edi- 
torial work. During the Civil War she gave her 
services in earing for the sick and wounded. 
Under the pen-name of 'Aunt Fanny,' she became 
widely known as a writer of stories for the 
young. 

GAGE, Lyman Judson (1836—). An Ameri- 
can financier. He was born in De Ruyter, Madi- 
son County, N. Y., and was educated at an 



academy at Rome, N. Y., where in 1859 he be- 
came a clerk in a bank. In the following year he 
removed to Chicago, where, after working for 
three years in various capacities, he obtained a 
clerkship in the Merchants' Loan and Trust 
Company, of which in 1860 he became cashier. 
In 1868 he left this position to become assistant 
cashier of the First National Bank, one of the 
leading banks in the West. In 1882 he was pro- 
moted to the position of vice-president and gen- 
eral manager, and in 1891 became its president. 
In 1892 he first became a figure of national 
prominence from his election as president of the 
board of directors of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position, the success of which was probably due 
more to him than to any other one man. He 
had never taken an active part in politics or held 
political oflice, although he had been a delegate 
to the Republican National Convention of 1880, and 
the chairman of its committee on finance, but he 
actively supported Cleveland in the campaign of 
1884. In 1892 the Treasury portfolio was of- 
fered him by President Cleveland, but declined. 
In 1897 he was appointed by President McKinley 
Secretary of the Treasury, which office he con- 
tinued to hold in McKinley's second administra- 
tion, and in that of President Roosevelt up to 
January, 1902, when he resigned and was suc- 
ceeded by Leslie M. Shaw. Consult Handy, 
"Lyman J. Gage: A Character Sketch," in the 
American Review of Reviews (New York, 1897). 
GAGE, Simon Henry (1851—). An Ameri- 
can scientist, born in Marvland, Otsego County, 
N. Y. He graduated in ^877 at Cornell Uni- 
versity, and was appointed associate professor of 
physiology there in 1889. In addition to many 
contributions to scientific periodicals, his publi- 
cations include: The Microscope and Histology 
(1881, 4th ed. 1892); Anatomical Technology 
(with Professor Wilder, 1882) ; the vocabulary 
and definitions in animal histology for Foster's 
Encyclopcedic Medical Dictionary, and several 
articles for Wood's Reference Handbook on the 
Medical Sciences. 

GAGE, Thomas (1721-87). An English sol- 
dier and Colonial Governor of Massachusetts, bom 
at Firle, Sussex. He received a lieutenant's com- 
mission in the English Army in January, 1741, 
participated in the battle of Culloden, served as 
aide-de-camp to Lord Albemarle in Flanders, and 
in 1751 became lieutenant-colonel of the Forty- 
fourth Foot, with which in 1754 he came to 
America under General Braddock. In the latter 
part of the march against Fort Duquesne, he 
commanded the advance guard of Braddock's 
army. Subsequently he was stationed for a time 
at Oswego, raised a regiment of Provincial troops 
in 1758, and commanded it on Abercromby's dis- 
astrous expedition against Ticonderoga ; and in 
1759, after the death of Colonel Prideaux. was 
sent as brigadier-general to replace Sir William 
Johnson at Niagara. He then sers'ed in the last 
campaign under General Amherst, was made Gov- 
ernor of Montreal in 1760, was promoted to be 
major-general in 1761, and was commander-in- 
chief of the English forces in America from 1765 
to 1772, when he returned to England. In 1765, 
while stationed at New York, he was called upon 
by Governor Colden to enforce the Stamp Act 
(q.v.) , but refused on the ground that a fire from 
the fort would be 'the commencement of a civil 
war.' Three years later he was ordered to Boston 



GAGE. 



45 



GAG RULES. 



to assist the civil magistrates and revenue officers 
there in carrying out the measures of the British 
Ministry. Early in 1774 he succeeded Hutchin- 
son as Governor of Massachusetts, and again 
became commander-in-chief of the British Army 
in America. He was warmly welcomed on his 
arrival in Boston in May, but soon antagonized 
the popular party by his enforcement of the Min- 
isterial measures, especially of the Boston Port 
Bill (q.v.) and the regulation acts. On June 30, 
1774, he issued a proclamation against the 'sol- 
emn league and covenant' not to purchase articles 
imported from Great Britain. On September 1st 
he seized the powder stored at Cambridge, and 
soon afterwards began to fortify Boston. On the 
night of April 18, 1775, he sent an expedition to 
Concord to destroy the Provincial stores there 
and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock. 
This led to the battle of Lexington on the follow- 
ing day. (See Lexington.) He ordered the as- 
sault upon Bunker (Breed's) Hill on June 17th, 
and as soon as the news of the action reached 
England was recalled, sailing from Boston on 
October 10, 1775. In April, 1782, he was pro- 
moted to the rank of general. 

GAGERN, ga'gern, Heinrich Wilhelm Au- 
gust, Baron von (1799-1880). A German states- 
man. He was the second son of the well-known 
politician Hans Christopher Gagern (1766-1852), 
and was born at Bayreuth, August 20, 1799. He 
was educated at the military school of Munich, 
and on Napoleon's return from Elba entered the 
army of Nassau^ serving as lieutenant at Water- 
loo. He afterwards devoted himself to the study 
of law at the universities of Heidelberg, Gottin- 
gen, Jena, and Geneva. While at Heidelberg he 
aided in founding the liberal society of the 
Burschenschaft (q.v.). On returning home in 
1821, he entered political life, and after passing 
through several public offices, in the Grand Duchy 
of Hesse, he was elected a member of the Lower 
Chamber in 1832, in which position he vigorously 
opposed the reactionary policy of the State gov-v 
ernments and of the Federal Diet. In 1836 he 
retired to his father's estates, but reappeared ten 
years later and helped bring on the revolutionary 
movement of 1848 in Germany. In common with 
some of the greatest men of the time Gagern 
cherished the hope of a new Germany, organized 
upon a constitutional basis and under the leader- 
ship of a powerful prince who should win for the 
nation a place among the Powers of Europe. In 
the National Assembly which met at Frankfort 
on May 18, 1848, Gagern, as the recognized leader 
of those who favored unity and constitutionalism, 
was elected president, and for a long time suc- 
ceded, by the force of his enthusiasm and his 
magnificent personality, in guiding the action of 
the Assembly. In the strife over the question 
of admitting Austria as a Germanic power into 
the new Empire, Gagern sided with those who 
opposed Austrian pretensions, and on December 
18, 1848, as head of the Imperial Ministry, sub- 
niitU'd his 'programme' to the Parliament pro- 
viding for a Federal State without Austria. 
Thouiih the plan was accepted by the Parliament, 
it failed on account of the lukewarmness of the 
Prussian King, to whom all looked as the head 
of the new State, and the general reaction which 
followed in Germany during the early days of 
1849. On May 20tli Gagern withdrew from the 
Parliament, convinced that the cause of German 



unity, for the time, was a hopeless one. He still 
took an active interest in politics, however, and 
in 1850-52 served as a major in the army of the 
duchies of Schleswig-Holstein. On the conclusion 
of the struggle he retired to his estate at Mon- 
sheim, and only reappeared as the representative 
of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt at 
Vienna from 1864 to 1872. He was granted a 
pension in 1872 and took up his residence at 
Darmstadt, where he died May 22, 1880. Be- 
sides several pamphlets and speeches, he was the 
author of a life of his brother. Das Leben des 
Generals Friedrich von Gagern ( 1856-57 ) . His 
younger brother Maximilian was prominent in 
the service of the Duchy of Nassau and of Aus- 
tria. Consult: Heimenz, Heinrich von Gagern in 
seinen politischen Grundanschauungen (Tiibingen, 
1899) ; Biedermann, Deutsche Geschichte, 1815- 
79 (Breslau, 1883-89) ; von Sybel, The Founding 
of the German Empire, translated (New York, 
1890-98). See Germany. 

GAGNON, ga'nyr)N', Lucian (M842). A 
Canadian political agitator, bom at Pointe-ala- 
Mule, Canada. He was a member of the Assem- 
bly of the Counties at Saint Charles, October 23, 
1837, and subsequently carried on a campaign of 
agitation against British rule. He was instru- 
mental in mustering a force of rebels, who were 
defeated at Moore's Corner and compelled to take 
refuge in the United States. Another attempt 
at insurrection also proved unsuccessful, and 
Gagnon was arrested by United States troops on 
the charge of having violated the neutrality laws. 
After the engagement at Odellto^^•n, November 
10, 1838, he gave up the struggle and settled in 
the United States. 

GAG RULES. In American history, the name 
applied to certain rules passed by the National 
Congress in disregard of the First Amendmejit to 
the Federal Constitution, for the abridgment of 
the right of petition with reference to the aboli- 
tion or restriction of slavery. After the begin- 
ning of the earnest agitation of the Northern 
abolitionists against the institution of slavery 
about 1831, petitions of various kinds poured 
into the House and the Senate, praying for the 
abolition or the restriction of that institution. 
These were generally presented by John Quincy 
Adams, who as a member of Congress identified 
himself particularly with the struggle against 
any Congressional abridgment of the right of 
petition. In May, 1835, the House passed the 
so-called 'Pinckney Resolutions,' substantially re- 
newed in January, 1837, which provided that 
all petitions relating to slavery should virtually 
be disregarded, should not be printed or referred, 
and should be laid on the table without action. 
The resolutions also asserted that Congress 
should not interfere with slavery in the District 
of Columbia, and that that body had no power, 
according to the Constitution, to take action with 
regard to slavery in the individual States. 
Adams's attempts to introduce petitions in dis- 
regard of these resolutions provoked animated 
debates, in which, on some occasions, considerable 
feeling was aroused between Northern and South- 
ern members. In December, 1837, the HuUHe 
])assed the so-called 'Patton Resolutions.' intro- 
duced by J. M. Patton. of Virginia, which de- 
clared against the reading, referring, debating, or 
printing of any petition praying for the inter- 
ference of the National Government with the 



GAG RULES. 46 

institution of slavery in any part of the United 
States, including the Territories and the District 
of Columbia. In December of the following year 
the House passed the so-called 'Atherton Gag,' 
covering much the same ground as the Tatton 
Resolutions,' and in January, 1840, passed the 
famous Twenty-first Rule to the same general 
effect. Adams continued to offer petitions, how- 
ever, and at the opening of each new Congress 
endeavored to have the objectionable rule omit- 
ted. The majority against him progressively 
decreased, and in December, 1844, the rule was 
rescinded. Consult: Adams's Memoirs (12 vols., 
Philadelphia, 1874-77) ; Benton's Abridgment of 
the Debates of Congress, 1789-1856 ( 16 vols., New 
York, 1857-61); id.. Thirty Years' View (2 
vols.. New York, 1854-56) ; and Wilson, Rise and 
Fall of the Slave Power in America, vol. i. (3 
vols., Boston, 1872-77). 

GAGUIN, ga'gaN^ Robert (c. 1425- 1502). A 
French chronicler and diplomat, born at Calonne- 
sur-la-Lys. Pie studied at the University of 
Paris under Fichet, and was made professor of 
canon law there (1463) and dean of the faculty. 
He was intrusted with various diplomatic mis- 
sions by Louis XI. and Charles VIII., and trav- 
eled in Germany, Italy, England, and Spain. 
He is said to have had the care of the libraries of 
both these kings. His Chronicle' went through 
many editions under the title Compendium super 
Origine et Gestis Francorum a Pharamundo 
usque ad Annum 11^91 ( 1497 ) . He also left some 
letters and discoveries, Epistolce et Orationes 
(1498). 

GA'HERIS. The Orestes of Arthurian legend. 
He was the son of Arthur's sister, Morganse, He 
found his mother in adultery with Sir Lamahake 
and cut off her head. 

GAIDOZ, ga'dos', Henri ( 1 842— ) . A French 
scholar, bom in Paris. He has published many 
learned articles in scientific periodicals on archae- 
ology and mythology, and is the author of a 
number of books on the same subjects, notably 
Eguisse de la religion des Gaulois (1879) ; La 
religion gauloise et le gui de chene (1881) ; Les 
religions de la Grande Bretagne (1885) ; Le 
Jdason populaire de la France (with S6billot, 
1884) ; Bibliographie des traditiotis et de la lit- 
terature des Francs d' outre mer (with S^billot, 
1886) ; Etude de la mythologie gauloise (1886) ; 
and Les Roumains en. Hongrie (1894). He found- 
ed the Revue Celtique in 1870, and in 1877 was 
associated with Eugene Rolland in the establish- 
ment of Ija Melusine for the study of folklore. 

GAIETY THEATRE, The. A London the- 
atre situated on the Strand, and opened in 1868. 
It is the original home in England of opera 
boufi'c. 

GAEL, gal, Jean Franqois (1795-1845). A 
French Hellenist, son of Jean Baptiste Gail 
( 1755-1829) . He was born in Paris, and in 1829 
became a professor at the Military Academy of 
Saint Cyr. His chief works were: Recherches sur 
la nature du culte de Bacchus en Grdce (1821) ; 
and the Geographi Grwci Minores (1826-31), con- 
taining, besides other extracts, the Periplus of 
Hanno, that of Scylax, and fragments of Scymnos. 

GAIL, g!l, Wilhelm (1804-90). A German 
architectural and landscape painter, bom in Mu- 
nich, where he studied at the Academy and under 



GAINAS. 



Peter Hess, his brother-in-law. After traveling 
in Italy (1825-27), France (1830), and Spain 
(1832), he settled in his native city. His paint- 
ings in public galleries include: "Hall in Doge's 
Palace," "San Lazzaro in Venice" (1832), and 
"Sanctuary of Mosque at Cordova" (1836), in 
the New Pinakothek, Munich ; "Interior of Clois- 
ter" ^nd "Spanish Cloister with Procession of 
Monks," in the Kunsthalle at Karlsruhe; and 
"Convent of San Martino in Piedmont" (1857), 
in the National Gallery, Berlin. 

GAIL HAMILTON. See Dodge, Maby A. 

GAILLARD, ga'yiir', Claude Ferdinand 
(1834-87). A French engraver, born in Paris. 
He was a pupil of L^on Cogniet, and took the 
Prix de Rome for engraving in 1856. Among his 
most remarkable plates are those after Van 
Eyck, Botticelli, Donatello, Michelangelo, Ra- 
phael, and Rembrandt. He also engraved from his 
own designs portraits of the Count de Chambord, 
Pius IX., Leo XIIL, Monseigneur Pie, and Sceur 
Rosalie. There are two portraits by him in the 
Luxembourg, "Monseigneur de Segur" and an old 
woman. These especially show his particular fac- 
ulty, an almost clairvoyant grasp of personality. 

GAIL'LARD, Edwin Samuel (1827-85). An 
American physician. He was born in Charleston 
District, S. C, graduated at the University of 
South Carolina in 1845, and at the State Medical 
College in 1854. During the Civil War he served 
in the Confederate Army, holding various posi- 
tions in the medical department, and subsequent- 
ly was editor, successively, of the Richmond and 
Louisville Medical Journal and of the American 
Medical Weekly. 

GAILLARD,. ga'ya', Gabriel Henri (1726- 
1806). A French historian and academician. He 
was born at Ostel, near Soissons; took up the 
study of law, but abandoned his legal pur- 
suits for history, and published a large num- 
ber of works, characterized more by elegance of 
style than by strict adherence to facts. Among 
these are: Histoire de Marie de Bourgogne 
(1757) ; Histoire de Francois I. (1766-69) ; His- 
toire de la rivalite de la France et de VAngleterre 
(1771-77); Histoire de Charlemagne (1782). 
Gaillard also wrote Eloges on Descartes, Cor- 
neille, Moli&re, Charles V., Henry IV., and his 
intimate friend, Malesherbes. 

GAILLARDET, ga'yiir'da', TiifiODORE Fr6d6- 
Ric (1808-82). A French dramatist and author, 
born at Auxerre. He achieved much notoriety 
through his duel with Alexandre Dumas, p^re, 
and his subsequent lawsuit over the rights to the 
play La tour de Nesle, which Dumas had placed 
upon the stage as his own ( 1832) . He wrote two 
other dramas, Struetisee, ou le medecin de la reine 
(1832), and Georges, ou le criminel par amour 
(1833), and also Memoires du chevalier d'Eon 
(1836). While in America he founded in New 
York City the Courrier des Etats-Unis, which he 
directed until 1848. 

GAINAS ( died 401 ) . A Visigoth, commander- 
in-cnief of the Roman Army. He was an Arian, 
and caused the downfall and execution of the 
eunuch Eutropius. He used his position for 
treasonable purposes, which he cloaked success- 
fully for some years. At length he became open- 
ly hostile, and attempted to seize Constantinople. 
His attempt was foiled and his army of Goths 
destroyed. He fled, but was captured by the 



I 



GAINAS. 47 

King of the Huns, who sent his head to Con- 
stantinople. Consult Bury, History of the Later 
Roman Empire, vol. i. (London, 1889). 

GAINES, Edmund Pendleton (1777-1849). 
An American soldier. He was born in Culpeper 
County, Va., but was early taken by his father 
to North Carolina. He studied law for a time, 
but in 1799 entered the United States Army as 
an ensign, and from 1801 to 1803 was employed 
in the making of a topographical survey from 
Nashville to Natchez for the location of a mili- 
tary road. In 1802 he became a first lieutenant, 
and two years later was appointed military col- 
lector of customs for the district of Mobile, in 
which capacity he arrested Aaron Burr (q.v.) 
on February 19, 1807. In the War of 1812 he 
^served as captain in the battle of the Thames, 
participated in the engagement at Chrystler's 
Field, was commander at Fort Erie (q.v.) in 
August, 1814, until wounded by the bursting of a 
shell, and gradually rose to the regular rank of 
brigadier-general and the brevet rank of major- 
general. He was one of the commissioners ap- 
pointed in 1816 to treat with the Creek In- 
dians ; was in command of the Southern Military 
District at the outbreak of the first Seminole 
War in 1817; was retained as brigadier-general 
and placed in command of the Western District 
when the army was reduced in 1821 ; took an 
active part in the second Seminole War of 1837, 
being severely wounded at Ouithlacoochie; and at 
the outbreak of the Mexican W^ar was in com- 
mand of the Department of the Southwest, with 
headquarters at New Orleans, in which capacity 
he was actively engaged in raising volunteers 
for the army. 

GAINES, John P. (1795-1858). An Ameri- 
can soldier ajid legislator, the third Territorial 
Governor of Oregon. He was bom at Augusta, 
Va. (now West Virginia), but when very young 
removed to Boone County, Ky. He served as a 
volunteer in the War of 1812, subsequently was a 
member for several years of the Kentucky Legis- 
lature, and in the Mexican War served first as a 
major of Kentucky volunteers and afterwards as 
an aide to Greneral Scott. He was then, from 
1847 to 1849, a Whig member of Congress, and 
from 1850 to 1853, on President Fillmore's ap- 
pointment, was Governor of the Territory of 
Oregon, in which capacity he came into serious 
conflict with the Territorial Legislature, notably 
over the location of the capital. 

GAINES'S MILL, Battle of. A battle fought 
on June 27, 1802, during the Civil War, between 
a Federal force of about 30,000 under General 
Fitz John Porter and a Confederate force of 
about 65,000 under General Lee, on the left or 
north bank of the Chickahominy River, eight 
miles northeast of Richmond, Va. It was the 
second of the famous Seven Days' Battles (q.v.) 
which marked the close of McClellan's Penin- 
sular campaign. On the 27th of June, General 
Lee, having crossed the Chickahominy with the 
greater part of the army of Northern Virginia, 
• attacked Porter's position at 2 p.m., the Confed- 
erate right, centre, and left being commanded by 
Longstreet, A. P. Hill, and Jackson respectively. 
Porter, though inadequately ret^nforced by Mc- 
Clollan. ofTerod a magnificent resistance, and 
stubbornly held his position in face of repeated 
assaults until 7 P.M., when his left centre at 



GAINESVILLE. 



last gave way, and compelled a reformation at 
some distance to the rear of the whole line, 
under cover of two fresh brigades from the left 
wing, commanded by French and Meagher. The 
main battle had been preceded by a sharp contest 
between the Confederate A. P. Hill, advancing 
from Mechanicsville, and the Ninth Massachu- 
setts Volunteers at Gaines's Mill, slightly in 
advance of the main Federal position, and from 
this the whole battle takes its name. During 
the night of the 27th Porter joined the left wing 
south of the Chickahominy, and McClellan, com- 
pelled to abandon his old base at White Horse 
on the York River, hastily made arrangements 
to transfer his army to the James. During the 
progress of the battle McClellan, with the left 
wing, numbering fully 55,000 men, had been 
held in check by 25,000 Confederates under Ma- 
gruder, and had been deceived into believing that 
a Confederate army, numbering over 100,000, 
lay between him and Richmond. Had he known 
the real state of affairs it seems probable that 
he could easily have overwhelmed Magruder and 
captured the city while Lee was occupied north 
of the river. On the other hand. Porter's stub- 
born resistance gave Lee an erroneous impres- 
sion of the Federal strength at this point. The 
total Federal loss in the battle of Gaines's Mill 
was 6387 men, besides 22 guns; while the Con- 
federate loss, though never accurately deter- 
mined, was probably as much as 1000 more. Two 
years later the battle of Cold Harbor (q.v.) was 
fought in this vicinity. Consult: Official Rec- 
ords, vol. xi. (Washington, 1885) ; Johnson and 
Buel (editors). The Battles and Leaders of the 
Civil War, vol. ii. (New York, 1887) ; Ropes, 
The Story of the Civil War, vol. ii. (New York, 
1894-98) : Webb, The Peninsula (New York, 
1881) ; and Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln: 
A History, vol. v. (New York, 1890). 

GAINES'VTLLE. A city and the county-seat 
of Alachua County, Fla., 57 miles northeast of 
Cedar Keys; on the Plant System and the Flor- 
ida Central and Peninsular Railroad (Map: Flor- 
ida, F 2). It is a popular winter resort, and 
has the East Florida Seminarj'. In the vicinity 
are several points of natural* interest, notably 
Alachua Sink, which alternately is prairie and 
lake. The principal industries are farming and 
orange-growing. Population, in 1890, 2790; in 
1900, 3633. 

GAIN;ESVILLE. a city and the county-seat 
of Hall County, Ga., 52 miles northeast of At- 
lanta; on the Southern Railway (Map: Georgia, 
CI). It is an attractive health resort, having 
several mineral springs, and is the seat of Brenau 
College and Conservatory of Music for young 
ladies, founded in 1878. There is a public park. 
The manufactures include cotton goods, cotton* 
yarns, cottonseed oil, shoes, buggies, wagons, 
brick, lime, leather, tombstones, doors, sash, 
blinds, meal, and flour. Settled in 1821, Gaines- 
ville was incorporated in 1870. It is goveme<l. 
under a revised charter of 1885, by a mayor 
elected every two years, and a council. The city 
owns and operates the water-works and electric- 
liglit plant. Population, in 1890, 3202; in 1900, 
4382. 

GAINESVILLE. A city and the county-sent 
of Cooke County, Tex., 65 miles north of Fort 
Worth ; on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and 



GAINESVILLE. 



48 



GAINSBOROUGH. 



the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fg railroads 
(Map: Texas, F 3). It i« the centre of aa 
agricultural and stock-raising district, and has 
packing houses and manufactures of cottonseed 
oil, flour and foodstufl:'s, pressed brick, etc. 
Gainesville was settled in 1851, incorporated in 
1873, and is governed under a charter of 1879, 
which provides for a mayor, chosen biennially, 
and a municipal council, elected on a general 
ticket. Population, in 1890, 0594; in 1900, 7874. 

GAINS'BOROUGH. An ancient market-town 
and port on the Trent, in Lincolnshire, England, 
16 miles northwest of Lincoln (Map: England, 
F 3 ) . It is at the junction of the dreat North- 
ern, Great Eastern, and Midland, South and 
London railways. It was constituted a port in 
1841, the canals connecting with the Trent mak- 
ing Gainsborough the eastern outlet for the Mid- 
land counties. It has important manufactures of 
linseed oil, ropes, malt, and tobacco, engineer- 
ing and ship-building works. The town consists 
mainly of one long street running parallel with 
the river, which is spanned here by a fine stone 
bridge. The Old Hall, or Manor House, restored 
in 1884, a baronial residence with a tower 75 
feet high, is said to have been built by John of 
Gaunt, and is now used as a corn exchange and 
assembly rooms. The John Robinson (1575- 
1625) Memorial Church, inaugurated in 1897, 
is dedicated to the pastor of the Pilgrim Fathers 
at Leyden, a reputed native of Gainsborough. 
The town owns its water-supply and maintains 
markets. Population, in 1891, 14,000; in 1901, 
17,100. Consult Stark, History of Oainshorough 
(London, 1843). 

GAINSBOROUGH, Thomas (1727-88). An 
English portrait and landscape painter, born at 
Sudbury, in Suffolk. He was the youngest of 
nine children, and self-supporting at eighteen 
years of age. His parents sent him to London, 
at the age of fifteen, to study painting; he stayed 
with a goldsmith who introduced him to Grave- 
lot, an engraver, from whom he gained his chief 
instruction. Later he was associated for three 
years with Frank Hayman, an historical painter 
of some reputation. After an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to have a studio in London, -he returned to 
Sudbury in 1745, and continued his landscape 
studies. Soon after his return he married, 
and six months afterwards went to Ipswich, 
where for fifteen years he lived quietly and 
worked earnestly. In 1759 he sent eighteen of 
his pictures to the exhibition of the Society of 
Arts; in 1760 he removed to Bath, remaining 
until 1774, when he returned to London. In 
1768 he was elected one of the original members 
of the Royal Academy. His stay at Bath was 
^marked by success, and he painted many portraits 
of fashionable beauties and the brightest spirits 
of the day. George III., on hearing of Gainsbor- 
ough's return to London, invited him to court, 
and gave him orders for portraits of himself and 
Queen. This seemed a signal for the fashionable 
world, which resulted in prosperity which lasted 
until Gainsborough's death. He died in London, 
August 2, 1788, and was buried at' his request in 
Kew Churchyard, without name or inscription on 
the stone that marked his grave. Gainsborough 
painted that which charmed him in nature; he 
was the first impressionist in landscape art, 
somewhat like Corot, interpreting her poetic 



qualities. The "Watering Place," painted be- 
tween 1768 and 1775, is considered one of his 
best landscapes. 

Gainsborough's portraits are distinguished for 
their noble and refined grace; they express al- 
most invariably the moment of unconscious rest. 
They interpret the winning personality of the 
individual rather than such intellectual qualities 
a>i those suggested by Reynolds. Often faulty in 
drawing, the artist charms us by his color, which 
is cool, fresh, and transparent; the tones seem 
to follow each other like the chords of an instru- 
ment, without the slightest intimation of separa- 
tion, always fading away into a background of 
dreamy atmosphere. His canvas was thinly 
painted with a smooth and swift technique. 

The "Boy Blue," considered his greatest work, 
was the portrait of a son of Jonathan Buttall, a * 
wealthy ironmonger of London. There are three 
existing versions of the same subject: one in the 
collection of the Duke of Devonshire, supposed to 
be the original; one owned by Mr. George 
Hearn, of New York; and a third, owned by 
Count de Castellane. The portrait of Mrs. Sid- 
dons, the actress, was painted in 1784, when she 
was at the height of her fame and but twenty- 
nine. It is a conception of her beauty distinctly 
opposed to Reynolds's portrait of the same time, 
known as the "Tragic Muse." Of Gainsborough's 
300 paintings, 220 are portraits; there are also a 
few etchings and a collection of his drawings in 
the British Museum. The most important paint- 
ings comprise, besides those already mentioned: 
"Rustic Children"; "Portrait of Orpin, Parish 
Clerk of Bradford, Wilts" ; landscape, "Gainsbor- 
ough Forest," all in the National Gallery, Lon- 
don. In Buckingham Palace, "Duke and Duchess 
of Cumberland." In Stratford-on-Avon Museum, 
"David Garrick." In Windsor Castle, "George 
III.," full length, and a portrait of the "Royal 
Family." At Dulwich, "Mrs. Moody and Her 
Children," "Mrs. Sheridan," and "Miss Tichell." 
In the National Portrait Gallery are several por- 
traits. A number of important works by Gains- 
borough are in the United States. The Chicago 
Art Institute has one, a "Landscape with Fig- 
ures." In the New York Metropolitan Museum 
are two "Landscapes," "Mr, Burroughs," and a 
"Child with Cat." In the collection of J. Pier- 
pont Morgan is the "Duchess of Devonshire." 

The portrait of the Duchess of Devonshire, 
known as the "Lost Duchess," was exhibited in 
1793, and although a good example of the artist's 
work, it is more famous for its history than for 
its value as a work of art. It was bought by 
the art dealers Thomas Agnew and Sons, of Lon- 
don, for £10,065 — the highest sum ever paid at a 
London art sale for a portrait. The canvas was 
cut from the frame in their galleries by a thief, 
and all efforts to recover it proved unavailing, 
until in April, 1901, it was turned over by the 
parties holding it to the Pinkerton detective 
agency in Chicago. !Mr. Agnew came to America 
to identify the picture, which was afterwards 
sold by his firm to J. Pierpont ^Morgan, in whose 
collection it now remains. 

For Gainsborough biography, consult : Fulcher 
(London, 1856), Brock-Arnold (ib., 1881), and 
Bell (ib., 1897) ; also Ruskin, Modern Painters 
(ib., 1873); Colvin, in Portfolio (ib., 1872); 
Wedmore, Studies in English Art, 1st series (ib.. 




GAINSBOROUGH 

THE BLUE BOY," FROM THE ORIGINAL IN THE GROSVENOR GALLERY, LONDON 



GAINSBOROUGH. 49 

1878) ; and Armstrong, Gainsborough and His 
Place in English Art (ib., 1898). 

GAIRD'NEIl, James (1828—). An English 
historical writer and editor. He was born and 
educated at Edinburgh, and in 1846 was ap- 
pointed a clerk in the Public Record Office. As 
his peculiar adaptability for the work became evi- 
dent he was rapidly promoted, and he was made 
assistant keeper of the public records in 1859. 
He edited Memorials of Henry VII. (Rolls Series, 
1858) ; Letters and Papers Illustrative of the 
Reigns of Richard III. and Henry VII. (Rolls 
Series, 1861-63) ; Historical Collections of a 
London Citizen (Camden Society Publications, 
1876) ; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. (Rolls 
Series, vols. v. to xv. in continuation of the work 
of Professor Brewer, 1880-96) ; Three English 
Chronicles (1880) ; and The Paston Letters (Ar- 
ber reprints, 3 vols., 1872-75). In addition to 
numerous contributions to the Dictionary of 
'Sational Biography, he published The Houses of 
Lancaster and York (Epoch Series, 1874) ; Life 
and Reign of Richard HI. (1878) ; "Henry VII." 
{Twelve English Statesmen, 1889), and Studies 
in English History, with James Spedding (1881). 

GAIBDNER, William ( 1793-1867) . A Scotch 
physician. He was born at Mount Charles, 
Ayrshire, graduated at the University of Edin- 
burgh in 1813, and in 1822 settled in London, 
where he practiced his profession almost con- 
tinuously until his death. He published an 
Essay on the Effects of Iodine on the Human 
Constitution (1834), and an excellent treatise 
On Gout: Its History, Its Causes, and Its Cure 
(1840). 

GAIRDNER, Sir William Tennant (1824 
— ) . An English physician, born and educated at 
Edinburgh. In 1862 he was appointed professor 
of medicine at the university in that city. He 
took an active interest in securing reforms in 
municipal sanitation; and the enactment of the 
Glasgow Improvement Act in 1867 was due 
chiefly to his initiative. His publications in- 
clude: On the Pathology of Bronchitis, and the 
Diseases Connected toith Bronchial Obstruction 

(1850) ; Clinical Medicine, Observations Record- 
ed at the Bedside, with Commentaries (1862) ; 
On the Function of Articulate Speech, and Its 
Connection -with the Hand and the Bodily 
Organs (1866); The Physician as Naturalist 

(with Dr. Coats, 1889). 

GAIS, gis. A neat Swiss village in the midst 
of green meadows, in the Canton of Appenzell. 
It has been in vogue as a 'whey resort' since 
1749. 

GAIS'FORD, Thomas (1779-1855). A dis- 
tinguislu'd English scholar, born at Ilford. After 
studying at Christ Church, Oxford, he was ap- 
pointed regius professor of Greek at the uni- 
versity (1812) and Dean of Christ Church 
(1831). From 1815 to 1847 he was rector of 
the parish of Westwell. In addition to his 
elaborate edition of the Enchiridion of Hephips- 
tion (1810), with which he first won recognition 
as a critic, the most valuable of his classical pub- 
lications include an edition of the Poctas Gr(eci 
Minores (1814-20), of Stobauis (1822), of Hero- 
dotus (1824), of Sophocles (1826). of the lexi- 
con of Suidas (Oxford, 1834), of the Parocmi- 
ographi Grceci (1836), of the Scriptorcs Latini 



GAIUS. 



Rei MetriccB (1837), of the Etymologicum Mag- 
num (1844), and of Eusebius (1842-52). 

GAISSIN, gi'sin. The capital of a district in 
the Russian Government of Podolia, situated on 
the Sobi, a tributary of the Bug, 180 miles 
east of Kamenetz- Podolsk (Map: Russia, C 5). 
The chief occupation of the inhabitants is agri- 
culture, the manufacturing industries of the 
town being insignificant. Population, in 1897, 
9393. 

QAlT'^f g&'tA^ Theatre de la (Fr., Gaiety 
Theatre). One of the oldest theatres of Paris, 
originating in marionette shows instituted by 
Nicolet in 1753. A theatre was established in 
1759 on the Boulevard du Temple, and in 1807, 
when the number of Paris theatres was restricted 
to eight by Napoleon, the Gait6 was among those 
retained, presenting vaudeville, drama, and spec- 
tacular pieces. On the destruction of part of the 
boulevard in 1862, a new house was built in the 
Place des Arts et Metiers, and is the present 
home of the theatre. Among the many directors 
was Offenbach, under whom the operetta came 
into special prominence, but at the present time 
performances of all kinds are given. 

GAIUS. A Roman jurist of the age of the An- 
tonines, and the chief source of our knowledge 
of Roman law prior to Justinian. His personal 
history is almost entirely unkno^^^l, and almost 
every subject connected with him a subject of 
controversy. It is not known whether he was 
a Roman citizen, a foreigner, or a freedman. As 
to the precise age of Gains this much is certain, 
that before the revision of the Roman laws and 
the reform of legal education by Justinian, the 
Institutes of Gains, as well as four others of his 
treatises, were the received text-books of the 
schools of law. His Institutes, moreover, formed 
the groundwork of the Institutes of Justinian. 
From his being thus preferred to Ulpian or 
Papinian, it is not to be inferred that he lived 
after them, but only that his work was more 
popular. The latest jurist whom he cites is 
Salvius Julianus, who lived under Hadrian, and 
the latest Imperial edict is one of Antoninus 
Pius ; whence it may fairly be concluded that he 
survived Antoninus and probably wrote under 
his successor. 

The works of Gains were largely used in the 
compilation of the Digest of Justinian, which 
contains no fewer than 535 extracts from his 
writings. The principal are: The Edictum Pro- 
vinciate, in thirty-two books; the Aurea, in 
seven; the Edictum Urbicum; On Trusts; On 
Mortgages ; and, above all, the Institutes, in four 
books. The last-named work is that by which 
Gains is chiefly known, and it was probably the 
earliest complete and .systematic text-book of 
Roman law. Although it was the basis of Jus- 
tinian's Institutes, both as to its matter and its 
division, yet it was completely superseded by 
that work, and after a time was entirely lost, 
the only knowledge of it which remainetl being 
that which was gathered from the detached ex- 
tracts in the Digest, and from the Breviary 
of Alaric (q.v.), or code of the Visigoths, which 
was known to be derived from it. In 1810 
Niebuhr. while on his way to Rome, discovered, 
in a palimpsest manuscript in the library of the 
Chapel of Verona, portions of the work of some 
ancient jurisconsult, which was soon afterwards 
pronounced by Savigny to be a portion of the 



GAIUS. 50 

Institutes of Gaius. On the publication of his 
report, the Berlin Academy of Sciences commis- 
sioned two German scholars, Goschen and Holl- 
weg, in 1817; to make a copy of the entire 
palimpsest, which consists of 127 sheets. Nine- 
tenths of the entire work was recovered, and was 
published in 1821 by Goschen, and again, after a 
fresh collation of the manuscript, by Blume, in 
1824. A third and much-improved edition by 
Lachmann appeared in 1842. A comparative edi- 
tion of the Institutes of Gaius and Justinian, by 
Klenze and Bocking, appeared at Berlin in 1829. 
The first book was translated into German in 
1824 by Von Brockdorff, and the entire work 
has been translated into French three several 
times — bv Baulet, in 1826; by Domenget, in 
1843; and by Pellat, in 1844. In England, it 
has been translated, with notes, by Post (1885), 
and by Abdy and Walker ( 1886) , the latter work 
containing also the text and translation of Ulpi- 
an's Fragments. Consult: Buschke, "Zur Kritik 
und Interpretation von Gaius Institutionen," in 
his Studien des romischen Rechts (Breslau, 
1830) ; also Mackeldey's Handbook of the Roman 
Laic, translation (Philadelphia, 1883) ; Ortolan, 
The History of the Roman Laio, translation (Lon- 
don, 1896) ; and Savigny, System des heutigen 
romischen Rechts (Berlin, 1840-49). 

GAJ, gi, Ljudewit (1809-72). A Slavic writ- 
er, born at Krapina, Croatia, and educated at 
Vienna, Gratz, Leipzig, and Pesth. In 1835 he 
founded the H^ ovine Hrvatske ( Croatian News ) — 
a title afterwards changed to Hirske Narodne 
N ovine {Illyrian National News) — which rapid- 
ly became popular, and was followed by similar 
publications and by the establishment of patriotic 
societies of every description. The movement 
thus organized, which was largely instrumental 
in uniting the Croats and Serbs in their antago- 
nism to the Magyars, excited considerable opposi- 
tion in Hungary, and in 1844 the word 'Illyrian' 
was prohibited. Nevertheless, through the efforts 
of Gaj, a literary bond had been established 
among the Southern Slavs of the Hungarian 
crown. One of his patriotic songs, entitled "Jos 
Hrvatska nij' propala," was extremely popular 
in its day. 

GALABAT, ga'la-bat', or KALABAT. A 
small district in the northwest part of Abyssinia, 
adjoining Egyptian Sudan. Area, about 1540 
square miles ; population, 20,000. It was former- 
ly an Egyptian province, and is settled by Tokru- 
ris from Darfur. Prior to the Italian-Abyssin- 
ian War it was in the Italian sphere of influence, 
but at present it forms an integral part of Abys- 
sinia. Metammeh (Matama), the chief town, is 
situated close to the Egyptian frontier, and was 
commercially important "prior to the Mahdi up- 
rising. The population of the town is estimated 
at 8000. 

GALACTIC CIRCLE. A great circle of the 
celestial sphere passing approximately through 
the centre of the Galaxy or Milky Way. Accord- 
ing to Herschel, the northern pole of this circle 
lies in declination +27° and right ascension 12 
hours 47 minutes. See Galaxy. 

GALAC'TODEN'DRON (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 
yd\a, gala, milk + 84v8pov, dendron, tree), or 
Cow-Tree. A tree of the order Urticacese, indig- 
enous to tropical South America, variously called 
Brosimum galactodendron (Don), Galactoden- 
dron utile (Kunth), imlo de vaca, and palo de 



GALANGALE. 



leche. When tapped it yields a milky juice which, 
in its native countries, is used in tea and coffee, 
turns sour on exposure to the air, and deposits a 
caseic substance. It is closely related to the 
breadfruit {Artocarpus incisa), the breadnut 
{Brosimum alicastrum, Swartz), and to the fig 
{Ficus carica). 

GALACZ, gil'lats. See Galatz. 

GALAGO, ga-la'g6. A genus of lemurs, native 
to the continent of Africa, where various species 
are scattered from Senegal (whence the name is 
said to have come) to Natal, none, however, being 
found in Madagascar, where other lemurs abound. 
They vary in size from the bigness of a cat to 
that of a mouse, and are some shade of gray or 
brown in color. They differ from the other 
lemurs in dentition, and conspicuously in the 
power of folding lengthwise, and laying close to 
the head, their unusually large and naked ears; 
their tails are long and bushy, and their hind 
legs of great length proportionately, due to the 
elongation of the bones of the ankle and foot. 
They are confined to forested regions, dwell in the 
trees, about which they leap with extraordinary 
agility, and where the smaller species are said to 
make nests resembling those of the mouse-lemurs ; 
but frequently go upon the ground, where their 
customary attitude is sitting upright on their 
haunches. They feed upon insects, birds' eggs, 
fruit, etc., searching for these things mainly at 
night, and spending the day curled up asleep in 
some tree-crotch or within the clustered fronds 
of a palm. They thrive well in captivity and 
are active and interesting when wakeful. The 
species longest known is that from Senegal ( Gala- 
go Senegalensis) , one of the smaller ones, also 
found throughout equatorial Africa; a closely 
allied species {Galago maholi) ranges from the 
low^er Zambesi to Natal. The largest species are 
those of the West Coast {Galago crassicaudata 
and Monteiri) ; the least, Demidoff's galago, is 
only five inches long. 

GAL'AHAD, Sir. The son of Launcelot and 
Elaine, and the purest knight of the Round Table, 
who alone was able to sit in the Siege Perilous 
and to recover the Holy Grail. He saw and 
touched the Lord's body and died. He is the 
hero of Walter Map's Quest of the Holy Grail. 
Consult Morley, English Writers, vol. iii. (Lon- 
don, 1887-90). See Grail, The Holy. 

GA'LAM BUTTER TREE. See Butter 

Tree. 

GALANGALE (AS. gallengar, from OF. 
galingaV, garingal, from galange, galangue, galan- 
gale, from ML. galanga, from Ar. khalanjan, 
kholinjan, from Pers. khulinjan, khavalinjan, 
galangale, from Chin. Ko-liang-kiang, mild ginger 
of Ko, or Kao-chow-fu, in the Province of Can- 
ton, from Ko, or Kao, name of a province + 
Hang, ■mild -\- Man g, ginger), Alpinia. A genus 
of plants embracing 30 or 40 species of the order 
Zingiberaceae, with perennial stems, terminal in- 
florescence, succulent fruit, and rootstocks which 
when full-grown possess aromatic stimulating 
properties similar to those of ginger, for which 
it is much used in the East. The pure galangale 
is the product of Alpinia galanga, a native of 
and cultivated in the Eastern Archipelago. It 
has a stem six or seven feet high, broad leaves, 
and a branched panicle of greenish- white flowers. 



I 



GALANGALE. e 

The rootstock, Avlien young, yields a kind of 
arrowroot, and is used as an article of food. 

GALANTHUS. A genus of spring-blooming 
bulbs of the ordei' Amaryllidaeeae, popularly 
known as snowdrops. The flowers, which appear 
often before the snow has melted, are normally 
solitary, pendulous, on scapes a few inches long, 
and with few exceptions white and green. The 
leaves, which appear with the floAvers, but develop 
more slowly, are gi'ass-like, and la.st usually 
until midsummer. Due to their easy culture, 
cheapness, extreme hardiness, and early blooming 
habit, snowdrops are general favorites. The 
bulbs are planted a few inches deep in good soil, 
frequently on the borders of lawns, in mid- 
autumn, and allowed to shift for themselves, 
which they often do to the great satisfaction 
of the grower where conditions are specially con- 
genial. The«e conditions are partial shade, cool 
soil, and moisture. 

GAL'AOR. Son of Pelion, King of Gaul, and 
brother of Amadis of Gaul. He is described a.s 
of a much more worldly temperament than his 
brother. 

GA'LAPA'GOS ISLANDS (Sp. pron. gk- 
la'l>d-g<^s) , (Sp., tortoise) . A group of small vol- 
canic islands in the Pacific Ocean, crossed by the 
equator and extending from about longitude 89° 
to 92° W., about 600 miles west of Ecuador, to 
which it belongs ( Map : Ecuador, A 8 ) . It con- 
sists of the larger islands of Albemarle, Inde- 
fatigable, Chatham, James, and Charles, and a 
number of smaller islands. The total area of the 
group is estimated at 2400 square miles, of which 
Albemarle occupies over one-half. The islands 
are volcanic in origin and mountainous. There 
are supposed to exist a number of more or less 
active volcanoes. The climate is less hot than is 
usual in regions of that latitude, and the flora, 
though not rich, is interesting, including species 
peculiar only to the group or even to separate 
islands. Turtles are very numerous and form the 
chief product of the islands. There is some sugar- 
growing on the island of Chatham, and cattle are 
raised to some extent. The population is about 
400. The Galapagos group was known as early 
as the sixteenth century, and was afterwards fre- 
quently visited by buccaneers, to whom the isl- 
ands are probably indebted for their English 
names. They were annexed to Ecuador in 1832, 
and explored by Darwin in 1858. 

The Galapagos Islands are of extreme interest 
to zoologists, in view of the peculiarities of their 
fauna, and the bearing the facts have upon the 
evolutionaiy history of animals. It was the 
observation of thorn, during the voyage of the 
Beagle, which more than any other set of facts, 
perhaps, led Darwin to his subsequent specu- 
lations; and they figure largely in the reasonings 
of himself, Wallace, luid all other evolutionists. 
\Vhih> in general the fauna resembles that of 
South America (see Nkotropical Region), it 
is remarkable for having almost no species in 
common with the continent, and a great paucity 
of all forms of life except birds. ITie lloni. of 
the group is scanty, and more than half of its 
s|>ecies are found nowhere else: so that it is 
natural to find that the land-shells, insects 
(mainly beetles), etc., are few and peculiar. 
Koptiles are represented by the famous giant 
tortoises, two s|>ecies of snake, and four lizards. 
Of the last, two are of genera confined to tlie 



1 GALASHIELS. 

islands. One is a large burrowing iguanid, and 
the other 'an aquatic modification' of the same, 
having a semi-marine life and subsisting on sea- 
weeds. The giant tortoises, now greatly decreased in 
numbers, were formerly extremely numerous and 
tame, and reached a huge size. (See Tortoise.) 
The islands were named after them, and there 
were several species, each inhabiting a separate 
part of the archipelago. The oniy mammals 
were a mouse and a rat, which there is much 
reason to believe escaped from some early ship, 
and had time to become modified by the time 
they were discovered by naturalists. Birds 
abound, and present many interesting facts. 
While their resemblance on the whole is to the 
avifauna of Central and South America, some 
extraordinary' relationships to the Hawaiian 
fauna are apparent. Forty-six genera, according 
to RidgAvay (1896), are represented on the 
islands, twenty-eight of which are water-birds 
wandering throughout the American tropics. 
One rail (Nesofelia) is peculiar, and a sand- 
piper is kno\vn elsewhere only in the Sandwich 
Islands. Of the thirteen genera of land-birds, six 
are also represented in South and Central Amer- 
ica, one (the bobolink) in North America, and 
four genera are peculiar: two of them are thrush- 
like birds, and two are ground sparrows. These 
genera include a large number of species not 
known outside of the archij)elago. A striking 
feature in all branches of the local zoology is the 
specific disparity between animals peculiar to 
the difi'erent islands, each of which has its own 
kind. The various facts lead to the belief that 
an immense period of time has elapsed since 
the islands were colonized; that this must have 
gone on very slowly and accidentally (except in 
the case of most birds), and at long intervals; 
and that to a great extent there has been no 
intercommunication of animal life between the 
various islands. The archi]>elago is also a most 
fruitful illustration of insular influences on ani- 
mal life and of the effects of isolation (q.v.). 
Consult: Darwin, A Naturalisfs Voyage (Lon- 
don, 1866) ; Wallace, Geographical Distribution 
of Animals (New York, 1876) ; Salvin, Transac- 
tions of the Zoological Society, vol. ix. (London, 
1876) ; RidgAvay, "Birds of the Galapagos," in 
Proceedings' of the United States Xational Mu- 
seum, vol. xix. (Washington, 1896), and its bib- 
liography. 

GAL'APAS. A great giant, in Malory's Morte 
dWrthur, with whom King Arthur fights, and 
whom he slays, by first cutting off his legs and 
then his head. 

GALASHIELS, gal'A-sh^lz'. A Parliamentary 
burgh and manufacturing town in the shires of 
Roxburgh and Selkirk, Scotland (Map: Scotland, 
F 4). It extends for two miles on both sides 
of the river Gala, above its confluence with the 
Tweed, 314 miles west-northwest of Melrose. It 
is the chief seat of the Scotch tweed, tartan, and 
leather manufactures. The annual value of its 
products is over $5,000,000. The United States 
is represented by a consular agent. In 1599 Gala- 
shiels was created a burgh of barony, and its 
woolen trade dates l>eyond 1778, when it pos- 
sessed thirty looms and three 'waulk' or fulling 
mills. The erection of handsome public buildings, 
shops, and dwelling-houses has greatly improved 
its general aspect in recent vears. Population, 
in 1891, 17,249; in 1901, 13,598. Consult: Craig- 



GALASHIELS. 



52 



GALATIANS. 



Brown, History of Selkirkshire (Edinburgh, 
1886) ; Douglas, History of the Border Coun- 
ties (Edinburgh, 1899). 

GAL AT A, ga-la'ta. A suburb of Constanti- 
nople ( q.v. ) . 

GAL'ATE'A (Lat., from Gk. TaXdrcta, Gaia- 
teia ). ( 1 ) In Grreek mythology, a Nereid, loved 
by Polyphemus. ' She was surprised by the latter 
in a grotto with her preferred lover Aeis, whom 
Polyphemus, in a fit of jealousy, crushed with a 
rock. Acis was turned into a stream. In other 
legends Galatea becomes by Polyphemus the 
mother of Galas. The myth has been a favorite 
subject for poets and sculptors of ancient and 
modern times. In English literature it is used in 
Gay's Acis and Galatea, Proctor's Death of Acis, 
Buchanan's Polypheme's Passion, and Austin 
Dobson's Tale of Folypheme. (2) A statue 
miraculously endowed with life by Venus at the 
prayer of the sculptor Pygmalion ( q.v. ) . ( 3 ) In 
Vergil's Third Eclogue, a shepherdess who throws 
an apple to her lover, Damoetas, and flees to the 
shelter of the willows, taking care, however, to be 
seen; hence a type of the coquette. 

GALATEA. ( 1 ) A pastoral, in prose form 
interspersed with lyrics, written by Cervantes 
in honor of his future wife, in 1583. (2) A play 
(originally spelled Gallathea) , produced before 
Queen Elizabeth at Greenwich, London, on Jan- 
uary 1, 1582. The scene is laid in North Lin- 
colnshire, but the piece is directly taken from 
Ovid's Metamorphoses, book ix. 

GALATEA. The challenger in the races for 
the America's cup in 1886, when she was twice 
beaten by the Mayflower. She was a steel cutter, 
built at Port Glasgow in 1885, from designs by 
Beavor-Webb. Her length was 102 feet, with a 
displacement of 157 tons and a draught of 13V2 
feet. 

GALATEA, TEiUMrH of. A beautiful fresco 
in the Villa Farnesina at Rome, designed and 
executed by Raphael in 1514. It represents the 
sea-nymph drawn in a shell by dolphins over a 
calm sea, and accompanied by nereids and cupids. 

GALATEE, ga'la'ta'. (1) A pastoral ro- 
mance by Florian (1783), the most successful 
of his works. It is drawn largely from a pastoral 
of Cervantes, which Florian supplemented with 
an additional book. (2) A two-act comic opera, 
based on the story of Pygmalion and Galatea, 
with music by Mass^ and words by Carre and 
Barbier, presented at the Op6ra Comique in 1852. 

GALATIA, g^-la^shi-a (Lat., from Gk. TaXa- 
ria) . The ancient name of a portion of Asia Minor ; 
so called from the Gauls (Gk. TaXdrai) who set- 
tled there. Early in the third century B.C. 
Celtic armies appeared in the Balkan Peninsula, 
and though driven from Greece by their defeat 
at Delphi, about B.C. 278, continued to terrify 
Thrace. About B.C. 277 the first bands entered 
Asia Minor on the invitation of Nicomedes, 
King of Bithynia, whose service they at first 
entered. They were from three tribes — Tolisto- 
bogi, Tectosages, and Trocmi. Of these, the first 
invaded ^olia and Ionia; the Tectosages, the 
interior; and the Trocmi, the coast lands of the 
Hellespont. Northern Phrygia and the border 
regions of Cappadocia were later conquered as 
a permanent home. Each of the three tribes was 
divided into four tetrarchies, and the twelve 



tetrarchs formed the supreme government, with 
a council of 400 as advisers. The Gauls did not 
settle in the cities, where the native population 
continued with but little change, and serving as 
mercenaries in the armies of the Greek kings of 
the East, also made the neighboring territories 
pay tribute to escape their ravages. A succes- 
sion of defeats at the hands of Attains I. of 
Pergamum, about B.C. 235, seems to have checked 
their incursions and confined them to their later 
boundaries between Bithynia and Paphlagonia on 
the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia, Ly- 
caonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west. 
Having sided with Antiochus against the Ro- 
mans, the Galatians were severely punished by 
the Consul Manlius, B.C. 189. They sided with 
Pompeius against Mithridates, and the Romans 
gave one of the tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the title of 
king. After the death of his successor, Amyn- 
tas, Augustus made the country a Roman prov- 
ince, divided under Theodosius into Galatia 
prima, with the capital Ancyra, and Galatia se- 
cunda, with the capital Pessinus. The majority 
of the Gauls of Galatia — probably those of the 
country districts — retained their old Celtic lan- 
guage' as late as the time of Jerome (fourth cen- 
tury), who says that they spoke the same dia- 
lect as the people about Treves; it is certain, 
however, that the ruling classes, like the original 
inhabitants, used Greek. Galatia was twice visit- 
ed by the Apostle Paul (Acts xvi. 6; xviii. 23). 
Just what part of the province was visited is 
not clear. In the latter passage what is meant 
is evidently the Lycaonian part of the Roman 
province Galatia, in which were the cities Derbe, 
Lystra, and Iconium, and also, probably, the 
Pisidian part, in which Antioch belonged. In 
xvi. 6 the meaning is more uncertain, since we 
do not know just where the missionaries turned 
northward; but here also it is impossible that 
old Galatia proper is meant. Probably the 
churches of Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, 
and Derbe, founded by Paul on his first mission- 
ary tour (Acts xiii. -xiv.), were among the 
churches to which the Epistle to the Galatians 
was addressed. In so addressing his letter, Paul 
evidently had in mind the relation of his readers 
to the Empire, not their various ethnic affinities. 
Bibliography. Droysen, Geschichte des Hel- 
lenismus, vol. iii. (Gotha, 1877); Van Gelder, 
Galatarum Res in Grcecia et Asia Gestce (Am- 
sterdam, 1888) ; Stahelin, Geschichte der klein- 
asiatischen Galater (Basel, 1897) ; Holm, His- 
tory of Greece, vol. iv. (London, 1898) ; Perrot, 
Exploration archeologique de la Galatie et de la 
Bithynie (Paris, 1863-72) ; Ramsay, Historical 
Geography of Asia Minor (London, 1890) ; 
Church, in The Roman Empire (London, 1893) ; 
Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire (New 
York, 1887) ; Hermann und Puchstein, Reisen in 
Klcinasien (Berlin, 1893) ; Texier, Asie Mineure 
(Paris, 1835). 

GALATIANS, gaifi'shonz. Epistle to the. 
One of the letters of Paul in the New Testa- 
ment. It is addressed, most probably, to the 
churches visited by himself and Barnabas on the 
first mission tour (spring a.d. 47-fall 48), which 
were situated in the southern part of the large 
Roman province of Galatia (q.v.) and wore com- 
posed predominantly of Gentiles, though evi- 
dently containing a considerable element of Jews. 
The letter was occasioned by efforts which were 



GALATIANS. 



53 



GALATZ. 



being made within the membership of the 
churches by outside agitators to bring about an 
observance of the ceremonialism of the Mosaic 
law — especially the rite of circumcision — as es- 
sential to salvation, and is consequently marked 
by a vigorous presentation on the Apostle's part 
of his fundamental doctrine of justification by 
faith and not by works. 

The main problem in the criticism of the letter 
is its date, which has been variously conjectured 
from early to late in Paul's ministry, and per- 
haps is impossible of absolute settlement. In 
view, however, of the close resemblance in thought 
which the letter has to the letter to the Romans 
and its lack of similar resemblance to the Co- 
rinthian letters, especially in view of the fact 
that, though the situation in Corinth was one 
which promised to become identical with that in 
Cialatia, there is a striking absence in the Co- 
rinthian correspondence of all warning against 
the serious dangers ahead, which the Apostle 
could scarcely have refrained from giving had he 
already passed through the Galatian experience, 
it would seem probable that its writing occurred 
between that of II. Corinthians and Romans — in 
other words, toward the latter part of the 
Apostle's lengthened journey from Ephesus to 
Corinth (spring- fall a.d. 55), possibly while he 
was engaged in mission work in the Province of 
Epirus (see Rom. xv. 18, 19). 

In objection to this argument it is urged that 
Paul wrote his letters to meet the particular 
needs of individual churches_, which needs might 
be similar in widely separate fields and at widely 
different times ; so that similarity of thought be- 
tween Romans and Galatians does not necessarily 
imply sequence in time of composition. This 
objection, however, lacks all force from the fact 
that the significant thing here is not so much the 
similarity between Romans and Galatians as the 
dissimilarity between Galatians and Corinthians 
in spite of the acknowledged similarity in the 
situations to which they were addressed. Com- 
pare the indifferent way in which circumcision is 
treated in I. Cor. vii. 18, 19, and the general lack 
of reference in I. and II. Corinthians to the 
vital difference between salvation by faith and 
by works, with the serious treatment of circum- 
cision in Gal. v. 2, 3, 6; vi. 12-15, and the ab- 
sorbing discussion in the letter of the grounds 
of justification. And yet notice how similar to 
the situation in Galatia the Corinthian situation 
had become by the time II. Cor. chs. x.-xiii. were 
written (IT. Cor. xi. 4, 5, 12-15, 21-23; xii. 11, 
12). Equally lacking in force is the objection 
that, according to iv. 13, "Ye know that because 
of an infirmity of the flesh I proaclied the Gospel 
unto you at the former time" [r6 irpSrcpov], Paul 
had visited these churches but twice prior to his 
writing, which would make it imj)ossible for the 
letter to have been written as late as the end of his 
third mission t(mr; since tlie NowTestament usage 
of tlie comparative degree in general, and of the 
phrase rb irpoTcpbv, in particular, makes it per- 
fectly possibh* to render it here 'formerly,' or 
even 'at the first.' In positive agreement with 
this dating is the peculiar phrase in tlie address 
of the letter (i. 1,2, "Paul . . . and all the 
brethren that are irith me unto the churches of 
(Jnlatia"), which, with the absence of all local 
color in the surroundings of the Apostle, points 
ratiier tc the situation of a journey than of a 



city residence. Further is the statement of iv. 
20 ("But I could wish to be present with you 
now, and to change my tone; for I am perplexed 
about you") , which would seem to show the writer 
as far removed from the readers and beyond the 
likelihood of a near visit to them. Finally, 
Rom. XV. 26 gives the list of churches contrib- 
uting to the collection which was being gathered 
by the Apostle for the Jerusalem church, and 
which he took with him on his last visit to that 
city. This list is evidently the final one, since it 
was directly after this that the Apostle began his 
voyage to the Holy City; but it contains no 
mention of the Galatian churches, though the fact 
of such a collection among them, evidently in 
process of being gathered, is referred to in I. 
Cor. xvi. 1. Evidently some time between I. 
Corinthians and Romans had come the rupture 
between the Apostle and those churches which 
stopped the collection. 

The letter is one of the group of four (I. II. 
Corinthians, Galatians, Romans) which have been 
almost universally attributed to a Pauline 
authorship. Bruno Bauer's rejection of all the 
letters of Paul (1850-52) as unapostolic products 
of the second century, made no impression as far 
as this group was concerned — the Tiibingen School 
constituting them, in fact, the standard of genu- 
ineness for all their New Testament criticism; 
while the recent attempt by the Dutch School of 
documentary critics to make the letter a com- 
posite writing by a post-apostolic author, com- 
piled largely from Romans, Corinthians, and the 
Book of Acts, has been generally considered by 
the critical world as not proven. 

BiitLiOGRAPiiY. Commentaries: Ellicott (Lon- 
don, 1854) ; Philippi (Giitersloh, 1884) ; Light- 
foot (Andover, 1890) ; Lipsius, in Hand-Vom- 
mentar sum Neuen Testament (Freiburg, 1893) ; 
Jowett (London, 1894) ; ZOckler, in Strack-Zock- 
ler Kommentar (Munich, 1895) ; Sieffert, in 
Meyer Kommentar (Gottingen, 1899); B. Weiss, 
in Die Paulinischen Brief e (Berlin, 1896) ; Ram- 
say (New York, 1900). Introductions: Holtz- 
mann (Freiburg, 1892) ; Godet (English transla- 
tion, Edinburgh, 1894) ; Salmon (London, 1894) ; 
B. Weiss, English translation (Edinburgh, 1888) ; 
Zahn (Leipzig, 1900) ; Bacon (New York, 1900) ; 
Jiilicher (Leipzig, 1901); MofTatt, Historical 
New Testament (New York, 1901). Discussions: 
Baur, Pnulus, English translation (London, 1873- 
75) ; Holsten, Das Evangelium des Paulas (Ber- 
lin, 1880) ; Ramsay, The Church in the Roman 
Empire (New York, 1893) ; Saint Paul the Trav- 
eler and Roman Citizen (New York, 1896). 
Bauer's attack is represented in his Apost^fje- 
schichtc (Berlin. 1850) and his Kritik der 
Paulinischen liriefc (Berlin, 1850-52). The 
Dutch School is best represented by Stock, Dcr 
Galatcrbrief (Berlin, 1888); the best reply is 
given by Gloel, Die jiingste Kritik des Gala- 
terbriefes (ErlangiMi, 1890). For general dis- 
cussion of the school, consult Knowling, The 
Witness of the Epistles (London, 1892). 

GALATINA, gJl'hVte'nA. A city in South 
Italy, 45 miles southeast of Brindisi (Map: Italy, 
N 7). It has a church dating from 1384, which 
contains the grave of Balzo Orsini. It markets 
oil, wine, and cotton. Population of commune, in 
1S81. 11.000; in I90I. 14,000. 

GALATZ, gjl'luts, or GALACZ (Rum. Oa- 
lati), A city of Rumania, in Moldavia, situated 



GALATZ. 



54 



GALCHAS. 



on the left bank of the Danube, between the 
mouths of the Pruth and the Sereth (Map: 
Balkan Peninsula, F 2). It is divided into the 
old and the new town. The latter is well built, 
and is the seat of a bishop and of the European 
commission for the control of navigation on the 
Danube. There are numerous extensive store- 
houses, grain elevators, a shipyard, and a large 
bazaar. Galatz is one of the leading ports on the 
Danube. The imports, for the most part, consist 
of textiles and metal goods; the exports are 
mainly cereals, cattle, and lumber. The annual 
shipping amounts to about 1,000,000 tons. There 
are numerous foreign consular agents. Popula- 
tion, in 1890, 59,143; in 1899, 62,678. Galatz 
has figured prominently in the wars between 
Eussia and Turkey. It was a free' port previous 
to 1883. 

GAL'AXY (from Lat. galaxias, Gk. yoKa^las, 
galaxias, milky way, from yd\a, gala, milk), or 
Milky Way. The luminous band, seen at night, 
which forms a zone encircling the sphere almost in 
a great circle. At one part of its course it opens 
up into two branches, one faint and interrupted, 
the other bright and continuous, which do not 
reunite till after remaining distinct for about 
150°. This great zone has occupied the same 
position in the heavens since the earliest ages. 
Its course^, as traced by the naked eye, following 
the line of its greatest brightness, conforms near- 
ly to that of a great circle, called the 'galactic 
circle,' inclined at an angle of about 62° 30' to 
the equinoctial, and cutting that circle in h. 
49.1 m. and 12 h. 49.1 m. right ascension. 
Throughout the space where, as above stated, it 
is divided into two branches, this great circle is 
intermediate to those branches lying nearer that 
which is the brighter and more continuous. The 
Galaxy is wanting in regularity of outline. Be- 
sides the two great branches into which it di- 
vides, it has many smaller ones which spring out 
from it. At one point it diffuses itself very 
broadly, and opens out into a fan-like expanse of 
interlacing branches nearly 20° in breadth. At 
the same point, the branches terminating abrupt- 
ly, a wide gap presents itself in the zone, on the 
opposite side of which it recommences its course 
with a similar assemblage of branches. At other 
points its course is irregular, patchy, and wind- 
ing; while at more than one point;, in the midst 
of its brightest parts, broad dark spaces occur. 
One of these, known from early times among navi- 
gators as the 'coal-sack,' is a singular pear-shaped 
vacancy about 8° long and 5° broad, occurring 
in the centre of a bright area overlying portions 
of the constellations of the Cross and Centaur. 
The 'coal-sack' occupies about half the breadth 
of this bright space, and presents only one star 
visible to the naked eye, though it contains manj'^ 
telescopic stars. Its blackness, which attracts 
the most superficial observer, is thus due to the 
contrast with the brilliant ground by which it 
is surrounded. The Galaxy was examined by Sir 
William Herschel with his powerful telescope, 
and found to be composed entirely of stars. Mod- 
ern photographic researches have added but little 
to Herschel's observations as to the structure of 
the Galaxy; but some of his conclusions con- 
cerning the form of the sidereal universe are no 
longer tenable. See Stab. 

GAL'BA, Servius Sulpicius (b.c. 3-a.d. 69). 
Roman Emperor from June, a.d. 68, to January 



15, 69. Bom December 24, B.C. 3, of a respectable 
family, he was- raised to the consulship in a.d. 
33, and in the administration of the Province of 
Aquitania under Tiberius, of Germany under 
Caligula, of Africa under Claudius, and of His- 
pania Tarraconensis under Nero, he distinguished 
himself for bravery, strictness, and justice. His 
friends had urged him, on the death of Caligula, 
to take possession of the throne, but he continued 
faithful to Claudius, and therefore stood high in 
his favor. In 68 Julius Vindex rose with the 
Gallic legions against Nero, and called on Galba 
to assume the Imperial dignity and thus rid the 
earth of its oppressor. Galba, who had been in- 
formed that Nero was contriving his death, came 
forward against him at first as the legate of the 
Komaii people, and it was only when he heard of 
Nero's death that he proceeded to Rome to take 
possession of the throne oflfered him by the 
Praetorians. Galba was now upward of seventy 
years old, and it soon appeared that his character 
had deteriorated, as, indeed, had already been 
manifested in his later administrations. Indul- 
gence to greedy favorites, ill-timed severity, above 
all, avarice, which led him to withhold the usual 
donatives to the troops, made him unpopular. 
The legions in upper Germany called on the 
Praetorians to choose another emperor; Galba 
thought to soothe them by adopting Piso as his 
coadjutor and successor; but he thus offended 
Otho, who, as administrator of Lusitania, had 
supported Galba, and looked to be rewarded. The 
Praetorians, who had received no donative on the 
occasion of Piso's adoption, were easily excited to 
insurrection by Otho, and the Emperor, having 
gone out to quell the rebellion, was cut down by 
the soldiers as he crossed the Forum. 

GAL'BANUM (Lat., from Gk. xaX/Sdn;, cTiaZ- 
hane, from Heb. khehenah, galbanum, from khd- 
lah, to be fat). A soft, ductile, white gum 
resin used in medicine like asafetida, principally 
in cases of chronic catarrh, and, especially by the 
Germans, in amenorrhoea and chronic rheuma- 
tism. Though sometimes applied externally in 
plasters as a mild stimulant in indolent swellings, 
it is generally administered in the form of the 
compound galbanum pill, which contains galba- 
num, sagapenum, asafetida, myrrh, and soft soap. 
It is brought from the Levant in tears or in 
large masses, which become yellowish with age 
and which have a peculiar balsamic odor and 
acrid, bitter taste. Although it is mentioned in 
Ex. XXX. 34, the plant from which it is derived 
has not been definitely determined. Since Poly- 
lophium orientale. Ferula galbaniflua, and Ferula 
rubricaulis, all of the order Umbelliferae, have 
been supposed to be the source of galbanum, it is 
highly probable that it is the product of an 
umbelliferous plant. But the confidence with 
which the species have been so represented has 
perhaps prevented travelers from making that 
inquiry into the subject which otherwise they 
might have made. Peucedanum Galbanum, a 
plant of this order found at the Cape of Good 
Hope, yields a gum resin very similar to gal- 
banum. 

GALCHAS, gal'chffz. The designation of a 
number of tribes in the plateaus and valleys of 
the Pamir and Hindu Kush, in Ferghana, the 
basins of the Zerafshan, Amu Darya, etc., who 
physically belong to the white race, and linguis- 
tically to the Aryan stock. They are generally 



GALCHAS. 



55 



GALEN. 



h 



thick-set, brachycephalic, and in some other re- 
spects resemble what Ripley (1899) calls "the 
ideal Alpine or Celtic European race" — a rela- 
tionship recognized by Topinard in 1878, and since 
then by Ujfalvy, etc. They are thus one of the 
farthest Aryan outliers in Central Asia. In relig- 
ion they profess, mostly, Islam of the Sunnite 
creed. Since their residence in this region their 
physical characteristics have been somewhat modi- 
lied by intermixture with other peoples of the en- 
vironment. Keane (1896) ranks the language of 
the Galchas as an independent branch of the 
Aryan family; some other authorities make it 
more nearly akin to the Iranian tongues. The 
anthropology of the Galchas has been discussed 
by Ujfalvy in the Revue d'Anthropologie for 
1879, and the Bulletins de la Societe d'Anthro- 
pologie de Paris for 1887, and more briefly by 
Ripley in his Races of Europe (New York, 1899). 

GALD6s, gal-dOs', Benito Pebez-. See Pe- 

bez-Galdos, Benito. 

GALE (probably connected with Dan. gal, 
Icel. gdlinn, furious, from gala, to chant). A 
strong wind varying in velocity (according to the 
teclmical classification) from 18.5 to 32 miles per 
hour; the corresponding wind pressures are 1.5 
and 4.5 pounds per square foot. Gales are de- 
scribed as moderate, fresh, and strong, or whole 
gales. On sailing ships, ordinarily, very little 
sail is carried in gales; when they are very 
strong, only close-reefed topsails, staysail and 
spanker. If running with the wind free, a close- 
reefed foresail may also be set. In fresh or 
moderate gales more sail is carried. See Wind; 
Beaufort Scale. 

GALE (in botany). See Candlebeeey. 

GALE, NoBMAN Rowland (1862 — ). An Eng- 
lisli poet. He was born at Kew, in Surrey, 
March 4, 1862; was educated at Exeter College, 
Oxford, graduating B.A. in 1884, and subse- 
<piently took pupils, as described -in the poem 
"June in London." Between 1888 and 1891 he 
published privately at Rugby several verse 
pami)hlets, including: Anemones; Cricket Songs 
and Other Trifling Verses; Meadowsweet; Vio- 
lets. In 1892 appeared A. Country Muse, 
which was followed later in the same year 
by a new series under the same title. These 
collections consist mainly of lyrics, in which the 
two motives of love and nature are united with 
great charm, recalling, indeed, the manner of 
Herrick. As representative of their scope may 
be cited from the second series: "A Thief;" "The 
Shaded Pool;"* "A Pastoral;" and "Leafy War- 
wickshire." He has since published: Orchard 
Songs (1893), concluding with "A l)efense," 
written in reply to tlie charge of undue frank- 
ness in dei)icting country manners ; Cricket 
Songs, a reissue (1894); .1 Juuc Pastoral 
( 1894), .which is an idyl in prose, with scat- 
tered verse; and Songs for Little People (1896). 

GALE, TiiEOPHiLUS (1628-78). An English 
Nonconformist divine. He was born at King- 
steignton, Devonshire, and was educated at Ox- 
ford. After preaching at Winchester Cathedral 
for three years, he was dismissed because of his 
Nonconformist views, and devoted himself to 
teaching. Shortly before his death he was ap- 
pointed to the pastorate of an independent con- 
gregation at Holborn. His fame rests chiefly 
upon the erudite work to the preparation of 



which he devoted the greater part of his life, 
and which is entitled The Court of the Gentiles; 
or, A Discourse Touching the Original of Hu- 
mane Literature from the Scriptures and Jewish 
Churches (1669-78), in which he expresses the 
view that all theology, philology, and philosophy 
may be traced to Jewish sources. 

GALE, Thomas (c. 1635- 1702). An English 
author. He was born at Scruton, Yorkshire, and 
was educated at Cambridge. Here he occupied the 
chair of Greek from 1666 to 1672, when he was 
appointed high master of Saint Paul's School, 
where he remained for twenty-five years. He was 
Dean of York during the last five years of his life. 
He was widely celebrated for his scholarship, and 
published the following works: Opuscula Mytho- 
logica, Ethica et Physica (10 parts, 1671) ; His- 
toricB PoeticcB Scriptores Antiqui{\Q15) ;Histori(F 
BritanniccB, Saxonicce, Anglo-Danicce Scriptores 
(1691); Rhetores Selecti. Demetrius Phalerus, 
Tiberius Rhetor, Anonymus Sophista, Severus 
Alexandrienus, Greece et Latine (1676). 

GALEAZZO, girlii-at''s6, Glan. See Visconti. 

GA''LEN (Gk. TaXrjpos, galenos) , or Claudius 
Galenus (130-201?). A celebrated physician, 
born at Pergamus, in Mysia. He first studied 
medicine at Pergamus, afterwards at Smyrna, 
Corinth, and Alexandria. He returned to his 
native city in his twenty-ninth year, and was at 
once appointed physician to the school of gladi- 
ators. In his thirtj'-fourth year he went to 
Rome, where he stayed about four years, and 
was offered, but declined, the post of physician 
to the Emperor. He returned to his native coun- 
try in his thirty-eighth year, and had scarcely 
resumed his ordinary course of life when he 
received a summons from the emperors M. 
Aurelius and L. Verus to attend them on the 
northeastern frontiers of Italy, whither they had 
gone to make preparations for a war with the 
northern tribes. He joined the camp toward the 
end of the year 169; but a pestilence breaking 
out, the emperors and their court set off for 
Rome, whither Galen accompanied or followed 
them. The place and date of his death are not 
known with certainty, but it is believed that he 
died in Sicily. 

The works that are still extant under the 
name of Galen consist of 83 treatises acknowl- 
edged to be genuine, 19 whose genuineness has 
been questioned, 45 undoubtedly spurious, 19 
fragments, and 15 commentaries on different 
works of Hippocrates. Besides these, he wrote 
a great number of works whose titles only are 
preserved, and altogether it is believed that the 
number of his distinct treatises cannot have 
been less than 500. We may divide his works 
into: (1) Those on anatomy and physiologj'; 
(2) those on dietetics and hygiene; (3) those on 
pathologj': (4) those on diagnosis and senieiolo- 
gy; (5) those on pharmacy and materia medica; 
(Q) those on therapeutics, including surgery; 
(7) his commentaries on Hippocrates; and (8) 
his philosophical and miscellaneous works. We 
have most of these works in Greek, the language 
in which they were originally written: some 
are, however, preserved in Latin translations, 
and a few only in Arabic. His most important 
anatomical and physiological works are: De 
Ann font ids Administrationibus and Dc Usu 
Partium Corporis Humani. His anatomical and 
physiological writings are by far the most valu- 



GALEN. 



56 



GALENA. 



able of his works. They contain undoubted evi- 
dence of his familiarity with practical anatomy; 
but whether he derived his knowledge from dis- 
sections of human bodies or those of the lower 
animals is uncertain. The latter is the most 
probable view, ( 1 ) because he frequently recom- 
mends the dissection of apes, bears, goats, etc., 
and (2) because he mentions, as something ex- 
traordinary, that those physicians who attended 
the Emperor M. Aurelius in his wars against the 
Germans had an opportunity of dissecting the 
bodies of the barbarians. His pathology was 
very speculative and imperfect. In his diagnosis 
and prognosis he laid great stress on the pulse, 
on which subject he may be considered as the 
first and greatest authority, for all subsequent 
writers adopted his system without alteration. 
He likewise placed great confidence in the 'doc- 
trine of critical days, which he believed to be 
influenced by the moon. In materia medica his 
authority was not so high as that of Dioscorides. 
Numerous ingredients, many of which were prob- 
ably inert, enter into most of his prescriptions, 
and he seems to place a more implicit faith in 
amulets than in medicine. His practice is based 
on two fundamental principles : ( 1 ) that dis- 
ease is something contrary to nature, and is to 
be overcome by that which is contrary to the 
disease itself; and (2) that nature is to be 
preserved by that which has relation to nature. 
Judged by modern standards, his ideas and prac- 
tice were of course childish. 

Before Galen's time the medical profession was 
divided into several antagonistic sects, including 
the Dogmatici, Empirici, Eclectici, Pneumatici, 
and Episynthetici. After his time all these sects 
merged into one, the Galenici. The subsequent 
Greek and Roman medical writers were mere 
compilers from his writings, and as soon as his 
works were translated (in the ninth century) 
into Arabic, they were at once adopted through- 
out the East, to the exclusion of all others. 
The Greek text has been published four times. 
The first edition was the Aldine, printed in 1525, 
in five folio volumes; the most complete edition 
is that of Kiihn, in twentj'^ octavo volumes, the 
publication of which extended from 1821 to 1833. 
Galen's minor works were edited 'by Miiller and 
Helmrich, and published in three volumes at Leip- 
zig (1884-93). Several of Galen's works have 
been translated into French or German. Kidd, in 
the Transactions of the Provincial Medical and 
Surgical Association, vol. vi. (London, 1837), 
gives a good account of Galen's anatomical and 
physiological knowledge. Consult Da,remberg,i/a?- 
position des eonnaissances de Qalien stir Vanato- 
mie (Paris, 1841), an epitome of which in Eng- 
lish has been published, from the pen of Coxe 
(Philadelphia, 1846). Consult also Ilberg, "Die 
Schriftstellerei des Klaudios Galenos," in the 
Rhenisches Museum fur Philologie for 1889, 1892, 
and 1896. 

GALEN, gU'len, Chbistoph Bernhard von 
(1606-78). A German prelate and soldier. He 
was born in Westphalia, and was educated at 
the universities of Cologne, Mainz, Louvain, and 
Bordeaux. After being coincidentally Canon of 
Munster and commander of a regiment on the 
Rhine, he was made Prince Bishop of Munster in 
1650. He was exceedingly ambitious, and strove 
to increase his power, both by reducing his sub- 
jects to complete submission and by extending his 



possessions without. By 1661 he had made him- 
self master of the city, and he turned at once to 
foreign alliances to carry out his designs. With 
a well-trained army he joined England against 
the Netherlands in 1665, but was forced to make 
peace in 1666. He joined Louis XIV, against the 
Dutch ( 1672) , and waged war successfully against 
them, and then turned his arms against the 
Elector of Brandenburg and the Emperor. In 
1675 he joined the Emperor against France; he 
next helped the Danes against Sweden, and se- 
cured the Duchy of Verden and part of the Duchy 
of Bremen; in 1677 he helped the Spaniards 
against the French; in 1678 he invaded East 
Friesland and extorted a large war indemnity. 
He died September 19, 1678, during the nego- 
tiations leading to the Peace of Nimeguen. In 
spite of his military activity he found time to 
introduce many meritorious ecclesiastical reforms. 
Consult: Tlicking, Geschichte des Stifts MUnster 
unter Christoph Bernhard von Galen (Munster, 
1865) ; Hiising, Fiirsthischof Christoph Bernhard 
von Galen, ein katholischer Reformator (Munster, 
1887). 

GALEN, Philipp. See Lange, Ernst P. K. 

GALE'TN'A. A city, port of entry, and the 
county-seat of Jo Daviess County, 111., 17 miles 
southeast of Dubuque, Iowa ; on the Galena 
River, which affords good water-power, and on 
the Illinois Central, the Chicago and North- 
western, and the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 
railroads ( Map : Illinois, B 1 ) . It has a public 
library, a fine United States Government cus- 
tom-house, and Grant Park, in which is a statue 
of General Grant. Galena carries on an impor- 
tant trade by river and rail, and has smelting 
works, shoe-factories, etc.; but the city is noted 
primarily as the centre of extensive lead and zinc 
mining interests. Lender a charter of 1852. the 
government is vested in a- mayor, biennially elect- 
ed, and a city council. The electric-light plant is 
owned and operated by the municipality. Popu- 
lation, in 1890, 5635; in 1900, 5005. Galena 
(named from the abundance of lead sulphide or 
galena ore in the vicinity) was settled in 1827 
and was incorporated as a city in 1839. Gen. 
U. S. Grant lived here from May, 1860, until the 
opening of the Civil War, and the Grant homestead 
still remains as one of the featrues of the city. 

GALENA. A city of remarkable growth dur- 
ing the last ten years, in Cherokee County. Kan., 
seven miles west of Joplin, Mo. : on the Saint 
Louis and San Francisco and the Kansas City, 
Fort Scott and Memphis railroads (Map: Kan- 
sas, H 4). It is engaged chiefly in mining, 
being the centre of an important lead and zinc 
region. The mining district, about four miles 
square, has 200 concentrating mills, and em- 
ploys 3000 men. Over $4,300,000 worth of ore 
was mined in the year 1900, and conditions are 
favorable to an increase in the output.. Among 
the industrial establishments of the city are 
lead-smelters, a large foundry, and a planing- 
mill. The government is administered by a 
mayor, who holds office for two years, and a 
unicameral council, which elects the deputy mar- 
shals and police. The mayor nominates the col- 
lector, sexton, and engineer: other officials are 
chosen by the people. Galena was settled and 
incorporated in 1877, and its population increased 
from 1463 in 1880, and 2496 in 1890, to 10,155 
in 1900. 



GALENA. 



57 



GALESBURG. 



GALENA (Lat., from Gk. yoK-ffviij, galene, lead 
ore ) , or Lead Glance. A lead sulphide that 
crystallizes in the isometric system. It occurs 
crystallized, fibrous^ granular, or cryptocrystal- 
line, and has a pure lead-gray color and a metal- 
lic lustre. Galena occurs in beds and veins, both 
in crystalline and amorphous rocks, and is one 
of the most widely distributed of the metallic 
sulphides. It is found in Freiberg, Saxony; in 
PHbram, Bohemia; in Spain; in Cornwall, Der- 
byshire, and Cumberland, England; in New 
South Wales, Mexico, and at various other locali- 
ties throughout the world. In the United States 
it occurs in caves or gash veins in stratified lime- 
stone, especially at various localities in Illinois, 
Iowa, Missouri, and Wisconsin. When pure it 
contains 86.0 per cent, of metallic lead; but it is 
usually accompanied by other metals, such as 
antimony, bismuth, cadmium, zinc, and especially 
silver. It is an important ore of lead, and is 
often worked also for silver, especially in Colora- 
do, Idaho, Montana, and other Rocky Mountain 
States, and in British Columbia. A coarse- 
grained variety of galena is used to glaze pottery, 
and is sometimes called potters' ore. See Lead. 

GALEN'IC, GA^LENIST. Words having 
reference to the controversies of the period of 
the revival of letters, when the authority of 
Galen was strongly asserted against all innova- 
tions, and particularly against the introduction 
of chemical methods of treatment into medicine. 
The Galenists adhered to the ancient formulas, 
in which drugs were prescribed either in sub- 
stance or in the form of tinctures and extracts, 
etc., while the chemists professed to extract from 
them the essences, or quintessences — i.e. sub- 
stances in small bulk, presumed to contain the 
whole virtues of the original drugs in a state of 
extreme concentration, or purified from all gross 
and pernicious or superfluous matter. Medicines 
prepared by decoction or infusion, as distin- 
guished from those prepared by chemical proc- 
esses, are still termed galenic medicines. 

GALEOMYOMACHIA, ga'l$-6-mi'6-mjVki-a 
(Lat., from Gk. yaAeofivofxax'i-a, Battle of the Cats 
and Mice). A Greek mock-heroic poem by 
Theodorus Prodromus. a twelfth-century monk. 
In its general features it is only an imitation 
of the Batrachomyomachia (q.v.). 

GA'LEOPITHE'CUS. See Flying Lemur. 

GALEOTTO, ga'liV-ot'td, Principe. Another 
title of Boccaccio's Decameron (q.v.), suggested 
by the name of the book, to the reading of which 
Dante makes Francesca attribute her sin with 
Paolo. 



GALERIE DES GLACES, ga'lr r<^' dA 
(Fr., gallery of mirrors). A famous gallery in 
the Palace of Versailles, France, one of the most 
magnificent rooms in the world. It is nearly 
250 feet long, 40 feet wide, and over 20 feet high, 
and is profusely adorned with paintings, etc., of 
the time of Louis XIV. It was designed for 
balls and fetes, and on particularly grand occa- 
sions was also used as the throne-room. In it 
William I. wjis crowned G<»rman Emperor in 
1871, (luring the siege of Paris. 

GALE'RIXJS, Valerius Maxi^hanus ( ?-a.d. 
311). A Boman Emperor (A.n. 305-11). He 
was born, of humble parent4ige, near Serdica, 
in Dacia : entered the Imperial army, and rose 
from one grade of military rank to another until 



Diocletian conferred on him, along with Constan- 
tius Chlorus, the title of Caesar (a.d. 292), and 
gave him his daughter in marriage. On the ab- 
dication of Diocletian (a.d. 305), he and Con- 
stantius became Augusti, or joint rulers, of the 
Roman Empire. On the death of Constantius 
at York (a.d. 30G), the troops in Britain and 
Gaul immediately declared their allegiance to 
his son Constantine (afterwards Constantine the 
Great), much to the chagrin of Galerius, who 
expected the entire sovereignty of Rome to fall 
into his hands. He died in a.d. 311. Galerius 
was a brave soldier and a skillful commander, 
but appears to possess no other claims to the 
respect of posterity. He hated the Christians, 
and it is believed that it was he who forced 
Diocletian to issue his famous edict against 
them, which caused the last of the Imperial per- 
secutions. It is highly proBable that his treat- 
ment of the adherents to the Christian faith was 
determined in great part by a politic opposition 
to Constantius and his son, who tolerated, and 
even respected, the new opinions and practices. 

GALES, Joseph (1786-1860). An American 
journalist, born in Eckington, Yorkshire, Eng- 
land. His father, Joseph Gales, the elder, was a 
printer in Sheffield, who was compelled to emi- 
grate to America in 1793 because of his repub- 
lican principles. The son was educated at the 
University of North Carolina, followed the trade 
of his father, and in 1807 settled in Washing- 
ton, where he became the assistant and partner 
of Samuel Harrison Smith in the publication of 
the National Intelligencer. In 1810 Gales be- 
came sole proprietor of the journal, and made it 
a tri-weekly publication, and in 1813, he having 
previously formed a partnership with his broth- 
er-in-law, William Winston Seaton, the paper was 
issued daily, and so continued until 1867, after 
the death of both publishers. For many years 
Gales and Seaton were the official printers to 
Congress, and the files of the National Intel- 
ligencer, containing a running account of the de- 
bates in both Houses, are one of the most valu- 
able sources of United States Congressional his- 
tory for more than a quarter of a century. Lender 
the title of Annals of Congress, Gales and Seaton 
published (1834-56), in forty-two volumes, the 
debates in Congress from 1798 to 1824, together 
with the more important documents and laws, 
and under the title of Register of Debates in 
Congress (29 vols.), continued the publication in 
similar form to cover the years 1824-37. 

GALES'BURG. A city and the county-seat of 
Knox County, 111., 43 miles east by north of 
Burlington, Iowa ; on the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa F6, the Chicago. Burlington and Quincy, 
and other railroads (Map: Illinois, B 3). It 
in the seat of Knox College (non-sectarian), 
founded in 1837 ; the scene of a famous Lincoln- 
Douglas debate of 1859; Lombard University 
(Universalist), established in 1852; and the 
Ryder Divinity School and Saint Joseph's Acad- 
emy (Roman Catholic). The city has an attrac- 
tive situation, and is widely known for its edu- 
cational facilities. There is a public library of 
about 25.400 volumes. Among the industrial 
establishments are the Burlington Railroad shop«< 
and stock-yards, brick-making plants, boiler niid 
engine works, iron-foundries, farniing-implenir'U 
works, and carriage and wagon factories. The 
government is administered under a general State 



GALESBURG. 



58 



GALICIA. 



law of 1872, by a mayor, elected every two years, 
and a unicameral council. The majority of sub- 
ordinate administrative officials are appointed 
by the executive, subject to the consent of the 
council. The city owns and operates its water- 
works and electric-light plant. Population, in 
1890, 15,264; in 1900, 18,607. Galesburg was 
settled in 1837 by a company from New York 
State, and was named in honor of the Rev. 
George W. Gale, who had planned the town as 
a site for a theological seminary, and as a rally- 
ing-place for 'free-soilers,' since the pro-slavery 
immigration was then threatening to make Illinois 
a slave State. The city was chartered in 1857. 
Consult History of Knox County (Chicago, 
1878). 

GALI, ga'le, Francisco (1539-91). A Span- 
ish navigator, born in Seville. The Viceroy of 
Mexico engaged him to find a harbor on the west- 
ern coast of America for Spanish vessels return- 
ing from the East Indies, and he set out from 
Acapulco with that object in view. He visited 
the Philippines and other neighboring islands, 
and Japan, and on his way home (1584) dis 
covered the present Bay of San Francisco. Lin- 
schot translated into Dutch Gali's account of his 
expedition, and included it in his work Track 
Charts of the Indies (1596), and Wolf made an 
English translation in 1598. From a French 
version of the same narrative a Spanish transla- 
tion was also made (1802), and there are in 
the National Library of Mexico fragments of an 
account of the expedition written by Gali, under 
the title Viaje, descubrimientos y ohservaciones 
de Acapulco d Filipinas. 

GALIANI, ga-lya'ne, Ferdinando (1728-87). 
An Italian savant, born in Chieti, in the Abruz- 
zi. Philosophy, archaeology, history, and more 
especially the science of political economy, were 
his favorite studies; but he first attracted no- 
tice by a clever squib on the death of the pub- 
lic executioner. This consisted of a collection 
of essays eulogistic of the deceased, in which 
the style of the president and leading mem- 
bers of the Neapolitan Academy was admirably 
imitated. His next publication, Delia Moneta, 
written when he was barely twenty, evinced 
his great learning and powers of reflection, and 
must be regarded as a valuable contribution 
to the science of political economy. In 1751 
he visited the chief cities of Italy, and was 
everywhere honorably received. On his return to 
Naples he collected a rich assortment of stones 
and volcanic matter of Vesuvius, which, accom- 
panied by a thesis, he subsequently presented to 
the Pope. On one of the stone specimens he en- 
graved the following suggestive inscription: 
"Beatissime pater, fac ut lapides isti panes 
fiant," and received, by way of answer, the rich 
prebend of Amalfi, for which he had previously 
qualified himself by entering into orders. In 
1759 he became secretary to the Neapolitan 
embassy at Paris. From his sojourn at Paris 
dates a voluminous correspondence with political, 
scientific, and literary personages of the day, an 
edition of which has appeared by Percy and Mau- 
gras (Paris, 1881). In 1767 he visited England, 
whose social and political institutions he studied 
deeply. On his return to Paris, he wrote another 
treatise on political economy, entitled Dialoghi 
sul commercio del grano, in which he argues 
against both the extreme protectionists and the 



pure free-traders. Being recalled to Naples, he was 
successively appointed to various posts of trust 
and importance. He died at Naples in 1787, leaving 
behind him rare collections of music manuscripts, 
cameos, etc. Consult: Diodati, Vita delV abate 
Ferdinando Galiani (Naples, 1878) ; Mattel, Ga- 
liani ed i suoi tempi (Naples, 1879) ; Conies, 
lettres et pensees de I'abbe Galiani (Paris, 1866) ; 
Du Bois-Reymond, Darwin versus Galiani (Ber- 
lin, 1876). Consult also, Brunetidre in Etudes 
critiques, vol. ii. (Paris, 1889). 

GALICIA, ga-lish^-4 (Ger. Galizien) . The 
largest of the Austrian crownlands, situated in 
the northeastern part of Austria-Hungary, bound- 
ed by Russia on the north and east. Bukowina on 
the southeast, Hungary on the south and south- 
west, and Austrian and Prussian Silesia on the 
west (Map: Austria, H 2). Its area is over 
30,300 square miles. Separated from Hungary 
by the Carpathians, the surface of Galicia in- 
clines toward the north, while the interior con- 
sists mostly of hills and elevated plateaus. The 
northern part is a gently rolling plain. Galicia 
is abundantly watered by the Vistula and its 
affluents, and also by the Dniester, which drains 
the southern part of the province. The latter 
flows southeast, and is navigable from Sambor. 
The Pruth also flows through the southern part 
of Galicia. The Vistula is navigable at Cracow, 
and, flowing northeast, forms part of the bound- 
ary of Russian Poland. Among its tributaries in 
Galicia are the San and Dunajec, both navigable, 
and the Bug. There are no lakes of consequence, 
but mineral springs abound, some of them of 
more than provincial repute. The climate, owing 
to the exposed northern position of the crown- 
land, is colder than that of any other part of 
Austria-Hungary. The winters are generally 
long and severe, while the summers are hot. 

Galicia is more purely agricultural than any 
other of the crownlands of Austria, no less than 
77 per cent, of its population depending for a liv- 
ing directly on the soil. The soil, with the excep- 
tion of some sandy and marshy districts, is fer- 
tile, and produces wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, 
etc. Flax, hemp, tobacco, hops, beets, etc., are 
likewise cultivated. The production of cereals is 
generally more than sufficient to meet the domes- 
tic demand, considerable quantities being in fact 
exported. Horses, cattle, and sheep are raised 
in large numbers. The unequal distribution of 
the land is shown by the fact that while one-third 
of the cultivable area is in the hands of large 
landholders owning estates of over 1400 acres 
each, about one-half consists of holdings of less 
than 14 acres in extent. This state of affairs, 
together with the industrial backwardness of the 
country, is chiefly responsible for the wretched 
condition of the agricultural classes. Most of 
the peasants are unable to make a living from 
their small farms, and are consequently obliged 
to emigrate in large numbers for a part of the 
j^ear to Russia, Russian Poland, and Germany, 
where they work for low wages, while their fam- 
ilies attend to the farms at home. 

The forests of Galicia occupy about 25 per cent, 
of the total area of the country, and yield large 
quantities of timber for export to foreign coun- 
tries, chiefly to Germany. The mineral industries 
are insignificant, with the exception of rock salt, 
of which there are extensive deposits, those of 
Wieliczka being famous. Petroleum is obtained 



GALICIA. 



in large quantities, and the refining industry 
is assuming very great importance. The manu- 
factured articles of Galicia are mainly the out- 
put of house industries. Weaving, brewing, and 
■distilling, and the production of small wooden 
articles are the leading industries. There is, 
however, an improvement in some branches of 
manufacture, notably in that of textiles. The 
trade is almost exclusively in the hands of the 
Jews, and is hindered by the Russian trade pol- 
icy. The transit business, nevertheless, is some- 
what important. The leading exports are petro- 
leum, salt, ozocerite, lumber, grain, cattle, and 
linens. In 1898 there were in Galicia 2000 miles 
of railway. 

The Constitution of Galicia dates from 1861. 
The Diet is composed of 154 members, consist- 
ing of three archbishops, five bishops, two rec- 
tors of universities, 44 representatives of the 
landed aristocracy, 20 representatives of towns 
and industrial centres, three from the cham- 
bers of commerce and industries, and 77 from 
the rural communities. In the Austrian Lower 
House Galicia is represented by 78 delegates, 
of whom 15 are elected by all voters, while of 
the remaining G3, 20 are sent by the large land- 
holders, 13 by the towns, 3 by the chambers 
of commerce and industry, and 27 by the rural 
communities. For the purpose of administra- 
tion Galicia is divided into 78 counties, and 
the two cities of Lemberg and Cracow. The popu- 
lation of Galicia in 1900 was 7,295,538, showing 
an increase of 10.4 per cent, for the period 1890- 
1900. According to nationality, as determined by 
the language spoken, the population is composed 
as follows: Poles, 53 per cent.; Ruthenians, 43 
per cent.; the remainder mainly CJerman. As 
to religion, over 45 per cent, are Roman Catholic, 
42 per cent. Greek, and about 11 per cent. Jews. 
In 1890 over 73 per cent, of the population could 
neither read nor write. Higher education is af- 
forded by universities at Cracow and Lemberg. 
The important cities are Lemberg, the capital; 
€racow, Tarnow, Brody, Tarnopol, Przemysl, and 
Kolomea. 

The original Germanic population of what is 
now Galicia was replaced at the beginning of the 
Middle Ages, at the time of the great migration 
of nations by the Slavic Poles and Ruthenians, 
who settled to the west and the east, respectively, 
of the RiveV San. In tJie twelfth century the 
principalities of Halicz (Galicia) and Vladimir 
(Lodomeria) rose to prominence from among a 
host of petty States. Galicia in general acknowl- 
edged the suzerainty of the dukes of Cracow, 
while Tjodomeria was under the control of the 
ruler of Kiev. The dissensions between the 
two principalities afforded an opportunity for 
the intervention of the Hungarians, the Russians, 
and the Pules, but such periods of foreign rule 
were brief. In 1198 Roman, Prince of Lodo- 
meria, succeeded in annexing Galicia to his do- 
minions, and .made himself virtually independ- 
«nt of Poland and Hungary; the two duchies 
were separated in 1215, but were once more 
united by Daniel FJomanovitch (1222-00), who by 
his skillful diplomacy in his relations with Hun- 
gary and the Pope intrenched himself firmly in 
power. During his reign and those of his imme- 
diate successors the country enjoyed remarkable 
prosperity, and attained to a high degree of civil- 
izjition. In 1340 the House of Roman died out, 
and soon after Galicia and Lodomeria came under 
Vol. VIII.--5, 



59 GALICIA. 

the sway of Casimir the Great of Poland, and 
except for an interval of a decade and a half 
(1370-86) formed a part of Poland till the 
first partition of that country in 1772. In that 
year the territory of Galicia, under the title of 
the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, was an- 
nexed by Austria, whose portion was increased 
in 1795 by the addition of West or New Galicia, 
Austria was forced in 1809 to cede West Galicia 
to the Grand Duchy of W^arsaw, and in 1810 
a portion of East Galicia to Russia, but it recov- 
ered possession of the latter in 1814, while the 
former remained in the hands of Russia, with the 
exception of a fragment which was erected into 
the Republic of Cracow. In 1846 the Republic of 
Cracow, which had become the centre of the 
Polish revolutionary movement, was suppressed 
and handed over to Austria, which incorporated 
it with the crownland of Galicia. The period 
since 1848 has been marked by a fierce struggle 
between the Polish and Ruthenian nationalities, 
the former seeming to retain their almost abso- 
lute ascendency, and the latter striving to win 
their share of political rights, and a voice in the 
government. Consult Jandaurek, Das Konigreich 
Galizien (Vienna, 1884). 

GALICIA^ Span. pron. g^-le^the-A. A politi- 
cal division of Spain, bounded on the north by 
the Atlantic, on the east by the provinces of As- 
turias and Leon, on the south by Portugal, and 
on the west by the Atlantic ( Map : Spain, A 1 ) . 
Area, 11,344 square miles. The surface is gen- 
erally composed of numerous isolated mountains 
and hills intermingled with valleys and elevat- 
ed plains, but there are few connected moun- 
tain chains. The chief river is the Minho. The 
climate is moist but not unhealthful. In some 
districts the soil is fertile and well cultivated. 
Agriculture and stock-raising are the leading in- 
dustries. Minerals are found in the mountains, 
and the Avaters along the coasts abound in 
fish. The unequal distribution of land and the 
backwardness of the manufacturing industries 
are responsible for the impoverished state of 
the masses, and the constant stream of emigra- 
tion to Portugal and the more progressive parts 
of Spain, as well as to North and South America. 
Population, in 1887, 1,894.558; in 1900, 2,073,- 
618. The inhabitants are called Oallegos, and re- 
semble the Portuguese rather than the Spaniards, 
speaking a distinct dialect. Administratively, 
Galicia is divided into the four provinces of 
Corimna, Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedra. The 
seat of the Captain-General is Corunna. 

Galicia was originally occupied by a tribe 
known as the Callaici or (Jallaici, whence the 
name of the region. It was first subjugated by 
the Romans in the time of Augustus. Early in 
the fifth century, when the torrent of Suevi and 
Vandals swept across the l*>'renees, Galicia, which 
then included old Castile, was occupied by the 
former. After remaining independent for almost 
two centuries, it l>eoame part of the Visigothio 
kingdom under Leogovild in the latter part of 
the sixth century. At the time of the Saracen in- 
vasion, great numbers of the Visigoths flwl thith- 
er. Tlie Saracens were driven out in 734 by Al- 
fonso the Catholic of Asturias. Galicia shared 
the fortunes of Asturias and of Le^in, and finally 
became part of the Kingdom of Castile. On the 
death of Ferdinand the Great of Castile and 
Le6n, in 1065, it formed for a few years an inde- 
pendent kingdom under his son Garcia. 



GALIGNANI. 



60 



GALILEO. 



GALIGNANI, ga'le-nya'n^. A family of Euro- 
pean publishers, of whom the most prominent 
were Giovanni Antonio (1752-1821) and his 
sons John Anthony (1796-1873) and William 
(1798-1882). For a time the father, a native of 
Brescia, lived in London, where his sons were 
born, but, removing to Paris, founded there an 
English library, an English Monthly Repository, 
and began in 1814 the publication of Galignani's 
Messenger. This paper, continued by the sons, 
was published under the old title till a few years 
ago, but is now known as simply the Messenger. 
At Corbeil the brothers set up a hospital for 
needy Englishmen, and in 1889, at Neuilly, the 
Galignani Home for distressed printers. 

GAL'ILEE. See Palestine. 

GALILEE. The name applied in England to 
a porch or chapel placed near the entrance to a 
church, beyond which women were not permitted 
to pass. In abbeys, for example, the monks came 
to the Galilee to see their female relatives. The 
term Galilee Porch was also used. The name is 
supposed to have been suggested by Mark xvi. 
7 : "He goeth before you into Gklilee : there shall 
ye see him," said to have been quoted by the 
monks in ushering into the Galilee the women 
who thus visited the abbey. A portion of the 
nave w^as sometimes marked off by a st^p, or, as 
at Durham, by a line of blue marble to mark the 
boundary within which women were not per- 
mitted to pass. There are fine specimens of gali- 
lees at the cathedrals of Lincoln, Ely, and Dur- 
ham, and the name is also applied to the little 
library in the central arch of the west end of 
Peterborough Cathedral. 

GALILEE, Sea of. See Gennesaret, Lake 

OF. 

GALILEI, ga-le-la'e, Vincenzo (c.1533-c. 
1600). An Italian musician and mathemati- 
cian. He was born at Florence, and was the 
father of Galileo Galilei, the astronomer. As 
a composer, he is chiefly important for his songs 
with lute accompaniment, which are generally 
regarded as introducing the monody subsequent- 
ly adopted by Peri, Caccini, etc., the accred- 
ited founders of the opera in musica. More 
valuable are his writings, the inost important 
of which are a polemical discourse on the works 
of Zarlino of Chioggia (1589), and the treatise 
II Fronimo, dialogo sopra Varte del bene inta- 
volare e rettamente suonare la musica (1583). 
He w^as an accomplished lute-player and violin- 
ist, and a prominent member of the historic 
coterie of artists whose rendezvous was the house 
of Count Bardi. His death occurred at Florence. 

GALILEO, ga'le-ia'6, GALILEO GALILEI, 
ga'le-la'e (1564-1642). An Italian physicist and 
astronomer, one of the founders of modern experi- 
mental science. He was born in Pisa, in February, 
1564, of a Florentine family more ancient than 
opulent. By desire of his father, a mathematician 
of considerable ability, he directed his early stud- 
ies to medicine and the prevailing Aristotelian 
philosophy, the dogmas of which he soon came to 
disbelieve. Later, however, while still at the Uni- 
versity of Pisa, he devoted himself to the study 
of mathematics and physical science. At the age 
of eighteen he made one of his most important 
discoveries. Happening on one occasion to ob- 
serve, in the Cathedral of Pisa, the oscillation of 
a lamp casually set in motion, he was struck with 



the apparent measured regularity of its vibra- 
tions; and having tested the correctness of this 
observation by comparing the beat of his own 
pulse with the action of the pendulum, he con- 
cluded that by means of this equality of oscilla- 
tion a simple pendulum might become an agent 
in the exact measurement of time. This discovery 
he subsequently utilized by the successful appli- 
cation of the pendulum in constructing a clock 
for astronomical purposes. His bias toward me- 
chanical construction and experimental science 
received a new impulse from his intercourse with 
a friend of his father's, Ostilio Riccio, who con- 
sented to give him systematic instruction in 
pure mathematics. Such was Galileo's absorption 
and delight in his new studies that his father at 
length sanctioned his abandonment of the art of 
medicine, in order that he might concentrate his 
powers on his chosen sciences. The first fruit 
of his geometrical investigations was the inven- 
tion of a hydrostatic balance, by which the spe- 
cific gravity of solid bodies might be ascertained 
with great accuracy. In 1589, the fame of Gali- 
leo's extraordinary learning having reached the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, he was appointed pro- 
fessor of mathematics in the University of Pisa. 
About this period he turned his attention to the 
then very imperfectly comprehended laws of 
bodies in motion; and in opposition to accepted 
notions, he propounded the theorem that all fall- 
ing bodies, great or small, descend with equal 
velocity. This soon led him to the discovery of 
the law regulating the motion of falling bodies, 
which was proved correct by experiments made 
from the summit of the leaning tower of Pisa, 
greatly to the chagrin of the Aristotelians, whose 
enmity to Galileo had now grown more decided. 
In consequence, he relinquished his chair at Pisa, 
and retired to Padua, where, in 1592, he accepted 
the invitation of the Venetian Senate to lecture 
on mathematics in the university for the space of 
six years. It is also said, however, that Galileo 
lost his chair at Pisa, from having ridiculed the 
mechanical pretensions of Giovanni de' Medici, 
son of Cosimo I. Galileo's engagement at Padua 
was eventually prolonged to the term of eighteen 
years; but so urgent was his desire to return to 
his birthplace, that he sought a restoration to his 
former post at Pisa, and was gratified by an 
assent being accorded by Cosimo II., with ex- 
emption from any but a voluntary exercise of 
the duties of professorship. During his sojourn 
at Padua, his course of lectures enjoyed extraor- 
dinary popularity; crowds of pupils flocked to 
hear him from all parts of Europe ; and he was the 
first to adapt the Italian idiom to philosophical 
instruction. Among his various discoveries may 
be noticed a. species of thermometer, a propor- 
tional compass or sector, and, more important 
than all, the construction of the refracting tele- 
scope for astronomical investigation. In 1609 he 
offered his first complete telescope to the Doge of 
Venice, Leonardi Deodati. by whom it was tested 
from the tower of Saint Mark. In the same year 
he constructed a microscope; and then com- 
menced his astronomical researches by means of 
his own telescope. He speedily concluded that the 
moon, instead of being a self-luminous and per- 
fectly smooth sphere, owed her illumination to 
reflection, and presented an unequal surface 
deeply furrowed by valleys and mountains of 
great extent. The Milky Way he pronounced a 



GALILEO. 



61 



GALIMBERTL 



tract of countless separate stars; and these dis- 
coveries were crowned by a still more important 
series of observations, which led to the discovery 
of the four satellites of Jupiter on the night of 
January 7, 1610 (though it was not till the 13th 
of the same month that he came to the conclusion 
that they were satellites, and not fixed stars), 
which he named the Medicean stars. He also was 
the first to note movable spots on tlie disk of 
the sun, from which he inferred the rotation of 
that orb. He returned to Tuscany in IGIO, where 
renewed quarrels with the Aristotelians dis- 
quieted and imbittered his existence. In 1611 he 
visited Kome and was received with great dis- 
tinction, being enrolled a member of the Lincei 
Academy ; but four years later, on a second visit, 
his reception was widely diflFerent, as by that 
time, in his work on the solar spots, he had 
apenly advocated the Copernican system, and 
was in consequence denounced as a propounder 
of heretical views. He repaired again to Rome, 
to demand an experimental inquiry into the 
soundness of his views ; but the Grand Duke, ap- 
prehending Inquisitorial dangers for his favorite, 
summoned him back to Tuscany; at the same 
time the Pope, through the famous Cardinal 
Bellarmin (a sincere friend of Galileo's), com- 
manded him to abstain from all future advocacy 
of heretical doctrines. Some time after, Galileo 
wrote his most famous work in the form of a 
dialogue between three fictitious interlocutors, 
the one in favor of the Copernican system, the 
second an advocate of the Ptolemaic, and the 
third a satirical personage who begins by agree- 
ing with the Ptolemaic arguer, but usually ends 
by being convinced by the Copernican, and then 
assists in belaboring poor Simplicio, the sup- 
porter of Ptolemaic motion. In 1630 Galileo con- 
trived to obtain the Papal imprimatur, which was 
subsequently revoked; but having got a similar 
authorization at Florence, he published, in 1632, 
this exposition of his opinions under the title of 
Un dialogo intorno i due massimi sistemi del 
mondo. Hardly had the work been issued, when 
it was given over to the jurisdiction of the In- 
quisition. Pope Urban VIII., previously Cardinal 
Barberini, and until now a friend and eulogist 
of Galileo, was led to believe that Galileo had 
satirized him in this work under the name of 
Sim])licio, as one who is careless about scientific 
truth, and who timidly adheres to the saws of 
antiquity. In spite of his advanced years and 
heavy infirmity, Galileo was summoned before 
the Inquisition to answer for his heresies. After 
a wearisome trial and incarceration, his judges 
condenjned him to abjure by oath on his knees 
his scientific creed. This he did. The question as 
to whether Galileo was actually put to the tor- 
ture is still open to dispute, though it is certain 
that he was threatened with it. His famous 
whisper, h] pur si muove ("But nevertheless it 
does move"), is a fiction. Galileo was sen- 
tenced to am indefinite term of imprisonment by 
the Inquisition, which was soon conunuted by 
l*()j)e Urban, at the request of Ferdinand, the 
(Jrand Duke of Tuscany, into permission to reside 
at Siena, and finally at Florence, should the 
])risoner's health require the change. In liis re- 
treat at Arcetri he continued his researches, 
even when hearing grew enfeebled and sight was 
extinguished. He died on January 8, 1642. at the 
age of seventy eight, and was interred by ducal 



orders in the Cathedral of Santa Croce, where a 
majestic monument symbolizes his great achieve- 
ments. 

Galileo's disposition was truly genial; he en- 
joyed with keenness the social wit and banter of 
his friends, and the pleasures of the banquet; and 
the readiness with which he offered or accepted 
atonement modified a somewhat irascible disposi- 
tion. The great deficiencies in his character were 
a want of tact to keep out of difficulties, and a 
want of moral courage to defend himself when in- 
volved in them. His biting, satirical turn, more 
than his scientific tenets, was the cause of his 
misfortunes. Galileo was of small stature, but of 
a robust and healthy frame ; his countenance was 
attractive, and his conversation cheerful. He 
loved art, and cultivated especially music and 
poetry. His style is nervous, flowing, and elegant. 

We may briefly recapitulate Galileo's most 
important contributions to physical science 
under the following heads: (1) The relation be- 
tween space and time in the case of falling 
bodies; (2) the path of projectiles is a parabola; 
(3) the isochronism of the pendulum; (4) the 
partial discovery that suction is owing to the 
pressure of the atmosphere; (5) the re-invention 
of Aristotle's theory respecting sound; (6) the 
invention of the telescope; (7) the discovery of 
the satellites of Jupiter, phases of Venus, and 
spots on the sun. For the nature of these dis- 
coveries, see Pendulum; Falling Bodies; Pro- 
jectiles; etc. 

The best edition of Galileo's collected works is 
that by All)eri (16 vols., Florence. 1842-56). 
Consult: Viviani, Life of Oalileo (Lausanne, 
1793) ; Brewster, The Martyrs of Science, or the 
Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler (Lon- 
don, 1846); Chasles, Galileo Galilei (Paris, 
1862) ; Cebler, Galileo und die romische Curie 
(Stuttgart, 1876) ; Berti, Copernico c il vicende 
del sistcma Copcrnicano, and II processo origi- 
nale di Galileo (Rome, 1876) ; Rossi, Del metodo 
Galileiano (Bologna, 1817) ; Favaro, Galileo 
Galilei (Florence, 1882) ; Scartazzini, Galileo 
Galilei (Milan, 1883) : Wegg-Prosser, Galileo and 
His Judges (Eng. trans. London, 1889) ; Giinther, 
Gcisteshchlvn, vol. xxii. (Berlin, 1896). 

GALIMBERTI, gii'l^m-bilr't^ Lvigi (1836- 
06). A Roman Catholic ecclesiastic and diplo- 
mat, born in Rome, where he was e<lucated in 
both law and theology. He taught theology in the 
College of the Propaganda, and at the l^niversity 
of Rome, and in 1868 was appointed Canon of the 
Lateran. By I-«o XIIl. he was made secretary of 
the congregation of extraordinary ecclesiastical 
iitVairs, Canon of Saint Peter's at Rome, and Arch- 
bishop of Nicn»a. He was sent on various em- 
bassies, and was the author of the award which 
the Pope as arbitrator made in favor of Spain, 
in her contention with Germany for the sov- 
ereignty over the Caroline Islands. When, as a 
result of the struggle of Bismarck against the 
power of the Catholic Church in Germany 
( Kulturkampf ) . the relations l>etween the Pa- 
pacy antl the (German Kmpire were broken ofT, it 
was (Jaliml)erti who was sent in 1880 on a mis- 
sion to Germany, with the result that the op- 
pressive 'May Laws' of 1872 were abrogated. In 
1887 he represented the Papacy at Vienna, and 
here also was fortunate in securing a satisfactory 
settlement of long-standing difl'erences between 
the Vatican and Austria-Hungary. In 1893 he 



GALIMBERTI. 



62 



GALLAND. 



returned to Rome, and was made a cardinal and 
prefect of the Papal Archives. 

GALINGALE. See Cyperus. 

GAIi'ION. A city in Crawford County, Ohio, 
80 miles southwest of Cleveland; on the Cleve- 
land, Cincinnati, Chicago and Saint Louis and 
the Erie railroads (Map: Ohio, E 4). It is 
primarily a manufacturing and railroad town, 
with railroad-shops, several carriage-factories, 
brick and tile plants, wheel, wagon, and gear 
works, lumber-mills, and a foundry. Galion was 
laid out in 1831^ and was chartered as a city in 
1878. Its government is administered by a 
mayor, who holds office for two years, and a 
unicameral council. The city owns and operates 
its electric-light plant. Population, in 1890, 
6326; in 1900, 7282. 

GALITZIN. See Golitsyn. 

GALIUM. See Bedstraw. 

GAU^, gal, Franz Joseph (1758-1828). The 
founder of phrenology, born at Tief enbrann, Baden. 
He studied medicine at Strassburg and Vienna, 
and settled in the latter place as a practicing phy- 
sician. He became known by the publication of his 
Philosophisch-medizinische Untersuchungen iiher 
Jlatur und Kunst im gesunden und kranken Zu- 
stande des Menschen (1791). But he acquired 
a much more extensive reputation by his lectures 
on the structure and functions of the brain, 
which he began to deliver in 1796. His views 
were so subversive of received doctrines on the 
subject of mind that the lectures were prohibited 
in 1802 by the Austrian Government. Along 
with his pupil, Spurzheim (q.v.), who became 
his associate in 1804, Gall quitted Vienna in 
1805, and during his travels through Germany, 
Holland, Sweden, and Switzerland, expounded 
his views in many of the universities and prin- 
cipal cities. In 1807 he settled as a physician in 
Paris, and there began lecturing and writing for 
the propagation of his opinions. On March 14, 
1808, he and Spurzheim presented to the Insti- 
tute of France a memoir of their discoveries, on 
which a committee of the members of that body 
(including Pinel, Portal, and Cuvier) drew up 
an unfavorable report. Gall and Spurzheim 
thereupon published their memoir; with a reply 
to the report, in a volume entitled Recherches 
sur le sy St erne nerveux en general et sur celui du 
cerveau en particulier ( 1809) . This was followed 
by their larger work, Anatomie et physiologie 
du systeme nerveux (1810-19), with an atlas of 
100 plates; but the two phrenologists having 
parted in 1813, the name of Gall alone is prefixed 
to volumes iii. and iv., and it alone is borne by 
a reprint of the physiological portion of the 
work, entitled Sur les fonctions du cerveau, et 
sur celles de chacune de ses parties (1825). In 
answer to accusations of materialism and fatal- 
ism brought against his system. Gall had early 
published a part of the work under the title 
Des dispositions inn^es de Vame et de Vesprit 
(1812). He continued to practice medicine and 
pursue his researches at Montrouge till his death. 
For a discussion of his ideas, see Phrenology. 

GAIiL, LuisE VON. See Schucking, Levin. 

GALL, Saint. See Saint Gall. 

GALOIiAGHER, William Davis (1808-94). 
An American journalist and poet, born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. He was the son of an Irish patriot 



implicated in the Rebellion of 1798. While he 
was still a child his family removed to Ohio, 
where he learned the printer's trade, and later 
contributed to country newspapers. In 1828 he 
settled in Cincinnati, and this city, with brief 
changes of residence, . was his home for many 
years. He edited several journals, particularly 
the Mirror and the Hesperion. Much of the 
verse and prose which appeared in these publi- 
cations was contributed by the best American 
writers of the day, and he constantly wrote for 
them himself. He next became connected with 
the Cincinnati Gazette. Upon his removal to 
Louisville, Ky,, in 1852, he began another paper, 
the Courier, which failed. During the Civil 
War he was in the employ of the Treasury De- 
partment, and subsequently was a pension agent 
and farmer in Kentucky. Gallagher was most 
influential in promoting literary interests in the 
West. E. C. Stedman has called him the 'West- 
ern Whittier.' Among his own works may be 
mentioned: "The Wreck of the Hornet" ; Errata 
(1835-37); Miami Woods: A Golden Wedding 
and Other Poems (1881) ; and The Area of Sub- 
sistence and Its Natural Outlet (1879). 

GALL AIT, ga'la^ Louis (1810-87). A Bel- 
gian historical painter. He was bom at Tour- 
nai, March 10, 1810. He studied at Antwerp 
and Paris, first exhibited at Brussels, and pro- 
duced, in 1833, his picture of "Tasso in His Cell 
Visited by Montaigne," which established his 
reputation. For the French Government he painted 
the "Battle of Mont Cassel," which is in the 
gallery at Versailles. His pictures, which are 
generally on a large scale, often represent sub- 
jects from the history of the Low Countries. 
Among his chief works are: "The Last Moments 
of Egmont;" "The Abdication of Charles V.;" 
"The Last Honors Paid to Egmont and Hoorn;" 
a "Temptation of Saint Anthony;" "Art and 
Liberty;" "Job with His Friends;" "The Crown- 
ing of Baldwin, Emperor of Constantinople;" and 
the historical portraits in the Belgian Senate, 
which show vigor in execution. He was a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy of Belgium, and of the 
academies of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, and Paris; 
he obtained a medal in France in 1835, and the 
decoration of the Legion of Honor in 1841. He 
died at Brussels, November 20, 1887. Consult 
Henne, "Louis Gallait," in Annales de VAcademie 
de Belgique (Brussels, 1890). 

GALLAND, ga'laN', Antoine (1646-1715). 
A French Orientalist and numismatist, born at 
Rollot, near Montdidier, in Picardy. After fin- 
ishing his course at the Lyc6e', he studied Orien- 
tal languages at the College de France. In 1670 
he accompanied the French Ambassador De 
iSTointel to Constantinople, and made two subse- 
quent trips to the East in the interest of sci- 
ence, collecting a large number of inscriptions, 
etc. In 1701 he was made a member of the 
Academic des Inscriptions, and in 1709 professor 
of Arabic in the College de France, The greater 
part of Galland's writings relate to numismatics 
and the East ; but what secured for him a last- 
ing reputation was his translation of the Arabian 
Nights, in twelve volumes (Mille et une nttits; 
contes arabes, 1704-17). This was the first 
translation of these stories ever made into any 
European language, and so little was known 
about them in Europe that Galland got the credit 



GALLAND. 



63 



GALLATIN. 



of being himself the author as well as the trans- 
lator. The translation led not only to the popu- 
larity, but also to critical investigations, of the 
remarkable collection. (8ee Arabian Nights.) 
Among his other writings may be mentioned : 
Paroles remarquables, bons mots, et maximes 
des Orientaux (1G94), and Les conies et fables 
indiennes de Bidpa'i et de Lokman (1724). His 
numismatic and archaeological writings will be 
found chiefly in the Journal des Savants, and the 
Memoires of the Academic des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres. 

GALLA OX, or Sunga. See Humped Cattle. 

GALLARATE, giil'm-ra'ta. A city in North 
Italy, 25 miles northwest of Milan, with a tech- 
nical school and important cotton factories (Map: 
Italy, C 2). Population of commune, in 1881, 
8400; in 1901, 12,000. 

GAL^AS, or Oroma {Gallas, Conquerors; 
Ilm'-orma, Sons of the Brave ) . An Ethiopian 
people in Eastern Africa^ south of the Abys- 
sinian plateau, numbering 6,000,000, and occu- 
pying 400,000 square miles of territory. They 
represent the purest type of the Ethiopian branch 
of the Hamitic race, called Kushito-Hamites. 
Keane divides these Ethiopian peoples into So- 
mali Hamites, Galla Hamites, Afar (Domakil) 
Hamites, Abyssinian (Agao) Hamites, Semitized 
and mixed Hamites, Himyaritic (Abyssinian) 
Semites, Arab (nomad) Semites, Negroes, and 
Bantus. He pronounces the Gallas to be the 
finest people in all Africa — tall, shapely, with 
high, broad foreheads and handsome faces. Their 
color is chocolate, the hair black and kinky. 
They are a pastoral and agricultural people; but 
their common dangers and mutual jealousies have 
made them warlike. They are divided into tribes 
and petty kingdoms, having two social classes — 
the aristocratic prutuma ('herdsmen') and the 
plebeian argatta or kutto ('tillers'). They are 
all more or less subject to the Negus Negusti of 
Abyssinia. In religion they are pagans, Moham- 
medans, and Sidamas — that is, members of the 
Abyssinian Christian Church. Consult A. H. 
Keane, in Stanford's Africa, vol. i. (London, 
1895) , where all the tribal subdivisions are given, 
with their exact locations. 

GALLAS, gill'lfts. Count Matiiias, Duke of 
Lucera (1584-1647). A German general in the 
Thirty Years' War, born in Trent. After serving 
as a mercenary in the armies of Spain and Savoy, 
he became colonel of an infantry regiment in the 
army of the Catholic League, and afterwards be- 
came one of Wallenstein's most trusted officers. 
For his services at the taking of Mantua (1630), 
in the War of the Mantuary Succession, he was 
created a count. He commanded the right wing 
of Wallenstein's army at the battles of Nurem- 
berg and Lfltzen. From selfish motives he op- 
posed Wallenstoin, intrigued against him at Vien- 
na, and after his assassination, in accordance 
with promises made him, he succeeded to his 
command. He won the decisive battle of Nord- 
lingcn over Bernhard of Weimar, in 1634; but 
after varying successes and failures in the four 
following years he was succeeded ns comnuinder- 
in-chief. in 1638, by the Archduke Leopold. After 
Leopold's defeat by Torstenson and the Swedes 
nt tiio second battle of Breitenfeld, in 1642, Gallas 
was ijirain placed in command, but was defeated 
in ITolstein and again superseded. He succeeded 



Hatzfeld as commander-in-chief after the latter's 
defeat at Jankau, but soon fell ill and was com- 
pelled to retire. 

GAL'LATIN. A city and the county-seat of 
Daviess County, Mo., 75 miles northeast of Kan- 
sas City, on the Grand River, and on the Wabash 
and the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific rail- 
roads (Map: Missouri, C 2). It has a trade in 
lumber, grain, live stock, etc., and is the centre 
of an agricultural district, with valuable timber- 
lands. Population, in 1890, 1489; in 1900, 1780. 

GALLATIN. A to^vn and the county-seat of 
Sumner County, Tenn., 26 miles northeast of 
Nashville; on the Louisville and Nashville and 
the Chesapeake and Nashville railroads (Map: 
Tennessee, E 4), It is the seat of the Howard 
Female College, opened in 1836. The town is 
surrounded by a fertile agricultural region, and 
manufactures flour, spokes, etc. The water- 
works and electric-light plant are owned by the 
municipality. Population, in 1890, 2078; in 
1900, 2409. 

GALLATIN, Albert (1761-1849). One of the 
most distinguished of American public finan- 
ciers. He was born in Geneva, Switzerland, Jan- 
uary 29, 1761, and graduated at the Academy 
of Geneva in 1779. In 1780 he and a friend, 
Henri Serre, came to the United States, and 
spent a year at Machias, Me., in trade pur- 
suits, with little success. Gallatin then moved 
to Boston, where he supported himself by teach- 
ing French, and in July, 1782, received per- 
mission to give instruction at Harvard- College. 
In the following year he explored, and invested 
in, lands on the western frontier, and in 1784 
established a country store in Fayette County, 
Pa., nea,r the Virginian boundary. He was in 
1789 a delegate to the State Constitutional Con- 
vention, and in 1790, as also in the two following 
years, he was sent to the Legislature by Fayette 
County, where he was conspicuously active in 
opposition to the Federal excise law, and where, 
also, the basis of his reputation was made by his 
report of the Committee of Ways and Means in the 
session of 1790-91. In February, 1793, he was 
elected to the United States Senate, and took his 
seat on December 2d ; but in the following Febru- 
ary the Senate decided, by a party vote of 14 to 12, 
that he did not possess the proper qualifications 
as to citizenship, it having been less than nine 
years, the time prescribed by the Constitution, 
since he had taken the oath of citizenship and al- 
legiance to the State of Virginia. Gallatin was 
active at the time of the Whisky Insurrection 
(q.v.), and although he urged submission to 
law and the refraining from all improper and 
illegal acts, nevertheless he went so far in his 
relations with the insurrectionists as to give him- 
self, both then and later, considerable political em- 
barrassment. He was, at the end of the trouble, 
elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, and from 
1795 to 1801 was a member of Congress, where 
he allied himself with those Republicans who, 
under the leadership of Madison, were opposing 
the administration of the Federalists. "In his 
first term," says his biographer, ^^tevens, "he 
asserted his point and took his place in the coun- 
cils of the party. In his second, he became its 
acknowledged chief. In the third, he led its 
forces to final victory." 

He served on important committees, and stead- 



k 



GALLATIN. 



64 



GALLAUDET. 



fastly opposed the administration, especially in 
the matter of the Jay Treaty, the increase 
of the army and navy, and the relations with 
France. Particularly did he attack the adminis- 
tration of the finances, a field with which his 
pamphlets showed him to be familiar, and his 
services and abilities in this direction were rec- 
ognized by Jerterson, who in 1801 made him 
Secretary of the Treasury, a post which he held 
until 1813. During these years a marked re- 
duction was effected in the national debt, the 
practice as to appropriations was made more 
systematic, the sinking-fund system was im- 
proved, and the preparations were made which 
rendered a war and an increase of the national 
debt possible without a disorganization of the 
public financial system. Gallatin also rendered 
important service in the negotiations which were 
concluded by the Treaty of Ghent (q.v.). Of 
his services in this connection, one of his biog- 
raphers, Henry Adams, has said: "Far more 
than contemporaries ever supposed or than is 
now imagined, the Treaty of Ghent was the es- 
pecial work and the peculiar triumph of Mr. Gal- 
latin." Thereafter, declining both a nomination 
to Congress and an opportunity to resume charge 
of the Treasury Department, he became Minister 
to France, filling the post from 1816 to 1823. 
Three years later he went to London as Minister, 
remaining one year, and concluding two impor- 
tant conventions. He' had been nominated for the 
Vice-Presidency by the Crawford Republicans in 
May, 1824, but withdrew in October to make 
room for Clay, and in 1843 he declined to enter 
Tyler's Cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury. 

After the conclusion of his diplomatic service 
he removed to New York (in 1828), and that 
city remained his permanent residence until his 
death. He was president of the National Bank 
there for some years; but the duties were light, 
and he had ample time for study and public ser- 
vice. He was much interested in the problems 
of public education and of finance', and took an 
active part in the movement which resulted in 
the founding of New York University; but his 
chief interest appears to have been in the study 
of ethnology, especially of American ethnology. 
He founded the American Ethnological Society 
in 1842, which for a brief period was a very 
serviceal)le agency for the promotion of such 
studies, and he wrote several valuable essays 
and monographs on ethnological subjects. He 
did not lose his interest in finance and in history, 
however, and in every way gave an example of 
scholarship and of public spirit rarely surpassed 
by any one in this country. 

He was twice married, first, in 1789, to Sophie 
All&gre, who died within a few months, and 
then, in 1793, to Hannah Nicholson, daughter of 
Commodore James Nicholson, whose death short- 
ly preceded his own. He died August 12, 1849, 
at Astoria, L. I. He published in 1796 a Sketch 
of the Finances of the United States, and in 1843 
memoirs on the American Rights to the North- 
eastern Frontier, and many minor essays on 
finance, history, and ethnology, his Synopsis of 
the Indian Tribes Within the United States;, 
East of the Rocky Mountains, and in the British 
and Russian Possessions in North America 
(1836), and his Notes on the Semi-Civilized 
Nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and Central Ameri- 
ca, with Conjectures on the Origin of Semi- 



Civilization in America (1845), being especially 
noteworthy. His Writings, which are of great 
value in the study of the political history of the 
United States in the first part of the nineteenth 
century, have been edited by Henry Adams (3 
vols., Philadelphia, 1879). Consult: Adams, 
Life of Albert Gallatin (Philadelphia, 1879), and 
Stevens, Albert Gallatin, "American Statesmen 
Series" (Boston, 1884). 

GALLAUDET, gal'la-det', Edwaed Miner 
(1837 — ). An American educator of the deaf 
and dumb, son of Thomas Hopkins Gallau- 
det. He was born in Hartford, Conn., and 
was educated at Trinity College in that place. 
In 1856 he became a teacher in the insti- 
tution for the deaf and dumb which his father 
had founded at Hartford, and the year follow- 
ing, at the instance of Amos Kendall, removed 
with his mother, Sophia Fowler Gallaudet, to 
Washington, where they organized and took 
charge of an institution similar to that at Hart- 
ford, known as the Columbian Institution. In 
1864 he was one of the founders of the National 
Deaf-Mute College at Washington, of which he 
became president. In 1867-68 he made an ex- 
tended tour of Europe, visiting the principal in- 
stitutions for the deaf and dumb, and publishing 
on his return the results of his investigations 
in a full and extremely valuable report. In 1880 
he was a delegate to the international congress 
of instructors of deaf mutes, held in Milan, Italy, 
and in 1883 was president of the convention of 
American instructors of deaf-mutes at Jackson- 
ville, 111. At the request of the British Govern- 
ment, he went to England in 1886 and gave in- 
formation on American methods of teaching the 
blind, deaf, and dumb, before a royal commission 
appointed to investigate and reorganize the sys- 
tem in England. His publications include: A 
Popular Manual of International Law (1879), 
and Life of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1888), 
his father. 

GALLAUDET, Thomas (1822-1902). An 
American clergyman and educator of the deaf and 
dumb, a son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (q.v.). 
He was born in Hartford, Conn., and graduated at 
Trinity College (Connecticut) in 1842. In the fol- 
lowing year he became a teacher in the Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb in New York City, which 
position he held for fifteen years. Meanwhile 
he was ordained a deacon and priest in the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church, and in 1852 he organ- 
ized Saint Anne's Episcopal Church in New York, 
in which service was provided for deaf mutes. 
In 1872 he organized and became general man- 
ager of the Church Mission for the Deaf and 
Dumb, and in 1885 founded the Gallaudet Home 
for Deaf Mutes at Poughkeepsie. He was chosen 
rector emeritus of Saint Matthew's Episcopal 
Church and vicar of Saint Anne's, which since 
1897 has been associated with Saint Matthew's 
Parish, and is used exclusively as a place of wor- 
ship for deaf mutes. 

GALLAUDET, Thomas Hopkins (1787- 
1851). An American educator of the deaf and 
dumb, bom in Philadelphia, Pa., of French 
Huguenot ancestry. He graduated at Yale in 
1805, and after pursuing theological studies at 
the Andover Theological Seminary, was licensed 
to preach in 1814. Instead of preaching, how- 
ever, he went to Europe in I8I5, to study the 
existing methods of caring for the deaf and 



GALLAUDET. 



65 



GALLERY. 



dumb, familiarizing himself with the systems 
of the Abbe Sicard in Paris, and of Braidwood 
and Watson in London. In 1817, with Laurent 
Clerc, a deaf-mute assistant of Sicard, he 
opened a school of instruction at Hartford, Conn., 
of which he continued to act as principal 
until 1830. He published, in addition to numer- 
ous pamphlets: Sermons Preached to cm English 
Congregation in Paris (1818) ; Bible Stories for 
the Young (1838) ; The Child's Book of the Soul 

(1850). Consult: Humphrey, Life (New York, 
1858), and E. M. Gallaudet (his son), Life 

(New York, 1888). 
GALL-BLADDER. See Liver. 
GALLE, gal. See Point de Galle. 

GALLE, AiTDKf: (1761-1844). A French en- 
graver and medalist, born at Saint-Etienne. His 
most famous medals commemorate the conquest 
of Upper Egypt, the capitulation of Vienna, the 
battle of Friedland (1807), the battle of Wa- 
gram (1809), and the marriage of the Duke de 
Berry. He also engraved vignettes for bank- 
notes, and the plates for a series of stamps for 
Government use. 

GALLE, gUKle, Johann Gottfried (1812 
— ) . A German astronomer, born at Pabsthaus, 
near Griffenhainichen. He studied the mathe- 
matical sciences at Berlin, taught for a time in 
a gymnasium, and was subsequently made as- 
sistant observer in the Berlin Observatory, of 
which Encke was then director. He discovered 
three unexpected comets, and was awarded the 
prize of the French Academy. But his principal 
achievement was the finding of the planet Nep- 
tune. It was to the Berlin Observatory that 
Leverrier addressed his request that a search be 
made for the hypothetical planet, whose place in 
the sky he had computed from the observed dis- 
turbances in the motion of Uranus. Galle made 
the search requested by Leverrier, and was the 
first to see the new planet, September 23, 1846. 
Galle was also perhaps the first astronomer to 
advocate (1875) the use of planetoid observa- 
tions for the determination of the solar parallax 
(see Parallax, Solar) — a method now consid- 
ered the best known. His researches on this 
subject were published at Breslau, where he had 
been made director of the observatory and pro- 
fessor of astronomy in 1851. Galle's published 
works include: GrundsUge der schlesischen Kli- 
matologie ( 1857 ) ; Ueher die Verhesserung der 
Planetenelemente (1858); Ueher die Bestim- 
mung der SonnenparaJlaxe (1875) ; Mitteilungen 
der Bresl/iucr Stcrnwarte (1870); FcrxmV/jnts 
der hishrr herechneten Kometenhahnen (1894). 
His original contributions were published, for the 
moat part, in scientific periodicals. 

GALOiEAT. See Galliot. 

GALLEGO, gft-lya'gd, Juan Nicasio (1777- 
185.')). A Sj)anish poet, born at Zamora. He 
took orders in 1800, and became court chaplain 
in 1805. On the uprising of 1808 he wrote what 
is probably his best-knoNvn poem, "Al dos de 
Mayo," a stirring patriotic ode. After the 
restoration of Ferdinand VI 1. he was imprisoned 
for three years, but the Revolution of 1820 set 
him at liberty. Uo became the perpetual secre- 
tary of the Spanish Academy. His works are 
few, but hold a high place in the literature of 
his country, on account of their excellent style 



and intense patriotism. A posthumous edition 
of his Obras poeiicas was published in 1856. 

GALLENGA, gal-len-'ga, Antonio (1810-95). 
An Italian historian and publicist, born at Par- 
ma. He began the study of medicine at the 
University of Parma, but soon abandoned it for 
a literary career. After the insurrection of 1831, 
in which he played a part, he had to go into 
exile, and visited France and the United States. 
Returning to Italy, he became prominent in the 
councils of Mazzini's party, and was chosen as 
the agent to assassinate the King of Sardinia, 
Charles Albert. He could not bring himself to 
the performance of this cowardly deed, and in 
1838 withdrew to London. In 1843 he was given 
the chair of Italian literature in University 
College, and three years later he became a natu- 
ralized British citizen. In Italy again on the 
uprising of 1848, he left it when the fortunes 
of the revolutionists sank, only to return in 1854, 
when he was elected a Deputy to the Sardinian 
Parliament. The following year he had his 
History of Piedmont published at London, and 
aroused such dissensions in Mazzini's party by 
his frank statement of facts as to the intended 
assassination of Charles Albert that he had to 
resign his place in the Parliament. He returned 
to Italy in 1858, reentered the Parliament at 
Turin as a Deputy, and in 1874 he accompanied 
King Victor Emmanuel to Berlin and Vienna. Ho 
was long a correspondent of the London Times 
both in Italy and in other countries, including 
America, Denmark, and Spain. In addition to the 
History of Piedmont, he wrote, among other 
works: Oltremonte ed oltremare, Canti di un pel- 
legrino (1844) ; Italy, Past and Present (1846) ; 
Scenes of Italian Life (1850); Italy in 18^8 
(1851); Tux) Years of the Eastern Question 
( 1877) ; The Pope and the King ( 1878) ; L'ltalia 
presente e futura (1886), His Practical Gram- 
mar of Italian for the use of English-speaking 
students has passed through many editions since 
1851. He contributed many articles to English 
reviews. 

GALOiEON (from Sp. galedn. It. galeone, 
augmentative of galea, galley) . A name formerly 
applied to ships of war of three or four gun-decks, 
but subsequently transferred to the large mer- 
chant vessels which every year brought to Spain 
the gold, silver, and other wealth contributed 
by its Mexican and South American colonies. 
They were armed, but being heavy, unmanageable 
vessels, and containing cargoes of immense value, 
were eagerly sought after as prizes whenever a 
war broke out. 

GALLERY (OF. gallerie, galerie, Fr. galerie; 
probably a special use of OF. gallerie, galerie^ 
mirth, from gale, festivity, from AS. pa/, OHG., 
Ger. gcil, wanton). A word with several appli- 
cations in architecture. (1) A long open struc- 
ture in the upi>er part of a building, whether 
projecting or not, inside or outside; (2) a long 
passage, a corridor or narrow hall connecting 
other apartments; (3) a large, well-lighted, long 
hall for exhibiting collections of paintings, sculp- 
tures, and other works of art; (4) a large struc- 
ture, usually of glass, used for public purposes, 
shops, etc. Of class ( 1 ) interesting examples 
are, for outside galleries, the famous outside 
facade galleries on French Gothic cathedrals, 
such as the galerie des rois at Rheinis, Amiens, 



GALLERY. 



66 



GALLIC ACID. 



and Paris, usually serving as a practical passage- 
way; for inside galleries, the second-story gal- 
leries in so many mediaeval churches, often 
termed triforium galleries, the projecting rood- 
lofts, or singing galleries, extending across the 
inside facade, and the projecting galleries in 
many modern churches, theatres, opera-houses, 
etc. The arrangement of galleries in tiers one 
over the other, now so much used in churches, 
theatres, etc., is entirely modern, dating from the 
seventeenth century. Of class (2) early and 
most interesting instances are the low and richly 
paneled gallery-halls of the old chateaux and 
manor houses, especially in English mansions of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, where 
family portraits and collections of arms, armor, 
furniture, and bric-a-brac were kept; but even 
more strictly to it belong such galleries as the 
Bridge of Sighs, in Venice, or the gallery of the 
Sainte Chapelle and of the Palais de Justice in 
Paris, connecting two buildings together. Here 
should be mentioned such long galleries as those 
connecting the Pitti Palace and the Palazzo 
Yecchio. Class (3) is related to the chateau 
gallery, being a hall largely for public instead of 
private exhibition, but differs fundamentally in 
having the name applied to the entire building 
containing the several exhibition galleries. We 
are familiar with the Uffizi, Borghese, Louvre, 
National, and other such galleries. Finally, to 
class (4) belong the very modern and colossal 
glass galleries at Naples and Milan and those 
of the Palais Royal and some of the German 
cities, which are in reality streets roofed with 
glass. Some galleries can hardly be classified, 
such as the famous Gallery of Mirrors at Ver- 
sailles. 

GALLERY. In military fortifications, a cov- 
ered passage, cut through the earth or masonry 
in the defenses, whereby effective musketry fire 
can be directed through loopholes. Galleries have 
been occasionally used in the counterscarps of dry 
ditches, enabling the defenders to maintain a 
flanking fire upon the ditch. They are also used 
in the construction of military mines, and form 
an important part of fortresses like Gibraltar, 
where there are galleries of communication and 
connection. See Fortification; Minesi and 
Mining, Military. 

GALLEY (OF. galee, galie, It. galea, from 
ML. galea, galeia, MGk.ydkia, galea, ya\ata,galaia, 
galley). The name generally applied to vessels 
using sails and oars. The ships of the ancients 
were practically all of ^ this character, hence they 
are generally spoken of as galleys. A bas-relief 
at Thebes represents a naval victory gained by the 
Egyptians over the East Indians about B.C. 1400. 
The vessels shown have oars and sails, and the 
Egyptians had figureheads of metal in the shape 
of a lion's head. Herodotus says that the Egyp- 
tian war galleys had soldiers on board as the 
fighting force, archers and sling-men being sta- 
tioned on the raised platforms at bow and stern, 
while pikes, spears, javelins, battle-axes, fal- 
chions, swords, and other weapons were kept in 
convenient places for use in boarding or repelling 
boarders. The sail was square and carried on a 
yard on the single mast. The Egyptians never 
were such bold navigators as the Phoenicians, and 
their vessels were probably inferior in sea-going 
qualities to the Phoenician ships. After having 
been for centuries masters of the seas, the Phoeni- 



cians became subject to Egypt, and in B.C. 610, 
by order of the Egyptian King, Necho, a Phoeni- 
cian expedition is said to have circumnavigated 
Africa. The advantages possessed by a war ves- 
sel propelled by oars over one at the mercy of the 
winds was early realized, and to attain the great- 
est possible speed the number of banks of oars- 
was increased to two, three, four, and five. The 
increase beyond three seems to have resulted in 
very little gain, and the trireme remained for 
many centuries the standard type of war galley 
of the first class. In merchant galleys sails 
formed the principal motive device, and oars were 
auxiliary; in war galleys the reverse was the 
case. 

The more modern galley appeared after sail- 
power had begun to assert its supremacy as the 
propelling force of sea-going vessels. Its de- 
velopment reached its highest point at the end 
of the sixteenth century, Lepanto being the last 
great sea fight in which the galley appeared as 
the most powerful type of war-ship. These vessels 
carried firearms, guns, and small arms, and had 
fairly good sail-power as well as oars. During 
the Middle Ages the oars of galleys were largely 
manned by infidel prisoners and criminals, and in 
France convicts were used in the large boat& 
working about the arsenals until recent times. 
Row-galleys, fitted as gunboats, were extensively 
used during the Napoleonic wars in operations, 
and caused much trouble to the British fieet. 
Like all galleys designed especially for oar- 
propulsion, they were long and narrow, the length 
being seven or eight times the beam, and they 
were, therefore, very fast. In the British Navy 
the term galley is applied to the captain's boat, 
or gig, and other similar boats built for speecl 
under oars. For further information, consult: 
Duemichen, Die Flotte einer iigyptien Koenigin, 
etc. (Leipzig, 1868), Eng. trans., Fleet of an 
Egyptian Queen; Rawlinson, Ancient Monarchies 
(London, 1862-76) ; Parker, Fleets of the World: 
The Galley Period (New York, 1877); Chabas,. 
Etudes sur Vantiquite historique (Paris, 1873) ; 
Jal, Archeologie navale (Paris, 1840) ; Bouet- 
Willaumez, Batailles de terre et de mer (Paris^ 
1855). See Ships. 

GALLEY SLAVE. See Bagnes. 

GALL-GNAT. A minute fly of the family 
Cecidomyiidse, which makes galls ( q.v. ) on plants. 

GALLIARD, ga'yar' (Fr., merry). An old 
French dance for two dancers. It was of a 
stately character, written in three-quarter time^ 
and was one of the precursors of the minuet. 

GALLIC ACID (from Lat. galla, gall-nut), 
CgHa ( OH ) 3COOH. An organic acid that exists 
ready-formed in small quantity in gall-nuts, in 
tea, in valonia (the acorn-cup of Quercus agi- 
lops), in divi-divi (the pod of Ccesalpina cori- 
aria) , in sumac, and in other vegetable prod- 
ucts. It is formed from tannin when the latter 
is boiled with dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric 
acid, or, much more slowly, when gall-nuts, re- 
duced to a thin paste with water, are exposed to 
the air. Gallic acid has also been prepared arti- 
ficially by chemical methods. It may be purified 
by dissolving in hot water, decolorizing the solu- 
tion with animal charcoal, and setting it away to 
crystallize. Pure gallic acid is a colorless sub- 
stance, crystallizing in the form of silky needles 
that are slightly soluble in cold water, but require 



GALLIC ACID. 



67 



GALLICAN CHURCH. 



only three parts of hot water for their solution, 
and are also freely soluble in alcohol and in 
ether. When heated to the temperature of 220° 
C, gallic acid melts and decomposes into pyro- 
gallic and carbonic acids, the reaction taking 
place according to the following chemical equa- 
tion: 

CeH2(OH)3COOH = CeH3(0H)3 + CO^ 
Gallic acid Pyrogallic Carbonic 

a<iid acid 

Solutions of gallic acid have an acid reaction 
and a sour, astringent taste; iron salts impart 
to them a blue-black color, and, therefore, gallic 
acid has been employed in the manufacture of 
ink. Further, as the acid possesses the property 
of reducing the salts of gold, silver, and platinum, 
it has been extensively 'employed in developing 
photographs. Gallic acid is also sometimes used 
in medicine; and finally, since solutions of its 
alkali salts rapidly absorb oxygen, the acid may 
be usefully employed in the chemical laboratory. 

GALLICAN CHURCH. The National Church 
of France. The term is frequently used, how- 
ever, not so much in its historical or geographical 
sense as in the narrower signification attached to 
the word Gallicanism — a school of thought which 
asserts certain principles of more or less inde- 
pendent Church government and prerogatives in 
administration claimed by the National Church 
as opposed to certain rights of the Pope. The 
fact that France was the 'eldest daughter of the 
Church,' one of the countries in which the 
Christian faith became widely diffused even in 
the lifetime of the Apostles, gave the adherents of 
this view a powerful tradition of Church privi- 
leges to which they might appeal. Christianity 
flourished very early among the Greek colonies 
in the south of Gaul, as the old tradition of 
the visit of Lazarus to this region attests. In 
the numerous and populous towns along the 
Rhone and its tributaries, there arose important 
congregations professing Christianity. When per- 
secution came, the Gallic Christians had their 
full share of hardships. They were closely in 
touch with those who shared the same faith in 
other parts of the world, and one of the most 
touching monuments of early Christian literature 
is the letter of the churches of Lyons and Vienna 
to the brethren in Asia concerning the martyrs 
of these churches, which Eusebius has preserved 
in his Ecclesiastical Uistory. The works of 
Iren.TiUS, Bishop of Lyons (died c.202), are im- 
portant contributions to the history of Christian 
doctrine. In the next two centuries Sulpicius 
Severus, Hilary of Poitiers, Hilary of Aries, 
Vincent of I^'rins, Prosper, Victor, Eucherius, 
Salvian, and Gregory of Tours continued a tra- 
dition of great churchmen, of which Gaul was 
not without reason proud. The hierarchical or- 
ganization of the Church of Gaul was, from the 
earliest times, the most complete and regular of 
all Western Christendom. As a result of this 
tradition of zeal and faith, many privileges were 
granted to it, and later on, the kings of France 
l)ogan to make tliemselves more and more felt in 
ecclesiastical affairs. This was an almost in- 
evitable consequence of the close relations be- 
tween the Crown and the Church dignitaries, 
most of whom held the temporalities of their 
benefices by the ordinary feudal tenure; the royal 
authority soon came to assert a correlative claim 
to certain privileges in ecclesiastical matters. 



There were not wanting ecclesiastics who would 
compound with their consciences in order to up- 
hold the claims of their sovereign, and for several 
centuries after the death of Charlemagne, kings 
and bishops at times played into each other's 
hands. 

In order to secure subservient ecclesiastics, 
monarchs insisted on the privilege of nominating 
to bishoprics. The wealth of the more promi- 
nent sees was very great, and rulers contrived 
at times to have their brothers, or even illegiti- 
mate relatives, nominated to them. Where such 
imworthy prelates ruled their flocks without due 
regard to Church principles, the only resort was 
an appeal to Rome ; and that usually took a con- 
siderable time, during which abuses seemed ta 
acquire the force of right. As the result of these 
appeals and their not infrequent decision against 
the wish of the King, there came a protest 
against having such causes decided outside the 
realm. More than one of the French sovereigns 
engaged in a conflict with the Roman see; and 
these conflicts naturally called out a division of 
opinion among the members of the Church of 
France, one party supporting the Papal claims, 
while the other maintained the alleged pre- 
rogatives of the French Crown and privileges 
of the National Church. The great contest be- 
tween Philip the Fair and Boniface VIII. was a 
turning-point in the constitutional history of 
Europe — the beginning of a reaction on the part 
of the laity against ecclesiastical predominance, 
which, like most reactions, went further in the 
opposite direction; and the State succeeded in 
transferring to itself the greater part of the ex- 
ternal dominion enjoyed previously by the 
hierarchy. 

Gradually the principles of what is known as 
Gallicanism took definite shape, ev€i> thus early. 
Throughout its long career, while recognizing in 
theory the primacy by divine right of the Roman 
pontiff over the whole Church, it yet asserted the 
independence of national churches, and espe 
cially that of France, in many details of local 
government, and held the exercise of Papal pre- 
rogative to be limited by the canons and decree* 
of general councils. It must be added that while 
the Galilean theory to this extent claims an 
exemption from dependence upon the authority of 
the Pope, it acquiesces, on the other hand, to an 
almost proportionate degree in the assumption 
of ecclesiastical authority by the civil govern- 
ment; indeed, in many of the details of its later 
development it falls into the extremest form of 
Erastianism, the doctrine of State supremacy in 
matters spiritual as well as temporal. The con- 
flicting claims of tJie rival popes in the Western 
schism (see Schism, Great) tended to weaken 
the Papal authority, especially in France. The 
expedient adopted of calling a general coimcil 
to pronounce upon the respective claims of the 
rival popes gave prominence to what became one 
of the leading tenets of Gallicanism, the supe- 
riority in point of authority of the general coun- 
cil to the Pope. 

Some of the disciplinary enactments of the 
councils of Constance (1414-18) and Basel (14.31- 
45) were mainly directed toward the limitation 
of the Papal authority in the exercise of Church 
patronage within the limits of the National 
Church. These claims of privilege culminated 
in the Pragmatic Sanction (q.v. ), passed at 



GALLICAN CHURCH. 



68 



GALLICAN CHURCH. 



Bourges in 1438 by a national council of the 
French Church in union with the King, Charles 
VII. This abolished Papal reservations, and re- 
stricted appeals to Rome to causw maiores. 
Though Louis XI. attempted to repeal it, it was 
maintained in spite of Papal protests until 1516, 
when it was superseded by the Concordat of 
Bologna (see Concordat) between Leo X. and 
Francis I. The most conspicuous alteration ef- 
fected by the new compromise was the transfer of 
the right of nomination to bishoprics and other 
benefices consist oriaux from the capitular bodies 
to the Crown, with a provision for Papal veto 
upon any choice which did not satisfy canonical 
requirements. It was substantially a triumph 
of the absolutist principle, as represented by the 
King and the Pope, over the constitutional, as 
embodied in the 'Galilean liberties'; the uphold- 
ers of the latter quoted it complacently as estab- 
lishing them, whereas it was the most formidable 
blow which had been dealt at them. 

Soon, however, new and more far-reaching com- 
plications arose with the introduction of the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation into France. The first 
Protestant place of worship in Paris was opened 
in 1555, at which time the adherents of the 
Reformation in the kingdom probably numbered 
about a million and a half. Beginning as dis- 
senters on spiritual grounds, the Huguenots were 
soon driven by the force of circumstances into the 
position of a seditious faction whose activity 
threatened the peace and stability of the State. 
Their history cannot be properly understood un- 
less this fact is borne in mind. The story of the 
wars of religion is strangely complicated by its 
bearing upon their progress. Thus the League, 
which took its rise from the strangely indulgent 
terms granted to the Huguenots by the 'Peace of 
Monsieur' in April, 1576, four years after the 
massacre of Saint Bartholomew (see Bartholo- 
mew's, Massacre of Saint), was founded upon 
peculiarly assorted principles; politically it was 
democratic, while its religious views were the 
most ultramontane. At the time of its pre- 
dominance, after the 'day of the barricades' (May 
12, 1588), the Huguenots became for a time the 
champions of order and constitutional authority; 
but the situation changed again with the con- 
version of Henry IV. That sovereign, when he 
issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598, was actuated 
not only by a general belief in toleration, but by 
his knowledge that French Protestantism was a 
struggle even more for political than for religious 
predominance, and his desire to bring that con- 
flict to an end, in the interests of statesmanship, 
by depriving his Protestant subjects of any rea- 
sonable pretext for disaffection. 

With the cessation of civil strife, a remarkable 
outburst of religious life manifested itself. There 
was need for it; three-fourths of the parochial 
churches and a third of the episcopal sees were 
without pastors, and miserable disorder was to 
be seen everywhere. Now, in all directions, new 
undertakings multiplied — colleges, schools, hos- 
pitals, congregations for the systematic training 
of the clergy, seminaries, and new monastic or- 
ders or reforms within the old ones. The names 
of Saint Vincent de Paul, of Saint Francis de 
Sales, and his devoted associate. Saint Jane 
Frances de Chantal, of Cardinal de Borulle, and 
M. Olier — of La Trappe and Saint-Maur and Port 
Royal — speak eloquently of the great wave of 



zeal which passed over the land in the first half 
of the seventeenth century. When, however, the 
death of Richelieu removed the great personality 
which had stood for order and unity, this fair 
picture was marred by a new ebullition of strife, 
which proved full of peril and disaster, in the 
rise of Jansenism and Quietism ( qq.v. ) . Toward 
the close of the century, moreover, with the at- 
tempt of Louis XIV. to enlarge the ecclesiastical 
prerogative of the Crown as he had increased its 
political authority, the principles of Gallican- 
ism assumed an importance which may fitly be 
treated here at length. Controversy arose over 
his attempt to enforce the so-called droit de 
regale, based upon his claim to receive the reve- 
nues of bishoprics during vacancies, and to ap- 
point to all benefices in, the bishop's patronage, 
not involving the cure of souls, which might fall 
vacant during the interval. An effort to exer- 
cise this power brought on a collision between 
the Crown and certain bishops. Their metropoli- 
tan decided against them, and they appealed to 
Rome, where Innocent XL upheld them, much to 
the displeasure of Louis and the courtier eccle- 
siastics. An assembly of the higher French 
clergy was convened to find a way out of the 
difficulty. At its opening Bossuet, just chosen 
Bishop of Meaux, delivered his celebrated dis- 
course on the unity of the Church. It was clear 
that his intention was not to deny the headship 
of Rome in any sense, but merely to reassert what 
were considered prescriptive privileges; yet it is 
difficult to understand how the prelate who pro- 
nounced so eloquent a defense of the rights of the 
Pope could, before the end of the assembly, have 
signed the Galilean articles. 

These articles, four in number, are considered 
the charter of Gallicanism. The first declares 
that "the jurisdiction of Saint Peter and his 
successors in the Roman see as vicars of Christ 
on earth, although divinely bestowed, is con- 
fined to things spiritual, and does not extend to 
civil or temporal affairs." The second renews 
the declaration of the Council of Constance as to 
the superiority of a general council to the Pope, 
and declares that the articles passed in the 
third and fourth sessions of the council are not 
to be restricted in their application to a period 
of schism such as existed at the time of the 
council. The third asserts that the authority of 
the Pope is to be restricted by the canons of the 
universal Church, and that "the laws, customs, 
and constitutions of the realm and of the Gal- 
ilean Church remain in full force." The fourth 
declares that "the Pope has the principal share in 
the decision of questions of faith ; his decrees re- 
gard all the churches and each church in par- 
ticular; nevertheless, his judgment is not irre- 
formable unless the consent of the entire Church 
be added to it." It has been pointed out that 
since the Vatican Council, adherence to this last 
proposition would amount, for Roman Catholics, 
to formal heresy. The chief laws and customs 
referred to in the third article are that the 
National Church of France is not bound to re- 
ceive all the decrees of councils and of popes in 
matters of discipline, and that only such decrees 
as are formally received are in force in France; 
that the Galilean Church holds itself free to re- 
ceive or reject the rules of the Roman Chancery; 
that the Roman Pontiff cannot levy any impost 
upon the French clergy without their consent; 



GALLIC4N CHURCH. 



that he cannot bestow of his own motion on a 
foreigner any benefice properly belonging to the 
Gallican Church; that neither the Pope himself, 
nor his legates, can hear French causes 'in the 
first instance,' and that even in cases of appeal he 
is bound to assign French judges to hear the 
cause, even should the appellant be a metropoli- 
tan or primate; finally, it is asserted that the 
French bishops shall not be required to attend 
any general council, unless with the permission 
of the Crown. The last of these customs, as also 
those which make the reception of the general 
canons of discipline optional in France, and 
which practically throw the decision into the 
hands of the civil power, have been not unreason- 
ably called the 'slaveries' rather than the 'liber- 
ties' of the Gallican Church. It was not long 
before Bossuet declared that "the liberties of the 
Church are constantly appealed to against the 
Church and to her detriment." Fenelon wrote: 
"In practice the King of France is now more the 
head of the Church than the Pope. Liberty 
toward the Pope; servitude toward the King. 
The King's power over the Church has fallen into 
the hands of the civil tribunal. Laymen lord it 
over the bishops. Secular judges go so far as to 
examine even those Papal bulls which relate only 
to matters of faith." 

Louis was resolved, nevertheless, to enforce the 
declarations strenuously. By royal edict he com- 
manded the acceptance of the four articles and 
their incorporation into the acts of parliaments 
and universities. Professors were required to 
teach them and bishops to swear to them. The 
Sorbonne objected,, but was compelled to submit. 
Outside of France, distinct disapproval marked 
the declaration; Pope Innocent XI. received it in 
silence, but refused to raise to the episcopate any 
members of the assembly who were subsequently 
nominated. His successor, Alexander VIII., con- 
demned the declaration in 1690. Two years later 
Louis wrote to Innocent XII. that his edict con- 
cerning the Declaration of Rights no longer held, 
and that he wished all the world to recognize his 
veneration for the Pope. The declaration was 
not, however, formally withdrawn, and was sub- 
sequently condemned by Clement XL in 1706, 
and again by Pius VI. in 1794. 

The revocation of the Edict of Nantes scarcely 
belongs in strictness to an ecclesiastical survey, 
since, like the original promulgation, it was sup- 
posed to be an act of political wisdom. The 
Huguenots, as Lavalee remarks, preserved to- 
ward the Government the attitude of children 
in disgrace, and toward the Catholics that of 
disdainful enemies; they persisted in their isola- 
tion; they kept up a continual correspondence 
with their friends in England and Holland, even 
when those countries were hostile to their own. 
"France," says Michelet, "found a Holland in its 
own bosom which was rejoicing at the success 
of the other." On the eve of the formation of the 
League of Augsburg against him, Louis XIV. 
could hardly have been expected to leave such 
a stronghold of anarchy within his kingdom as 
the privileges of the Edict of Nantes had come 
to constitute. The act of revocation wns received 
with a chorus of enthusiastic applause from all 
sorts of people in France. Bossuet burst forth 
into a joyful panegyric; Ffinelon. who has l)een 
represented as the apostle of toleration, laid it 
down clearly that "though no sovereign may re- 



69 GALLICAN CHURCH. 

quire interior belief in religious matters from 
his subjects, he may prevent the public exercise, 
or the profession, of opinions or ceremonies which 
disturb the peace of the commonwealth, by the 
diversity and multiplicity of sects." The laity 
applauded the King not less than the clergy; the 
great Chancellor, Le Tellier, after a life of noble 
and high-minded service to his country, died with 
the 'Nunc dimittis upon his lips, saying that he 
had nothing left to wish for after this final act 
of his long ministry. The consequences to reli- 
gion were not, however, altogether happy; and the 
gentle methods of persuasion employed by the 
Lazarists, Sulpicians, Doctrinaires, and Thea- 
tines, who went as missionaries among the 
Huguenots, were probably far more efficacious in 
producing real conversions than were the dragon- 
nades. 

The general tone of laxity which characterized 
the eighteenth century did not fail to have its 
effect upon the Church, infecting at least the 
higher clergy with a spirit of worldliness and 
selfish devotion to ease and pleasure. A terrible 
punishment came upon them in the Revolution. 
The Constituent Assembly first laid hands upon 
the property of the Church to meet its financial 
needs, and then assumed to tamper with her 
organic structure. The 'Civil Constitution of 
the Clergy,' decreed on July 12, 1790, was but 
a natural outcome of Gallican principles; yet 
its arbitrary suppression of dioceses and estab- 
lishment of others, its provision for the election 
of bishops and cures by the people and their pay- 
ment by the State, whose stipendiaries they were 
to become, raised the weightier question as to 
whether, after all, the civil power was to impose 
laws upon the spiritual without the concurrence 
of its legitimate rulers. From this time Gal- 
licanism, as a system, has steadily declined; and 
while it is true that French bishops in the nine- 
teenth century have been, as a rule, less ultra- 
montane than others, they seem to have learned 
the necessity for the supremacy of the head of 
their Church in religious matters. In fact, since 
the Vatican Council, it may be said that Gal- 
licanism as a factor in French Church history 
has almost entirely disappeared. 

The attempt just mentioned of the Constituent 
Assembly to separate the French Church from 
Rome, and to make it a mere department of the 
newly organized State, brought about a condition 
of aflfairs very like a schism. Those who sub- 
mitted to take the oath to support the new order 
of things, the Constitutional clergy as they were 
called, were regarded by the stricter Catholics as 
having forfeited their rights, and in the more 
conservative provinces, like Brittany, the people 
refused to attend their ministrations. On the 
other hand, those who refused the oath were sub- 
jected to increasingly heavy penalties by the 
Revolutionary Government, and either exiled as a 
last resort to the pestilential swamps of Guiana 
or executed. Their faithfulness, however, had it« 
reward; when religion once more held up its 
head after the excesses of the Terror, the Con- 
stitutional organization gradually disappeared; 
and a modus vivrndi was reached in the Con- 
cordat of 1801 by Napoleon, who was acute 
enough t« see the advantage to his newly founded 
dynasty of the support of the Church. This, 
having proved not entirely satisfactory, was re- 
viewed after the Restoration, in 1817; but the 



GALLICAN CHUBCH. 



70 



GALLIN-ffi. 



new instrument, which was in many particulars 
a return to that of 1516, was not approved by 
the Chambers, and the Church remained for 
several years uneasily fluctuating between two 
concordats^ neither of which was fully executed, 
until in 1822 an arrangement was concluded by 
which thirty prelates were added to the existing 
hierarchy, its total number being thus fixed at 
eighty. 

Among questions or movements of general sig- 
nificance which have agitated the French Church 
since that date must be mentioned the stir caused 
about 1830 by the body of enthusiastic vision- 
aries, of whom Lamennais, Lacordaire, and Mon- 
talembert are the best known, starting from a 
pure devotion to the cause of liberty and a con- 
viction that the Church would gain by its fullest 
exercise, but ending in dangerous errors which 
received the condenmation of the Holy See, and 
in more modern times the very serious aggres- 
sions made upon the Church with increasing bit- 
terness by the Government of the Third Republic. 
Though Pope Leo XIII. has repeatedly laid down 
the principle that there is no reason why, theo- 
retically, a good Catholic should not be a good 
republican, it is undeniable that the bulk of the 
monarchist parties is composed of members of 
the Church ; and it is, therefore, not altogether to 
be wondered at that the Government has felt 
justified in taking a position of antagonism to 
the Church as a whole. The extreme lengths, 
however, to which this antagonism has been 
carried within the last few years are difficult to 
reconcile with the principles of a democracy, and 
afford scope for many doubts as to the outcome 
of a policy so hostile to the religious instincts 
which are at least latent in the great majority of 
the French population. 

Bibliography. Jervis, The Church of France 
(2 vols., London, 1872), and The Gallican 
Church and the Revolution (London, 1882), by 
far the best books in English on the whole sub- 
ject; Qallia Christiana (13 vols., Paris, 1715- 
85; vols. 14-16, ib., 1856-65) ; Guett6e, Histoire de 
V6glise de France (12 vols., ib., 1847-56) ; Jager, 
Histoire de IV'glise catholique de France (19 
vols., ib., 1862-73) ; Gerin, RecherQhes historiques 
sur rAssemhUe de 1682 (Paris, 1869) ; id., Louis 
XIV. et le Saint Sidge (2 vols., ib., 1890) ; de 
Maistre, De Vcglise gnllicane (Paris, 1821) : id., 
Du pape (Lyons, 1809) ; Le Roy, Le Oallicanisme 
au XVin. sidcle (Paris, 1892) ; Keller, La fin 
du Oallicanisme et M. Maret, son dernier repr6- 
sentant (Alengon, 1901) ; Theiner, Documents 
inddits relatifs aux affaires religieuses de France, 
1790 d 1800 (Paris, 1857) ; id., Les deuco Con- 
cordats (ib., 1869-) ; D'Haussonville, LVglise ro- 
maine et le premier Empire (Paris, 1864-71) ; and 
see France; Huguenots. 

GALLICAN CONFESSION. See Gallican 
Church. 

GALLIEN, gUl'l^n, Johanna. See Wytten- 
BACH, Daniel Albert. 

GALLIENUS, gal'll-e'niis, Arch of. An arch 
at Rome in honor of Gallienus and his wife 
Salonina. It represents the old Esquiline gate of 
the Servian city, converted into a travertine arch 
by Aurelius Victor. 

GALLIENUS, Publius Ltctntus ( ?-a.d. 
268). Roman Emperor, a.d. 253-268. The son 
of the Emperor Valerianus, he was made joint 



ruler on his father's accession in August, 253. 
In 256 he took the field against the Alemanni, 
who were making incursions into the Roman prov- 
inces along the Danube. After several campaigns 
they were subdued in 258, but they rose again 
soon after and forced their way into Italy, where 
Gallienus gained a victory over them near 
Milan. (See Alemanni.) Meanwhile Valeri- 
anus had been engaged in wars with Sapor, the 
Persian King, by whom he was taken prisoner 
in 260. Gallienus now became sole Emperor, but 
only in name; for self-appointed rulers arose in 
all parts of the Empire, this jx^riod being for that 
reason known in history as the 'Reign of the Thirty 
Tyrants.' Gaul became practically a separate 
kingdom under Postumus (258-267). With civil 
war within and constant incursions of the bar- 
barians from without, the reign of Gallienus was 
a period of incessant turmoil until, in an attack 
on Milan, where he was besieging the usurper 
Aureolus, he was killed in a plot formed by some 
of his own officers ( March 4, 268 ) . 

GALLIFFET, gi'le'fa', Gaston Alexandre 
AUGUSTE, Marquis de (1830—). A French sol- 
dier, born in Paris. He fought in the Crimean 
War on the staff of General Bosquet, and was 
commended for his bravery at Sebastopol. He 
was subsequently engaged in Mexico, and was 
dangerously wounded at the battle of Puebla 
(May 15, 1863). In recognition of his bravery 
he was selected upon his return to France to de- 
liver the captured Mexican battle-flags to Na- 
poleon III. During the Franco-German War he 
led the memorable cavalry charge at the battle of 
Sedan, and afterwards became conspicuous in the 
suppression of the Commune. In 1872-73 he was 
in Algeria, where he suppressed the revolt among 
the natives. In 1875 he became general of divis- 
ion, and in spite of his Bonapartist and clerical 
proclivities, avowed himself a loyal republican, 
and won the favor of Gambetta. In 1879 he was 
appointed commander of the Ninth Army Corps, 
and did much to improve the French cavalry. 
In 1899 he was appointed Minister of War, which 
position he resigned in 1900, after having by his 
rigorous discipline done much to carry the Gov- 
ernment safely through the crisis of the Dreyfus 
agitation. He is considered one of the leading 
authorities in Europe on cavalry tactics. 

GALLI'NiE ♦.(Lat. nom. pi., hens), or Ra- 
SORES. An order of birds, more generally valu- 
able to man than any other order, containing at 
once the most important species domesticated as 
poultry, and those most sought after as game. 
The common domestic fowl may be regarded as 
the type of the order. Like it, the Gallinae in 
general have a small head; a rather short bill, 
with the upper mandible a little arched ; nostrils 
placed on the sides of the bill, and usually in a 
soft membranous space at its base; the figure 
bulky; the wings short, and not governed by 
powerful muscles, nor adapted for long or rapid 
flight; the feet with three toes before, and one 
behind — which is articulated higher than the 
others, and is sometimes wanting — adapted for 
walking on the ground and for scraping, which is 
much resorted to, in order to procure food and 
for other purposes ; the digestive organs are com- 
plex, the crop is large, the gizzard very muscular, 
the intestine long, with two very large cceca. Tlie 
sternum is deeply double-notched; there are two 
carotids; the oil-gland is tufted; the plumage 



GALLING. 



71 



QALL-INSECTS. 



has aftershafts and there are usually more than 
twelve tail-feathers. The head, at least of the 
males, is often furnished with appendages, as a 
crest, comb, wattles, etc. The feet of the males 
are also often furnished with spurs, and at least 
during the breeding season the males are very 
quarrelsome. Tlie males of many species (e.g. 
pheasants) are birds of splendid plumage; that 
of the females is sober, but females of very ad- 
vanced age often assume a plumage similar to 
that of the males. Some of the Gallinoe are 
polygamous, some pair at the breeding season; 
the nest of all of them is artless, and the males 
take no part in incubation, nor in the rearing of 
the young. The young are precocial, that is, they 
are comparatively feathered when hatched, and 
are immediately able to run about and pick up 
food for tljomselves, but are for some time tended 
and protected by the mother, and by her the 
proper food is sought for them and pointed out 
to them, or broken into sufUciently small pieces, 
and laid before them. The G^illinae have unmelo- 
dious voices. Except the curassows, they make 
their nests on the ground. Some of them are 
found in almost all parts of the world. Besides 
those already named, guans, pheasants, grouse, 
partridges, quails, ptarmigans, peacocks, turkeys, 
guinea-fowls, and tragopans may be mentioned 
as examples of this order. See Bird; Fowl; 
Grouse; Partridge; Peacock; Eggs of Ameri- 
can Water and (jAme Birds, for colored plates 
and further description. 

GAL'LINE'TA (Sp., sandpiper). A remark- 
able rail (Aramides ypecaha) of the La Plata 
Valley, South America, called 'ypecaha' by the 
native Indians, which is noted for its shrieking 
cries, and for its gathering into companies which 
join in dances, the performers becoming almost 
frenzied with excitement, and with loud cries 
and outstretched wings rushing from side to side 
for several minutes. These performances seem to 
be unconnected with the nuptial season or sexual 
excitement, and are indulged in by jacanas, the 
Cayenne lapwing, and various birds in other parts 
of the world. 1^'or a detailed description and 
consideration of this and other habits, consult 
Hudson, Naturalist on the La Plata (London, 
1892). 

QALOilNGER, Jacob H. (1837—). An 
American physician and [>olitician, born at Corn- 
wall, Ontiirio, C'anada. He graduated at the 
medical school of Dartmouth College in 1858, 
practiced medicine and surgery at Concord, N. H., 
from 1802 until his appearance in public life, and 
contributed much to medical literature. In 1879- 
80 he was Surgeon-General of New Hampshire, 
with rank of brigadier-general. He was a member 
of the New Hampshire House of Representatives 
in 1872-73, of the State SenaU> in 1878. 1879, and 
1880, and again of the House in 1891. From 1882 
until his resignation in 1890 he was chairman of 
the Republican State Committee, and in 1898 and 
1900 was reelected to the jHist. He was chairman 
of the New Hampshire delegation to the Kepubli- 
can Naticmal Convent i(m of 1888, in which he 
seconded the nomination of Benjamin Harrison 
for the Presidency, and also to that of 1900. In 
ISS.') he was elected to the Federal House in the 
Forty-ninth (Congress. He was reelected in tke 
Fiftieth, declined renomination for the Fifty-first, 
took his seat in the Senate in 1891, and was re- 
elected in 1897. 



GALL-INSECTS (from Lat. galla, gall-nut). 
Until about two hundred years ago galls were 
supposed to be purely of vegetable origin, and tlie 
maggots that grow within them were supposed 
to arise by spontaneous generation in the organic 
substances in the galls. Pliny knew that a fly came 
from galls, and thought they grew like fungi in 
the night. Malpighi, in the second half of the 
seventeenth century, was the first to record the 
fact that the production of galls followed puncture 
of vegetable tissue by insects, and he came to 
the conclusion that the insects inject a substance, 
which he called ichor, into the plant-tissue, and 
this substance produced a swelling similar to 
that which the sting of a bee causes in animal 
tissue. RC'aumur held the theory that the gall 
is not the product of some specific irritating fluid, 
but is due to the irritation caused by the prick, 
and to the presence of the egg and developing 
larvae in the tissue. Some galls begin to develop 
as soon as the eggs are laid, but, unfortunately 
for the universal application of RC'aumur's 
theory, others do not begin to develop until after 
the eggs hatch, which may be months after they 
are deposited in the tissue. 

Galls occur on a great many kinds of plants 
and are produced by a variety of insects, by 
mites, and by at least one nematode worm. Each 
species of insect confines its activities to one 
or, at the very most, to a very limited number 
of species of plants. The same kind of insect 
will produce different kinds of galls on difTerent 
kinds of plants, and different kinds of insects 
will produce different kinds of galls on the same 
plant. Each species of gall-insect, however, in- 
fests different parts of the plant, such as the 
leaf, flower, stem, or root, and that part alone; 
and it produces there galls with such precise 
qualities that it can be definitely stated, from the 
appearance of the gall, what sort of an insect has 
caused its development. In rearing galls, one 
cannot be certain from merely observing the 
emerging insects what species are the producers 
of the gall, for a number of different kinds of 
insects may develop within the same gall, some 
as guests, feeding on the tissue of the gall, and 
others as parasites on the larvae of the true gall- 
insect. 

Nearly all the orders of insects have gall- 
making representatives. In addition there are 
the galls of mites and nematodes. The galU 
made by mites, like those produced by plant-lice, 
have open mouths for the escape of the matured 
mites. An example of a gall produced by mites 
is the pear-leaf blister made by Phytoptus pyri. 
Nematodes of the genus Anguillula, which is al- 
lied to the vinegar-worm, are the cause of snnit 
in growing grain, particularly in wheat. The 
lar\'tB of these insects have the most extraordi- 
nary capacity of withstanding desiccation. The 
egg is laid by the parent in the growing ear, 
where the larvrt> develop and are set free by the 
dying grain. They then live in the moist earth 
until the young wheat begins to grow. They 
creep up the stem of the wheat, and when once 
lodged within the head they soon gain sexual 
maturity. In their wanderings in search of new, 
growing grain, the larvoB undergo great vicissi- 
tudes. They may be compelled by drought to 
encyst a number of times, even on the very stem 
of the plant, and await moisture before they 
are able to reach their final destination. Accord- 



GALL-INSECTS. 



72 



GALLINULE. 



ing to Spallanzani, they may retain their vitality 
for twenty years while awaiting their food-plant. 
The family Cynipidae, of the order Hymenop- 
tera, furnishes the greatest number of species of 
gall-produeing insects. The majority of its spe- 
cies (called gall-flies) infest some part of the 
oak, making closed galls. They are the best 
studied of all the galls, and a large amount of 
information concerning their life history has 
been gained by the painstaking studies of Adler, 
Eiley, and others. Adler kept oak saplings until 
from four to six years old, and on these he iso- 
lated certain insects, and observed the resulting 
galls. Some of the species that Adler bred were 
so nearly alike that he could determine them 
with certainty only by their galls. Moreover, 
certain species that had been given different spe- 
cific or even generic names he found to be the 
alternating generations of other described species. 
Some winged generations he found to be com- 
posed entirely of females, and the next generation 
of both males and females. Thus the individuals 
of one generation do not resemble their parents, 
but their grandparents. (See Alternation of 
Generations.) Not only are the insects of 
these two generations very different, but the galls 
that they produce are likewise different. Other 
forms are believed to reproduce entirely parthe- 
nogenetically without males ever appearing. Ad- 
ler studied galls of the bud, leaf, bark, and root, 
and found that all of them are developed by 
abnormal activities of the cambium ring. The 
potentialities of the tissue-growth are always 
present at the spot pricked, and are merely called 
into activity by the prick or by the larvae. He 
found that some of the galls are protected from 
attack by sweet juices, which attract guarding 
ants, and it is interesting to note that the honey- 
making ants (q.v.) of the Southeastern United 
States gather honey from oak-galls. Other galls 
are provided with a sticky secretion on long 
hairs which entraps marauders; the spongy pa- 
renchyma of some galls is so very thick that it 
acts as an effectual barrier against intruders. 
Other galls have an inner stony layer for the 
protection of the larvae; others, a large, hollow 
chamber in which it is difficult, for the enemy 
from without to locate the larvae. ' The pine-cone- 
like arrangement of scales in certain galls is a 
sufficient protection to the larvae. Other galls are 
exempt from attack by virtue of their bitter tan- 
nin or by their protective coloration. Insects, 
titmice, pheasants, and squirrels are the chief 
enemies of gall-insects, the birds and squirrels 
tearing them open in winter to get the larvae 
within them. 

Three classes of hymenopterous insects may 
be reared from one and the same gall. (1) 
Psenids, or true gall-flies, which lay their eggs 
in the tissue of the plant; many of these species 
cause those subsequent modifications in the de- 
velopment of the plant-tissue that we call galls. 
(2) Inquilines, or guests, which lay their eggs 
and develop in the galls caused by the true gall- 
makers. (3) Parasites, which prey on the larvae 
of the true gall-makers or their guests. Accord- 
ing to Adler, Riley, and others, the growth of 
the gall probably depends upon the activity of 
the larvae, and is the result of some secretion or 
excretion thrown out by the larvae. 

The rate of growth of the gall will depend on 
that of the meristem, those that are formed on 



catkins and young leaves growing rapidly, while 
those on roots and bark require perhaps months 
to gain full size. 

Some of the gall larvae of the Diptera (especial- 
ly the minute flies of the family Cecidomyiidae ) 
transform in the plant tissue and others in the 
ground. The larvae are maggot-like and without 
anal opening. The goldenrod gall, a round ball 
produced in the stem of the plant by a fly ( Try- 
ptia solidaginis) , and the pine-cone galls on the 
heart-leaved willow {Salix c&rdata) are formed 
by dipterous insects. The Hessian fly of wheat, 
which stings the base of the leaf, and the wheat- 
midge, which stings the flower, are also classed as 
gall-insects. The Hemiptera have gall-producing 
representatives among the plant-lice (aphids) of 
the Coccidae and of Phylloxera. The galls pro- 
duced by plant-lice have open mouths for the 
escape of the developed lice. Reproduction may 
take place within the gall. The cockscomb elm- 
galls, on the upper side of elm-leaves, are pro- 
duced by a plant-louse (Colopha ulmicola) . The 
destructive grape-vine phylloxera makes galls on 
the under side of the grape-leaf and on the roots 
of the vine. The elongated galls on the golden- 
rod stems are produced by a tineid moth ( Gelechia 
gallcesolidaginis) . In Australia several plants 
are infested by gall-producing thrips, and galls 
are also said to be caused by beetles. 

Consult: Osten Sacken, "On the Cynipidae of 
North American Oaks and Their Galls," in Pro- 
ceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadel- 
phia, vol. i., pp. 47 to 72, 241 to 259; and vol. ii., 
pp. 33 to 49; vol. iv., pp. 331 to 380 (Phila- 
delphia, 1861-64) ; Cameron, Monograph of the 
British Phytophagous Hymenoptera (London, 
1882-93) ; Rothama, "On the ^Etiology and Life 
History of Some Vegetal Galls," in Natural Sci- 
ence, vol. iii. (London, 1893). Beutenmiiller, 
"Catalogue of Gall-Producing Insects Found 
Within Fifty Miles of New York," in Bulletin of 
the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 
iv. (New York, 1892—). See Phylloxera; 
Aphid. 

GAL'TLINTJLE '(Lat. gallinula, diminutive of 
gallina, hen). A bird of one or other of the 
genera Gallinula, lornis, etc., of the family Ral- 
lidae, closely allied to the coots, and having the 
upper mandible similarly extending up on the 




HEAD AND FOOT OF GALLINULE. 

a, foot of purple gallinule (lornis Martinica) ; b, profile 
of head of the same; c. top of head of Florida gallinule 
(GalliDUla galeata), showing shape and extent of frontal 
shield. 

forehead in a naked soft plate, but the toes usual- 
ly furnished with an undivided narrow marginal 
membrane. This membrane and the great length 
of the toes enable the gallinules to swim well, 
and all of them are aquatic. The species are 
^out 30 in number, some of them confined to 
tropical regions. Two occur in the United States. 
The Florida gallinule {Oallinula galeata) is 
brownish olive above, grayish black beneath, and 



GALLINULE. 



73 



GALLIPOLI. 



the bill is red. It is a little more than a foot in 
length, and is found from New York State, Minne- 
sota, and California southward through Central 
and Northern South America, though only a sum- 
mer visitor in the- most of the United States. Its 
nesting habits are like those of the coot (q.v.). 
The purple gallinule {lornis Martinica) is a 
trifle smaller, and a handsome olive green above, 
the head and under parts being a beautiful pur- 
plish blue. It is a South and Central American 
species, common to the West Indies and the 
South Atlantic States, where it is resident. ( See 
Plate of Rails, etc.) All these birds are com- 
monly known as 'mud-hens,' and are shot for 
sport, but the flesh is not good. 

The common gallinule {Gallinula chloropus) 
of Europe is more usually styled in Great Britain 
Svater-hen,' or 'moor-hen.' It is widely diff"used 
in the Old World, and abundant in suitable situa- 
tions, such as river marshes and the artificial 
ponds of parks, where these birds may often 
be seen in considerable numbers, swimming to- 
gether, with a peculiar nodding motion of the 
head. They seek their food both on the surface 
of the water and by diving, partly also among 
the grass of meadows and river-banks. A fre- 
quent jerking of the tail is very characteristic 
of them. When alarmed, they sometimes seek 
safety by flight, but more frequently by hiding 
among rushes or reeds. They make their nests 
near the water which they frequent, and usually 
on the ground, and lay from seven to ten brown 
and speckled eggs. The flesh is well flavored. 
See Coot and Rail. 

GALOLIO, Junius Gallio. A Roman rheto- 
rician of the first century, a member of the sena- 
torial order, who gained the ill will of Tiberius 
by proposing that retired members of the PraB- 
torian Guard should have seats with the equites 
in the first fourteen rows of the theatre. He was 
banished from Rome, then recalled and kept 
under surveillance, and finally put to death by 
Nero. His text-book on rhetoric has not survived. 

GALLIO, Lucius Junius Ann.eus. The 
name assumed by Marcus Annaeus Novatus from 
that of Lucius Junius Gallio, the rhetorician, by 
whom, as a friend of his father, Marcus Annaeus 
Seneca, he had l)een adopted. He was an older 
brother of the philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca, 
and of the geograplier Lucius Annaeus Mela, 
father of tlie ]HHit Lucan. It was quite probably 
through the influence of the former that, in the 
latter part of the reign of Claudius, Gallio was 
nppointod Proconsul of Achaia, though his Hel- 
lenic culture was not an unlikely factor in the 
case. The exact date of this appointment is un- 
certain. It could not have been earlier than a.u. 
44, in which year Achaia was raised to a sena- 
torial province, and may have been as late as 54, 
the last year of Claudius's rule. If the olTice was 
in any way due to his brother's influence it must 
have been after 49, when Seneca, who had been 
in exile since 41, was recalled by Agrippina to 
become the tutor of Nero. We know definitely 
that Gallio was in office when Paul was at 
Corinth on his first visit to that city, but the 
exact date of this visit is debated, and varies 
between fall 4n-8pring 51 and fall 53-spring 55. 
See New Testament Chronolocy. 

It was during this visit that the Jews, angered 
evidently by the defection of leading members of 
the Synagogue to the Apostle's following, brought 



Paul before the proconsul on the charge that he 
was acting contrary to the [Roman] law. Gallio 
dismissed their case, however, with the statement 
that he was not minded to be a judge of these 
matters. And when Sosthenes, probably the lead- 
er of the accusing party, was taken by the 
[Greek] bystanders, with whom the Jews were 
generally unpopular, and beaten before the judg- 
ment seat, Gallio refrained from interposing, the 
narrative stating that he "cared for none of these 
things" (Acts xviii. 14-17). From this last state- 
ment it has been inferred that Gallio was indif- 
ferent to Christianity. The words of his reply, 
however, while betraying an ignorance of the dis- 
tinctive features of Christianity, disclose simply 
the usual attitude of Roman otficials to the reli- 
gions of the people of the provinces in accordance 
with Roman law. Its meaning is that, inas- 
much as the controversy was practically a matter 
of religious dispute among the Jews, it should 
be adjudged by themselves, the Roman law taking 
no cognizance of such things. In accord with this 
it is clear that the statement referred to had 
reference merely to Gallio's indiflference to the 
controversy in general and to the beating of 
Sosthenes in particular as matters of his judicial 
concern. Consult, besides the usual lives of Paul 
and commentaries on Acts, Ramsay, Saint Paul 
the Traveler and Roman Citizen (New York, 
1896). See Paul. 

GALLIOT (from OF. galiote, from ML. galeo- 
ta, diminutive of galea, galley). A galley of me- 
dium size having one mast and 16 to 20 oars, 
and very generally used in the sixteenth, seven- 
teenth, and eighteenth centuries as a cargo vessel 
and gunboat by the maritime nations of Europe. 
Also a Dutch or Flemish vessel with very full 
lines, an easy bilge (q.v.), and a flat bottom. It 
is rigged like a ketch with a high mast stepped 
in the centre of the ship and a much lower one 
farther aft. The head-stays lead from the main 
(or higher) mast, and the head sails are large 
and numerous; both masts are square-rigged. 
Galliots are usually of 400 to 500 tons measure- 
ment. They were formerly much used as bomb 
vessels, the absence of a mast forward giving 
ample space for the operation of bombards, mor- 
tars, or howitzers. 

GALLIPOLI, gftl-le'pd-l*. A city and seaport 
in the Prt)vince of Lecce, in South Italy, 55 miles 
south of Brindisi, the Greek name of which, Cal- 
lipolis (beautiful city), was derived from its 
picturesque situation in the Gulf of Taranto, on 
a rocky island which a bridge having 12 spans 
now connects with the suburb of Lizza on the 
mainland (Map: Italy, M 7). Gallipoli has a 
cathedral dating from 1629, a castle, a seminary, 
a gymnasium, and a technical school. There is 
regular steamship comnumication with BrindRsi 
and Taranto. It export^} oil, wine, and fruit, and 
has long been famous for its oil-cistorns cut in the 
solid limestone. Population of commune, in 1881, 
11,000; in 1001, 13,552. 

GALLIPOLI (anc. Callipolis). A seaport of 
EuniiMMu Turkey, capital of a sanjak in the 
Vilayet of Adrianople, situated on the eastern 
coast of the peninsula of Gallipoli, at the north- 
eastern end of the Dardanelles (Map: Turkey in 
Europe, F" 4). It has crooke<l, ill-paved streets, 
and is built mostly of wood. There are manufac- 
tures of leather, silk, and cotton, but the commer- 
cial importance of the town is on the decline, and 



GALLIPOLI. 



74 



GALLIUM. 



the well-fortified harbor has more strategical 
than commercial value. Gallipoli is a Turkish 
naval station, and the seat of a captain pasha 
a,nd a Greek bishop. The population, largely 
Greek, is estimated at from 20,000 to 30,000. 
The town was of great commercial importance 
during the Middle Ages, and at one time had 
a population of 100,000. It suffered terribly at 
the hands of the Catalans early in the fourteenth 
century, and fell into the hands of the Turks in 
1354, being the first Turkish possession in Europe. 

GALLIPOLI, Peninsula of (the ancient 
Thracian Chersonesus ) . A portion of the Vilayet 
of Adrianople, European Turkey, separating the 
Strait of Dardanelles on the east from the Gulf 
of Saros on the west. It extends in a southwest 
direction for about 55 miles, and varies from 4 to 
13 miles in breadth. The principal town on the 
peninsula is Gallipoli (q.v.). 

GALLIPOLIS, gal'li-p6-les'. A city and the 
county-seat of Gallia County, Ohio, 56 miles 
southeast of Chillicothe; on the Ohio River, and 
on the Toledo and Ohio Central, the Columbus, 
Hocking Valley and Toledo, and other railroads 
(Map: Ohio, F 8). It has a public library, a 
public park, and Gallia Academy. The city is 
surrounded by undeveloped coal-fields, and is a 
distributing centre of some importance. There 
are iron and wood-working industries, and manu- 
factures of furniture, stoves, woolens, lumber, 
leather, etc. The government is administered by 
a mayor, elected every two years, and a city 
council. The water-works are owned and oper- 
ated by the municipality. Population, in 1890, 
4498; in 1900, 5432. Gallipolis was first settled 
in 1790 under the auspices of the Scioto Com- 
pany, by a party of five hundred Frenchmen, 
who named it Gallipolis — the City of the Gauls. 
It was incorporated as a village in 1842, and 
in 1865 was chartered as a city. Consult Centen- 
nial Anniversary of Gallipolis (Columbus, 1891). 

GALLISSONNlimE, ga'le'sp'nyar', AuGUS- 
TiN F6LIX Elisabeth Barrin, Comte de la ( 1742- 
1828). A French soldier. He was a nephew of 
Roland Michel Barrin, Marquis de la Gallis- 
sonni^re, and was born at Anjou. He entered the 
navy while he was a boy, and served under his 
uncle in Canada; then he fought in the Hano- 
verian campaigns. In 1788 he was appointed 
field-marshal, and, just before the Revolution, 
was invested with the grand sword of Anjou, and 
was made president of the nobility in the States- 
General. When the Revolution came he was a 
Deputy to the Constituent Assembly, and on its 
dissolution refused to leave the country, but later 
became an emigre and fought under Cond6. But 
in 1801 he returned to France and was elected 
Deputy in 1809. After the Restoration he fared 
equally well, being promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-general, but soon retired. He wrote 
on the establishment of the National Guard, on 
the Constitution of 1789, on the freedom of the 
press, and many other contemporaneous topics. 

GALLISSONNi:^RE, Roland Michel Bar- 
bin, Marquis de la (1093-1756). A French naval 
oflicer and Governor-General of Canada, 1747-49. 
He was born at Rochefort, and at the age of 
seventeen entered the Royal Navy. In 1745, al- 
though only a captain in rank, he was appointed 
to the position of Governor-General of Canada 
to succeed Beauharnois. He reached Quebec in 



1747, and during the two years he remained in 
Canada displayed not only great energy, but 
broad statesmanship. His plan for advancement 
of the French possessions in America provided 
for building a chain of forts in the Mississippi 
Valley to connect Louisiana and Canada, for set- 
tling ten thousand French peasants in the Ohio 
Valley to check the migration that was beginning 
to pour over the Alleghanies from the English 
colonies, and for winning the friendship and alli- 
ance of the Iroquois tribes. He succeeded in 
establishing some forts, and supported Abb6 Pi- 
quet in his mission to the Iroquois country, but 
his request for new settlers remained unheeded. 
In 1749 he was recalled to France to act on the 
commission to fix the boundaries to be established 
under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, and was 
succeeded by the Marquis de la Jonqui^re. On 
his return to France he was made chief of the 
naval Bureau of Charts and Plans, in which posi- 
tion he organized several important scientific ex- 
peditions. In May, 1756, he defeated the English 
fleet under Admiral Byng off Minorca, a result 
which led to the court-martial and execution 
of the latter. Gallissonni^re died the same year. 

GALLITZIN, gal-let'sen, Dmitri Augustin, 
Prince (1770-1841). An American Catholic 
priest, of Russian family. Born at The Hague, 
he received a Spartan training from his mother, 
who sent him to North America in 1792. The 
ostensible purpose of his journey was to study 
American life, and his observations led him to 
believe that the Catholic Church in the United 
States needed men, and to volunteer. He became 
a priest in 1795; was settled at Port Tobacco, 
Md., and then at Taneytown, Md.; but in 1799 
he was transferred to Cambria County, Pa. He 
was dissatisfied with the American system of 
trustee control and limitation of the priestly 
power, and founded the Catholic town of Loretto, 
Cambria County, Pa., from which colonies went 
out to Saint Joseph, Saint Augustine, Pa., and 
Carroltown, Pa. In his work Father Smith (as 
Gallitzin called himself until 1809, when he re- 
sumed his family name) spent much effort and 
a large fortime. In 1809, when Philadelphia was 
made a bishopric, Gallitzin was appointed Vicar- 
General of the outlying districts. His writings 
were mainly controversial. Consult Brownson, 
Life of D. A. Gallitzin^ Prince and Priest (New 
York, 1873). 

GAL'LIUM (Neo-Lat., f rom Lat. GoiZia, Gaul, 
France ) . A metallic chemical element, discov- 
ered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, by means 
of the spectroscope. Its properties had been 
previously (1870) predicted, from the periodic 
law (q.v.), by the Russian chemist Mendel6eflF, 
who gave it the provisional name of eka-alumi- 
num. It is found in minute quantities in various 
zinc ores, and was originally discovered in the 
sphalerite of Pierrefitte, from which it may be 
obtained by dissolving the ore and decomposing 
the resulting solution by metallic zinc. The 
precipitate thus obtained contains gallium as a 
hydrated oxide, which is then further purified 
by repeated solution and precipitation, and the 
gallium finally thrown down in its metallic con- 
dition by zinc. 

Gallium (symbol Ga; atomic weight, 69.9) is 
a fairly hard gray metal that may be hammered 
into thin plates which can be bent without break- 



GALLIUM. 



75 



GALLOWAY. 



ing. It melts at 30.15° C. (about 86° F.), and 
has a specific gravity of 5.9 when solid. Its 
general properties are similar to those of the 
metal aluminum. Gallium combines with oxygen, 
forming a monoxide and a sesquioxide, and with 
chlorine to form a dichloride and a trichloride. 

GAJ/LIVATS (East Indian). Large row- 
boats, sometimes having as many as fifty oars, 
formerly and still to some extent used in Eastern 
waters. They rarely exceed seventy tons, carry 
two masts with high, triangular sails, and are 
generally armed with a few small swivel guns, 
fastened on the bulwarks. The Malay pirates, 
now nearly exterminated, employ these swift but 
somewhat fragile vessels. 

GALLIWASP (probably of West Indian ori- 
gin). ( 1 ) A lizard of Jamaica and Eastern Cen- 
tral America (Diploglossus monotropis), which 
is greatly feared by the people, though perfectly 
harmless. ( 2 ) A small species of lizard - fish 
(Synodus fcetens) , common from South Caro- 
lina to Brazil. See Plate of Lantern-Fishes. 

GALL-MITE. See Mite. 

GALLON. See Weights and Measures. 

GALLOON' (Fr. galon, from Sp. galon, aug- 
mentative of gala, finery; probably from OHG., 
<5er. geil, AS. gal, wanton). A narrow, tape-like 
fabric composed of silk or worsted, or of both. 
It is usually emploj^ed for binding garments, cur- 
tains, etc. The small band worn round gentle- 
men's hats is an example. It is also used as a 
trimming material, and sometimes has a scal- 
loped edge. When woven in gold or silver tinsel 
it is used as a trimming for uniforms. 

GALLOTANNIC ACID. See Tannin. 

GAL'LOWAY. An ancient province in the 
southwest of Scotland, now merged in the county 
of Wigtown and the stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 
The designation, though still in use, has no po- 
litical significance. The district, about 70 miles 
long by 40 miles broad, is famed for its moun- 
tain, lake, stream, and moorland scenery, and 
forms the peninsula terminating in Scotland's 
southernmost point, the Rhynns of Galloway, 
projecting into the Irish Sea. It is purely a 
pastoral country, remarkable for its mild climate. 
The simple inhabitants, honest and hospitable, 
but of lax morality, engage in agriculture and 
fishing. Its breeds of small horses and large, 
hornless black cattle have been known for cen- 
turies. 

The name Galloway is derived from Gall-Oael 
— foreign Gaels, so called because, topographically 
separated from their northern brethren, they pre- 
served their identity' as a distinct race down to 
the twelfth century, and their language beyond 
the fifteenth. Ptolemy styled the inhabitants 
Novanta^ and Selgova', and described their towns 
Lucophibia, Rerigonium, Uxellum, Carbantori- 
gum, etc., the sites of which have been identified. 
After the Roman evacuation Galloway came 
imder the power of the Anglians, and later of 
the Norsemen. Under the Anglians they acquired 
the name of the Picts of Galloway. In the 
twelfth century they were conquered by Malcolm 
Canmore, who made his son David Earl of 
Galloway. Wlien David ascended the throne of 
Scotland Galloway was united to the kingdom. 
The Lords of Gailoway, however, frequently re- 
volted against Scotch rule, and the periodical 
Vol. VIII. -6. 



troubles did not cease until the Lordship of Gal- 
loway was attached to the Crown in 1455. Con- 
sult: Skene, Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh, 1876) ; 
M'Kerlie, History of the Lands and Their Owners 
in Galloway (5 vols., Edinburgh, 1870-78) ; and 
Gallotoay in Ancient and Modern Times (Edin- 
burgh, 1891). 

GALLOWAY, Beverly Thomas (1863—). 
An American botanist. He was born at Millers- 
burg, Mo., and was educated at the University of 
Missouri, where he was appointed assistant in 
the department of horticulture in 1884. After 
being associated with the division of vegetable 
physiology and pathology of the United States 
Department of Agriculture for one year, he was 
appointed director of the entire department in 
1888, and in 1900 he took charge of the office 
of plant industry. 

GALLOWAY, Charles Betts ( 1849— ) . An 
American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, He was born at Kosciusko, Miss., 
and graduated at the University of Mississippi. 
He entered the ministry in 1868, and was pastor 
of several churches in his native State. An 
earnest advocate of the prohibition of the liquor 
traffic, he was long president of the Prohibition 
Executive Committee of Mississippi, carried on 
a spirited controversy with Jefferson Davis on 
that subject, and wrote a Handbook and Open 
Letters on Prohibition. His publications include 
A Circuit of the Gtobe, and Modern Missions, 
Their Evidential Value. He was for some time 
president of the Board of Education of his 
Church, a trustee of the John F. Slater Fund, 
and president of the Board of Trustees of Mill- 
saps College. 

GALLOWAY, Joseph (1731-1803). An 
American la^\'yer and pamphleteer, prominent as 
a Loyalist during the Revolutionary War. He 
was born in Kent County, Md., but early re- 
moved to Philadelphia. Almost continuously 
from 1757 to 1774 he was a member of the Penn- 
sylvania Assembly, and for twelve years was 
Speaker of the House. In 1764 he was associated 
with Franklin in the contest with the Proprietary 
Government, and, in opposition to Dickinson, 
advocated the erection of Pennsylvania into a 
royal province. On the approach of the Revo- 
lution he was a vigorous opponent of war and of 
independence. In 1774 he was chosen by the 
Assembly to be one of the Pennsylvania delegates 
to the first Continental Congress, and here 
signed the Association, and attracted general 
attention by introducing (on September 28th) his 
celebrated 'Plan of a proposed Union* between 
Great Britain and her colonies. This plan pro 
vided for a federation under British supervision 
of the American colonies, each colony to "retain 
its present constitution and powers of regulating 
and governing its own internal |)olice in all cases 
whatsoever;" for a President-General, *'to be ap- 
pointed by the King," and for a Grand Council, 
"to be chosen by the representatives of the peo- 
ple of the several colonies in their respective 
assemblies, once in every three years," and to 
mwt once a year or oftener if necessary — the 
President-General and Grand Council to consti- 
tute "an inferior distinct branch of the British 
Legislature, united and incorporated with it," for 
certain specific purposes. This scheme was 
supported in Congress by John Jay and James 



GALLOWAY. 



76 



GALLS. 



Duane, and was rejected by a vote of only six 
colonies to five. In December, 1776, Galloway 
joined the English army under Sir William 
Howe, and, on the capture of Philadelphia, be- 
came superintendent of the port, of prohibited 
articles, and of the police of the city and suburbs. 
After the evacuation of Philadelphia he accom- 
panied the British army to New York, and in 
1778 went to England, where he passed the rest 
of his life. Soon after his departure his life was 
attainted, and his property, valued at about 
£40,000, was confiscated by the Continental Con- 
gress. He was one of the ablest of the Loyalist 
pamphleteers. Among his best-known pamphlets 
are : A Candid Examination of the Mutual 
Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies 
(177.5) ; Letters to a Nohleman on the Conduct 
of the War in the Middle Colonies (1779) ; His- 
torical and Political Reflections on the Rise and 
Progress of the American Rebellion (1780) ; Cool 
Thoughts on the Consequences to Great Britain 
of American Independence (1780) ; Political Re- 
flections on the Late Colonial Governments 
(1782) ; and The Claim of the American Loyal- 
ists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incon- 
trovertible Principles of Law and Justice ( 1788) . 
Galloway also wrote Brief Commentaries upon 
such Parts of the Revelations and Other Proph- 
ecies as Immediately Refer to the Present Times 
(1802), and The Prophetic or Anticipated His- 
tory of the Church of Rome, Written and Pub- 
lished more than Six Hundred Years Before the 
Rise of that Church (1803). Consult: Balch 
(ed.), The Examinxition of Joseph Galloway by 
a Committee of the House of Commons (Phila- 
delphia, 1855) ; Tyler, Literary History of the 
American Revolution (New York, 1897) ; and 
Baldwin, "Galloway, the Loyalist Politician," in 
the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biog- 
raphy, vol. xxvi. (Philadelphia, 1902). 

GALLOWAY, Mull of. A rocky headland 
terminating the Rhynns of Galloway, in Wig- 
townshire, the southernmost point of Scotland 
( Map : Scotland, D 5 ) . It is one and a half 
miles long, a quarter of a mile broad, rises to a 
height of 210 feet, and is crowned by a light- 
house 325 feet above the level of the sea, visible 
25 miles. 

GALLOWS HILL. The name given to a hill 
in the neighborhood of Salem, Mass. On it dur- 
ing the witchcraft mania of 1692 a number of 
victims were hanged as witches. It is also called 
Witch Hill. 

GALLS. In plants, deformities caused by the 
presence of foreign living organisms in the tis- 
sues, by substances which these organisms have 
produced, or by both causes combined. The tech- 
nical term 'cecidium' has been proposed as a sub- 
stitute for 'gall,' with the purpose of using it with 
prefixes to indicate origin, e.g. myco-cecidium for 
gall produced by fungi ; diptero-cecidium for gall 
due to gnats, etc. The organism producing the 
gall is usually either an insect or a fungus, 
although some galls are due to the attack of 
slime-molds ( Myxomycetes ) , algse, bacteria, or 
worms. Galls sliow a great diversity of form. 
The deformity is due primarily to an exag- 
gerated growth of the tissues normally present 
in the plant organ aflFected, although the tissues 
frequently have their cells much altered in form 
and size; secondarily the gall is due to the 



development of special tissues peculiar to galls. 
The development of the gall is sometimes due 
to the substance injected by the insect at the 
time of biting or egg-laying, but more commonly 




Fig. 1. FLOWER OF BADISH, 

greatly enlarged and deformed by a fungus, Albugo Can- 
dida. 

it depends upon the presence of the egg or 
larva, whose excreta or movements supply the 
necessary stimulus. Attempts to produce galls 
artificially by injuries or injections have failed. 
Galls produced by parasitic plants are usually 
due to the presence of the organism, and since 
these are immobile the initial cause must be 
looked for in the excreta of the attacking plant 
( Fig. 1 ) . Examples of galls produced by plants 
are the wens and tumors of various sizes and 
forms common upon leaves and stems infested 
by parasitic fungi (Fig. 2). They are not easily 




Fig. 2. 8HOOT of juniper, 

enlarged and deformed by the presence of a fungus, Oym- 

nosporangiam clavisaforme. 

distinguished in form from similar galls produced 
by insects. The club-root (q.v.) of cabbage and 
turnips, due to the attack of slime-molds, and the 
tubercles upon the roots of Leguminosae, due to 



GALLS. 77 

bacteria-like parasites, are examples of root-galls 
(Fig. 3). See Gall-Insects. 



GALLY. 




FlO. 3. BOOT-TUBEBCLES OP A LEODMINOUS PLANT, THE PEA, 

produced by the Infection of the roots with Bacillus 
radicicola. 

GALL-STONE. See Calculus. 

GALLUPPI, g^-loop'pe, Pasquale (1770- 
1846). An Italian philosopher. He was born 
in Calabria of a noble family, and educated 
in the University of Naples. He entered the 
Government service, and for the greater part 
of hia life he had a position in the Finance 
Department. Though apart from academic in- 
fluences, he pursued his favorite studies; and it 
was not till he had reached the age of sixty and 
had become widely known by his philosophical 
writings that he was called to a chair in the 
University of Naples, which he held till his 
death. Galluppi's first work was an essay on 
analysis and synthesis (1807). This Vas fol- 
lowed by the important Saggio filosofico sulla 
critica della conoscenza (6 vols., 1819-32). 
Among his other works is to be mentioned Ele- 
mcnti di filofiofia (1820-27). Galluppi was a 
thorough-going opponent of the sensationalistic 
philosophy prevalent in Italy at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century. He founds his system 
upon the "original fact of the ego, which per- 
ceives something existing outside of itself," thus 
closely affiliating himself with the Scottish School, 
by which he was greatly influenced. But in the 
spirit of Kant he failed to see how experience 
can give a knowledge of relations, l)ecause he 
regarded relations as the result of conscious ac- 
tivity. His ethics was distinctively Kantian. 
Consult Lnstrueci, Pasquale (laUuppi, studio 
critico (Florence, 1890). 

GAL'LUS. A famous storv of Roman life bv 
W. A. Becker (1838). The work is important 
for its faitliful reproductions of Roman customs 
under Augustus, and for the great amount of 
archjeological information contained in it. It 
has been translated into various languages and 
still serves as a handbook for students. 



GALLTJS, Gaius Corxelius (b.c. 66-26). A 
Roman poet, orator, and general, born of a hum- 
ble family at Forum lulii (now Frejus) in South- 
eastern Gaul. At an early age, like many provin- 
cials, he went to Rome for an education, and 
attended the lectures of the Epicurean philoso- 
pher Syron. Vergil and Varus were his fellow 
pupils, and the three became firm friends. He 
had the fortune, also, to gain the good will and 
friendship of Asinius Pollio, one of the greatest 
Romans of the time; and when Octavius (after- 
wards Augustus) returned to Italy from the East 
after the assassination of Julius Caesar, Gallus 
heartily joined his party, and was given the 
important charge of assigning lands in North 
Italy to the veterans of Octavius's army. On 
this occasion he was able materially to help his 
friend Vergil, who was a native of Mantua. At 
the battle of Actium, Gallus commanded a divi- 
sion of Octavius's forces, and afterwards was 
sent, as general, into Egypt, where he defeated 
the armies of Antonius, and captured Cleopatra, 
whom he kept as a prisoner in her palace. Upon 
her death in B.C. 30, Egypt was turned into a 
Roman province, with Gallus as its first Gov- 
ernor. He ruled in Egypt for four years, largely 
with success, but not without making enemies; 
and an unfortunate remark about Augustus was 
brought to the Emperor's notice, with many 
other charges. Gallus was accordingly deprived 
of his rank and estates, and ordered into exile; 
but he preferred death, and committed suicide 
by falling upon his sword in B.C. 26. Gallus at- 
tained great renown among his contemporaries as 
a poet and an orator. He was the author of four 
books of elegies, and Ovid claimed for him the 
first place among the Roman elegiac poets; but 
none of his writings has survived. It was at the 
request of Gallus that Vergil wrote his tenth 
Eclogue. In modern times he has been made the 
hero of a well-known antiquarian story, Gallus, 
by Becker, which was translated into English by 
Metcalf (London, 1886). 

GALLUS, Gaius Vibius Trebonlanus (e.205- 
C.254). Roman Emperor from 251 to 254. He 
served under Decius in the campaign against the 
Goths, in 251, and is said to have contributed by 
his perfidy to the disastrous battle in which 
Decius was killed. Thereupon he was elected 
Emperor, and shortly afterwards purchased peace 
with the Goths by permitting them to retain 
their plunder and their captiveB and promising 
them a fixed annual tribute. In 253 the Empire 
was again invaded by the Goths, but they were 
defeated in ISIcesia by .Emilianus, whose troops 
proclaimed him Emperor. Gallus marched forth 
to suppress the rebellion, but was killed by his 
own soldiers before there had been any collision 
between the opposing armies. 

GAL'LY, Merritt (18.38—). An American 
inventor, born near Rochester, N. Y. He learned 
the printing trade, graduated at Rochester Uni- 
versity in 1863, studied at the Auburn Theologi- 
cal Seminary, and in 1866 was ordained to the 
ministry of the Presbyterian Church. After 
throe years of pastoral work, however, he was 
compelled by the loss of his voice to withdraw 
from the pulpit, and turned his attention to 
mwhanics. He invented the Universal printing- 
presM, built an establishment for the manufacture 
of presses, and obtjiined many patents on appli- 
ances connected with printing machinery. His 



GALLY. 78 

experiments in regard to automatic musical in- 
struments resulted in the invention of the 
'orchestrone,' and of the so-called counterpoise 
pneumatic system employed in similar contri- 
vances. His patents, more than four hundred in 
number, also include a machine for the manufac- 
ture of printer's types from cold metal by a 
process of swaging. 

GALOIS, ga'lwa', Evariste (1811-32). A 
French mathematician, born at Bourg-la-Reine, 
near Paris, and killed in a duel at Paris at the 
age of twenty and a half years. While yet a 
pupil in the College de Louis-le-Grand he pub- 
lished in Gergonne's Annales, vol. xix. (1828), a 
memoir entitled Demonstration d'un theoreme 
sur les fractimis continues periodiques. Enter- 
ing the Ecole Normale in 1830, he wrote in the 
next two years six memoirs on the theory of 
equations and the theory of numbers. Galois 
may justly be said to be the founder of the theory 
of groups ( see Substitutions ) , and, with Abel 
and Cauchy, to have been one of the founders of 
the theory of functions. A well-known theorem 
on the solubility by radicals of irreducible equa- 
tions of prime degree bear his name. His works 
attracted little attention when they first ap- 
peared, but their value became recognized when 
Liouville collected them in his Journal, vol. ii. 
His works were published under the auspices of 
the Society MatMmatique de France, with an 
introduction by Picard (Paris, 1897). 

GALOP, ga'16' (Fr., gallop). A very lively 
German round dance in two-four time. It was in- 
troduced into France early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, but its popularity is now confined chiefly to 
Germany. It is similar to the waltz (q.v. ), but 
is less graceful and more animated. 

GALT, gait. A town in Waterloo County, On- 
tario, Can., on both sides of the Grand River, 
about 55 miles from its entrance into Lake Erie 
(Map: Ontario, C 4) . Among its industrial estab- 
lishments are woolen-factories, iron-foundries, 
and extensive flour-mills. The manufacture of 
edge tools is carried on to a large extent, and the 
trade is greatly promoted by the Great Western 
Railway. The eastern and western parts of the 
town are connected by bridges. • There are a 
collegiate institute and an extensive library and 
public reading-room in connection with a me- 
chanics' institute. The town is principally built 
of stone, and has gas, electric lighting, and water- 
works. The United States is represented by a 
consular agent. The environs of the town are 
noted for their beauty. The inhabitants num- 
bered, in 1891, 7535; in 1901, 7866, the majority 
being of Scotch descent. The town was named 
after John Gait, the Scotch author. 

GALT, Sir Alexander Tilloch ( 1817-93) . A 
Canadian financier and statesman. He was born 
in Chelsea, London, was educated privately, and 
in 1835 removed to Sherbrooke, Lower Canada, 
where he had been appointed to a clerkship in a 
colonization society. He remained in the service 
of this company until 1856, and during the latter 
half of the period was its manager. He began 
his public career as a Liberal member of the 
Provincial Parliament in 1849, but opposed the 
Liberal Government. He resigned in the same 
year, and did not enter Parliament again until 
1853, after which he served continuously until 
1872. Such was the reputation he established 



GALT. 

that on the fall of the Brown-Dorion Cabinet in 
1858 he was called upon to form an administra- 
tion, but declined. Subsequently he joined the 
Cartier-Macdonald Cabinet as Inspector-General 
of the Finances, demanding as a condition of his 
taking office that the administration should 
pledge itself to further a federation of the British 
colonies in North America. He went out of office 
with the fall of the Ministry in 1862, but held 
the Finance portfolio in the Tache-Macdonald Ad- 
ministration from 1864 to 1866. He was active in 
the promotion of the plan for federation, was a 
delegate at the Charlottetown and Quebec con- 
ference in 1864, and in 1865 was one of the 
delegates to England to urge Imperial support of 
the plan for union. After the inauguration of 
the Federal Government he became first Finance 
Minister of the Dominion of Canada, and secured 
the issue of legal-tender notes which form the 
basis of the present currency of the Dominion. 
He resigned in 1868, and afteT 1872 his public 
services were for the most part of a diplomatic 
nature. He served twice as Commissioner to 
negotiate with the United States, and from 1880 
to 1883 was High Commissioner of the Dominion 
in England. He was the author of a number of 
important pamphlets of a political nature, in- 
cluding Church and State in Canada (1876); 
Civil Liberty in Lower Canada (1876) ; Future 
of the Dominion of Canada (1881) ; and Rela- 
tions of the Colonies to the Empire: Present and 
Future (1883). 

GALT, John (1779-1839). A Scotch novelist. 
He was born in Irvine, Ayrshire, May 2, 1779. 
The family removing to Greenock, Gait was edu- 
cated there, and then placed in the custom- 
house. He wrote poems and contributed to the 
newspapers. In 1804 he migrated to London. 
As a commercial agent, he traveled on the Conti- 
nent, going as far east as Constantinople. On 
a part of the voyage he was associated with Lord 
Byron, whose life he afterwards wrote. As secre- 
tary of the Canada Company, he was in Canada 
for three years ( 1826-29) . Returning to England 
and then to Scotland, he devoted the rest of hia 
life to miscellaneous literary work. He died at 
Greenock, April 11, 1839. Gait's poetry, plays, 
and biographies have little interest. But he 
holds a secure place in the progress of English 
fiction by his sketches of Scotch life, among 
which are Ayrshire Legatees (1820) ; The Annals 
of the Parish (1821); and La^t of the Lairds 
( 1826 ) . The Omen ( 1825 ) was praised by Scott ; 
and Laurie Todd (1830) has especial interest, 
as it contains admirable sketches of frontier life 
in America. Gait undertook to rival Scott in 
historical fiction, and failed miserably. Consult 
his Autobiography (London, 1833). His novels 
were edited by Meldrum (8 vols., London, 1895- 
96). 

GALT, Sir Thomas (1815—). A Canadian 
jurist, son of John Gait (q.v.), born in London, 
England. He was educated there and in Scotland, 
but emigrated to Canada in 1832. He found 
employment for six years with the Canada Land 
Company, of which his father was superintend- 
ent, but afterwards studied law, and began to 
practice in Toronto (1845). He was made 
Queen's Counsel (1858), Chief Justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas (1887), was knighted 
(1888), and retired in 1894. 



GALTON. 



79 



GALVANI. 



GAIiTON, gal'ton, Sir Douglas Stbutt 
(1822-99). An English scientist and engineer, 
born at Spring Hill, near Birmingham. He was 
educated chiefly at Rugby and the Royal Military 
Academy (Woolwich) ; was appointed second 
lieutenant of engineers in 1840, and rose to be 
captain in 1855. In 1847 he was appointed sec- 
retary to the Railway Commission, and in 1854 
secretary to the Railway Department of the 
Board of Trade, in which capacity he visited the 
United States in 1856 to inspect railways there. 
He became a member of the commission on sani- 
tary conditions in military hospitals and barracks 
in 1858, and in 1859 chairman of the Govern- 
ment committee for the investigation of sub- 
marine cables. From 1860 to 1862 he was assist- 
ant inspector-general of fortifications, in 1862-70 
assistant Under-Secretary of State for War, and 
from 1869 until his retirement in 1875 director 
of public works and buildings in the Office of 
Works. He was general secretary of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science from 
1871 to 1895, and a member of the council of 
the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1888-90. 
He was best known for his studies in connection 
with army sanitation, and his improvements in 
the construction of hospitals and barracks won 
for him a high reputation both in England and 
on the Continent. A ventilating grate for fire- 
places, invented by him and known under his 
name, was at one time widely used. His publi- 
cations include: Sanitary Engineering (1877); 
The Construction of Healthy Dwellings (1880) ; 
Ventilating, Warming, and JAghting (1884); 
Army Sanitation (1887) ; and Healthy Hospitals 
(1893). 

GALTON, Francis (1822—). An English 
man of science, born at Birmingham, England, 
the third son of S. T. Galton and Violetta, eld- 
est daughter of Erasmus Darwin. He was edu- 
cated at King Edward's School, Birmingham, 
at the Birmingham General Hospital, at King's 
College, London, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was graduated B.A. in 1844. 
During 1846-47 he traveled in Egypt far beyond 
the temples and cataracts of the Nile to the 
Sudan, at that time almost unexplored. As a 
result of the stimulus given by this expedition 
he started in 1850 to explore in South Africa. 
In company with J. C. Andersson, he landed his 
expedition at Walfisch Bay, and from August, 
1850, to January, 1852, he was engaged in the ex- 
ploration of Damaraland (German Southwest 
Africa). In these travels he discovered the 
Ovampo race, a partly civilized, agricultural peo- 
ple. As a result of this exploration the whole 
country from Lake Ngami to the seacoast, be- 
tween 18° and 23" S. latitude, became known for 
the first time. The scientific results of the ex- 
pedition were published in the Royal Qcographi- 
cal Society's Journal for 1852, and in his book, 
yarrativc of an Explorer in Tropical South 
Africa. Galton also published Art of Travel, or 
Shifts and Contrivances in Wild Countries 
(1855), which has gone through several editions, 
has won well-merited appreciation, and exhibits 
Galton's characteristic ingenuity. About this 
time Gnlton turned his attention especially to 
meteorology, the result of which was his Meteoro- 
graph ira. or Methods of Mapping the Weather 
{ 1863) , which is the basis of our present familiar 
weather maps. The theory of anticyclones, which 



is at the foundation of our weather forecasts, was 
also proposed by him, and various inventions re- 
lating to meteorologic and geographic affairs 
were given out by him from this period to 1881. 
This interest in the statistical science of meteor- 
ology had an importance in Galton's future 
work. In 1869 was published his Hereditary 
Genius, and from that time on his anthropologi- 
cal and biological interests, first awakened in 
Africa, became uppermost. In 1873 he first be- 
gan to apply statistics to anthropology, especial- 
ly those of children. In 1874 appeared his Eng- 
lish Men of Science, and in 1883 his Inquiries 
into Human Faculty. Meanwhile, he invented 
the method of composite portraiture and various 
measuring apparatuses in psychology. In 1883 
he sought for quantitative data on inheritance, 
and issued his blank Record of Family Faculties, 
of which 150 were filled out and sent to him 
for study. The results of these studies appeared 
in his Natural Inheritance (1889), in which the 
quantitative method of studying variation is de- 
veloped. In 1892 was published his Finger 
Prints, and shortly after his Index of Finger 
Prints. In his paper published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society on The Law of Ances- 
tral Inheritance, he put the study of heredity on 
a quantitative basis. 

GALTON WHISTLE. See Psychological 
Appabatus. 

GALUPPI, g4-loop'p$, Baldassare (1706- 
85). An Italian composer. He was sumamed 
II Bueanello, from the island of Burano, near 
Venice, the place of his birth. He was 
the pupil of his father, a barber, who was a 
good violinist. Although the composer of many 
operas and smaller works, all are now forgotten 
except a sonata for the harpsichord, which is 
included in the Alte Klaviermusik of Pauer. His 
principal success was in comic opera, by which 
he gained the title of 'father of Italian comic 
opera.' Apart from this, he is of some impor- 
tance historically, owing to his connection with 
the growth of music in Russia. His principal 
appointments and tours were: 1741, tour to 
England; 1762-64, master of music at San 
Marco, Venice, and director of the Conservatorio 
degli Incurabili; 1765-68, Maestro to Catharine 
II. of Russia; and afterwards, up to the end of 
his career, director again of the Incurabili in 
Venice. He died in Venice. 

GALVANI, gil-vii'n^, Lrioi (1737-98). A 
famous Italian physician and anatomist, and the 
discoverer of current or 'galvanic' electricity. 
He was born at Bologna, and at an early age re- 
linquished an intention of entering the Church, 
to follow the profession of medicine, devoting 
himself to the study of physiology and compara- 
tive anatomy. He married the daughter of Ga- 
leazzi, a distinguished member of the medical 
faculty of Bologna, whom he succeeded in 1762 
as professor of anatomy. His writings, though 
not numerous, contain valuable scientific matter, 
and are characterized by a rare precision and 
minuteness of detail. Two treatises which added 
considerably to his reputation are: Considera- 
tions on the Urinary Organs of Birds, and On 
*lhc Organs of Hearing of Birds. It is to a 
purely casual discovery, however, that Galvani 
owes the wide celebrity attached to his name. It 
is related that Galvani's wife happened one day 



GALVANI. 



80 



GALVANIZED IRON. 



to notice the convulsive muscular movements 
produced in a skinned frog when the nerve of 
the leg was accidentally touched by a scalpel 
which lay on the table, and had become charged 
by contact with an adjoining electric machine. 
She communicated the phenomenon to her hus- 
band, who instituted a prolonged series of ex- 
periments (1790). He came to the conclusion that 
the source of electricity lay in the nerve, and 
that the metals which are necessary served mere- 
ly as conductors. (See Electricity; and Elec- 
tricity, Animal. ) In consequence of his refusal 
to take the oaths prescribed in 1797 by the Cisal- 
pine Republic, of which Bologna formed a part, 
he was deprived of his position and income, but 
was subsequently restored. A statue of Galvani 
was unveiled at Bologna in 1879. His writings 
have been chiefly published in the memoirs of the 
Bologna Institute of Sciences, including the 
treatise entitled De Virihus Electricitatis in 
Motu Musculari Comment arius (1792), which 
contained an account of his discovery and ex- 
periments, and translated into German is to 
be found in Ostwald's Klassiker der Exakten 
Wissenschaften, No. 52 (Leipzig, 1894). A com- 
plete set of his works was published at Bologna 
in 1841. See Galvanic Battery; Voltaic Cell 
OR Battery. 

GALVANIC BATTERY. The names of Gal- 
vani and Volta have both become inseparably 
associated with the earliest device to produce 
a continuous current of electricity — a device now 
commonly known as a voltaic cell. In its simplest 
form it consisted of a strip of zinc and one of 
copper immersed in a solution of salt, or of an 
alkali. 

Galvani, in 1786, made the capital discovery 
that freshly prepared frogs' legs, hung by a 
copper wire on an iron balcony, twitched con- 
vulsively whenever the flesh touched the iron. 
He rightly ascribed this effect to electricity, but 
erroneously supposed that it proved the existence 
of animal electricity generated by nerves and 
muscles. Volta showed by experiment that Gal- 
vani was wrong, but he made the equally erro- 
neous assumption that the electricity was due to 
the contact of the two dissimilar* metals. His 
experiments led, however, to the invention of the 
celebrated 'crown of cups' about 1800, consisting 
of a number of simple elements or cells joined in 
series, the copper strip of one being connected 
with the zinc of the next. Such cells and their 
less simple successors are therefore properly 
called voltaic cells, though the word 'galvanism' 
is still retained in medical literature to denote 
the current obtained from them. 

When Davy, in 1801, substituted dilute acid 
for Volta's salt or alkaline solution, it was found 
that there was local action which caused the 
zinc to waste away. Kemp and Sturgeon, in 
1830, drew attention to the fact that a diminu- 
tion of this local action was brought about by 
the amalgamation of the zinc plate. The amal- 
gamation consists in forming a mercury-zinc al- 
loy on the surface of the zinc. This is best 
done by first cleaning the zinc by rubbing it 
with dilute sulphuric acid, and then applying 
a small quantity of mercury. The amalgamated 
zinc plate acts like pure zinc, and wasteful local 
action is largely prevented. See Voltaic Cell 
OR Battery for a full discussion of primary 
cells and batteries. 



GAL'VANISM. See Electricity. 
GALVANIZED IRON. Iron which has been 
coated with zinc, to prevent it from rusting. The 
iron is simply dipped or immersed in melted zinc, 
not coated by any galvanic process, as its name 
would imply. The process of galvanizing iron 
is now practiced on a most extensive scale. The 
French chemist Dumas states that so long ago 
as 1742 Malouin knew of a plan for coating iron 
with zinc. At all events, it is stated in Bishop 
Watson's Chemical Essays, issued in 1786, that 
a method (essentially the same as that now in 
use for zincing iron) was then practiced at 
Rouen for coating hammered iron saucepans with 
zinc, and some details of the operation are given. 
The first English patent for galvanizing iron 
was granted to H. W. Craufurd in 1837, and 
another for the zincing of iron which had been 
previously tinned was taken out by E. Morewood 
in 1821. The process as employed by Craufurd, 
which is still essentially unchanged, was first to 
remove the rust and scale from the iron by pick- 
ling — that is, immersing it in dilute sulphuric or 
hydrochloric acid, either hot or cold, although 
the former state was preferred; and for this pur- 
pose the acid was kept warm in a large leaden 
bath, sunk in the ground for easier access. After 
the sheets or other articles of iron had been 
acted upon by the acid for a few minutes more 
or less, according to their requirements, they 
were plunged into cold water, to remove the 
acid, and afterwards scoured with sand, and 
again washed clean with water. The iron being 
now ready to receive its coating of zinc, it is 
plunged into a bath of that metal, which, pre- 
vious to its being melted, is coated with a thick 
layer of dry sal ammoniac (chloride of am- 
monium) ; this melts also, and forms a viscid 
coating over the metal, which prevents that rapid 
oxidation to which the molten metal is otherwise 
liable. 

For inferior material the scouring with sand 
is usually dispensed with. The sheets of iron 
are then made to pass between two iron rollers 
in the zinc bath, and are thus more easily drawn 
through and kept perfectly smooth. Ships' bolts, 
nails, screws, chains, etc., are dipped in, in 
bundles, or in the case of nails, etc., in iron 
strainers; when removed, the zinc makes them 
adhere together; and to effect their separation, 
they have to be placed in a crucible with powdered 
charcoal, in which they are heated to redness, 
and repeatedly shaken as they cool; by this 
means they are easily separated. 

Galvanized iron is largely u^ed in the form of 
sheets, both plain and corrugated, for roofs, 
sheds, and cisterns; in the state of wire, besides 
that used in telegraphs, a large quantity is em- 
ployed for wire ropes, netting, and the like; and 
it has innumerable minor applications, such as 
for water-vessels, ship-fittings, and many other 
articles formerly made of wood, copper, brass, 
slate, etc. For most of these purposes the zinc 
coating is much more lasting and less trouble- 
some than they would be; but still in certain 
situations, as where it is exposed to the action of 
sulphurous compounds in smoke, and where its 
surface is brought directly into contact with 
other deleterious chemical substances, its use can- 
not be recommended ; and in these circumstances 
other plans should be resorted to for the protec- 
tion of the iron. 



GALVANIZED IRON. 



The plan adopted for making the variety of 
galvanized iron called galvanized tinvxire is as 
follows: The sheets or other articles, after being 
pickled, and scoured, and washed, as in the usual 
process, are transferred to a large wooden bath. 
On the bottom of the bath is first placed a layer 
of finely granulated zinc, then a sheet of iron, 
then another layer of granulated zinc, and so 
on as far as convenient; and the bath is filled up 
with a diluted solution of chloride of tin, so that 
by means of the galvanic action produced the tin 
becomes deposited thinly over the sheets of iron. 
The plates are then taken to the zinc bath, pre- 
pared exactly as in the ordinary process, where 
they are dipped or passed through the rollers. 
By this process a very even deposit of zinc is 
produced, and the material so made is preferred 
for some purposes to ordinary galvanized iron, 
although its properties are much the same. 

GAL'VANOM^TER (from galvanic -f Gk. 
fjL^rpov, mctron, measure). An instrument for 
detecting the presence of an electric current and 
measuring its magnitude. It consists of a coil of in- 
sulated wire surrounding a magnet, freely hung or 
pivoted so as to be easily deflected by the passage 
of a current through the coil. The wire forming the 
coil is so wound that each turn lies in a plane 
approximately parallel to the axis of the needle 
or magnet when at rest. The current in passing 
through the coil or bobbin of insulated wire pro- 
duces a magnetic field in the space in which the 
needle hangs and tends to swing the needle 
around, until it hangs crosswise in the coil. The 
force tending to deflect the needle is proportion- 
ate to the strength of this field, or, what is the 
same thing, the strength of the current producing 
it, and to the length and strength of the needle, 
while the magnetic force of the earth acts to 
keep the needle in the direction of the magnetic 
meridian. Under the influence of these two forces 
the needle will come to rest in a position where 
they are in equilibrum. As the shape and 
strength of the magnetic needle, speaking broad- 
ly, remain the same in a given galvanometer, 
the instrument affords a means of measuring the 
strength of any current passed through it, by 
the amount of motion imparted to the needle. 

These conditions can be reversed and the coil 
suspended and the magnetic field produced by a 
permanently mounted magnet, as in the case of 
the D'Arsonval galvanometer described l)elow. 
Galvanometers are constructed in a great variety 
of forms, specially suited to various uses, from 
simple instruments for merely indicating the 
presence of a current to extremely elaborate ap- 
paratus for making measurements of great ac- 
curacy. The action of the galvanometer depends 
upon the following principle discovered by Oers- 
1(d in 1820: When a magnetic needle is placed 
under a straight wire, through which a current 
passes, it is dellected to a certain extent, and 
when the wire is bent, so as also to pass below 
the needle, it is deflected still more. The north 
pole of the needle is deflected to the left if the 
current is flowing from south to north in a con- 
ductor which is ])ln('ed above the needle, and vice 
versa when the conditions are reversed. The di- 
rection of the deflection can be remembered by 
Ampere's rule whicli state.s that supposing a man 
swimming .along the conductor in the direction of 
the flow of the current and always facing the 
needle, the latter will be deflected toward his 



81 GALVANOMETER. 

left hand. The current in the upper and the 
lower wire moves in opposite directions, but as 
they are on opposite sides of the needle, the de- 
flection caused by both wires is in the same direc- 
tion. By thus doubling the wire, we double the 
deflecting force. Schweiggers and Poggendorf 
soon ascertained that if the wire, instead of 
making only one circuit round the needle, were 
to make two, the force would be again double, 
and if several, the force (leaving out of account 
the weakening of the current caused by the addi- 
tional wire) would be increased in proportion. 
If the circuits of the wire are so multiplied as to 
form a coil, this force would be enormously in- 
creased, and the galvanometer rendered more 
sensitive. These early galvanometers were called 




FlO 1. ASTATIC NEEDLE AND COIL. 

multipliers, and have been much used. The next 
improvement in the instrument was due to Nobili, 
who employed two needles, placed parallel to 
each other as nearly as possible, with their poles 
turned opposite ways and suspended by a thread 
without twist. These needles have little tendency 
to place themselves in the magnetic meridian, for 
one tends to move in a contrary direction to 
the other. If they were exactly equivalent, 
they would remain indifferently in any posi- 
tion; but they cannot be so accurately paired 
as this, for they almost always take up a 
fixed position, arising from the one being some- 
what stronger than the other. Such a compound 
needle is called astatic, as the magnetic influence 
of the earth does not determine the direction in 
which it will point. If an astatic needle be 
placed in a coil, so that the lower needle be with- 
in the coil, and 
the upper one 
above it, its de 
flections will be 
greater than those 
of a simple needle, 
for two reasons. 
In the first place, 
the power which 
keeps the needle 
in its fixed \H)si- 
tion is small, and 
the needle is con- 
sequently more 
easily influenced ; 
in the second 
place, the force 
of the coil is ex- 
,erted in the same 
direction on two 
needles instead of one, for the upper needle, 
being much nearer the upper part of the coil than 
the lower, is deflected alone by it. and the de- 
flection is in the same direction as that of the 
lower needle. An astatic needle so placed in a 
coil constitutes an astatic galvanometer. The 
coil is formed of fine cop|>er wire, insulated with 
silk, and wound on a frame or bobbin. The as- 




Fig. 2. A8TATIC OALVANOMBTBB. 



GALVANOMETKR. 



82 



GALVANOMETER. 



tatic needle is placed in this bobbin, which is 
provided with a vertical slit^ to admit the lower 
needle, and a lateral slit, to allow of its oscilla- 
tions, and is suspended by a cocoon fibre from a 
hook supported by a brass frame. The upper 
needle moves over a graduated circle, and the en- 
tire system hangs freely, without touching the 
bobbin. The instrument is inclosed in a glass 
case, and rests on a stand, supported by three 
leA-eling screws. When used, the bobbin carrying 
the divided circle with it is turned until the 
needle stands at the zero point of the scale, and 




l"'l'il|i|l|i|lllliiiii|IIIN'i|ii|iiii|||itiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiii iiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmmF 

Fig. 3. Thomson reflecting galvanometek 
(single coil). 

the wires through which the current is sent are 
joined to the bending posts, which connect with 
the terminals of the coil. The number of degrees 
that the needles are deflected under the action of 
the current may then be read off, showing the 
strength of the current. 

For most kinds of testing and measurement 
extremely sensitive galvanometers are required. 
Of these, the reflecting galvanometer, designed 
by Sir William Thomson, is one of the standard 
types. It is shown in the illustration. In this 
instrument a reading is made by the use of a ray 
of light reflected upon a screen from a mirror 
attached to the needle 
so that even the small- 
est motion is shown. 
The Thomson galva- 
nometer consists of a 
pair of astatic needles 
attached by shellac or 
other adhesive material 
to a mirror made of 
very thin microscope 
glass. This is super- 
seded by a single fibre 
of raw silk in the cen- 
tre of a coil containing 
many thousand turns 
of fine wire. The whole 
is suitably protected 
from currents of air by 
a glass case, and the 
base is mounted upon 
leveling screws, so that 
the hanging needle may 
be adjusted to swing 
freely in the centre of 
the coil. The needle is 
caused to point to zero 
of the scale by a pow- 
erful magnet outside of the case which is ad- 
justable as to direction by a tangent screw, 
and may be removed to any distance to weaken 
its effect upon the needier or increase its sensitive- 




TH0M80N DOUBLE 
GALVANOMETER. 



ness. This galvanometer is much used in all 
kinds of testing work and for reading the delicate 
signals in ocean telegraphy. Increased sensitive- 
ness may be obtained by using two sets of coils 
and needles, while there have been Thomson gal- 
vanometers constructed in which there were four 
such sets of coils. 

For experimental work and laboratory demon- 
strations the tangent galvanometer is used. This- 
instrument is shown in the illustration. It con- 




Fig. 5. TANGENT GALVANOMETER. 

sists essentially of a thick strip or wire of copper 
bent into the form of a circle, from one to two 
feet in diameter, with a small magnetic needle 
with pointers of thin glass fibres moving on a 
graduated circle, at its centre, supplied with a 
mirror. When the needle is small compared with 
the ring, it may be assumed that the needle, in 
whatever direction it lies, holds the same relative 
position to the disturbing power of the ring. 
This being the ease, it is easy to .prove that 
the strengths of currents circulating in the rings 
are proportional to the tangents of the angles 
of deviation of the needles. Thus, if the deflec- 
tion caused by one voltaic cell was 45°, and of 
another 60°, the relative strengths of the currents 
sent by each would be as the tangent of 45° to 
the tangent of 60°, viz., as 1 to 1.73. The needle 
can never be deflected 90°, for as the tangent of 
90° is infinitely large, the strength of the de- 
viating current must be infinitely great, a 
strength manifestly unattainable. The tangent 
galvanometer can consequently be used to 
measure very strong currents. 

A common or detector galvanometer is an in- 
strument used in ordinary shop work, and for 
outdoor testing, where a portable instrument is 
required, and the other forms are too delicate. 
It contains a large magnetic needle or compass 
swinging upon a pivot. A small cavity formed 
in an agate let into the centre of the needle is 
usually employed to prevent friction in swinging 
upon the pivot. The coils of wire are placed un- 
derneath the dial bearing the graduations over 
which the needle swings, and the whole is in- 
closed in a round brass box, with a glass cover 
over the needle. For convenience, a circuit-clos- 
ing key for admitting current to the coil is often 



GALVANOMETER. 



83 



GALVESTON. 




Fig. 6. 



D AR80NVAL GALVANO- 
MBTEK. 



built into the case and permanently connected 
with the coils. Such a galvanometer is often used 
in connection with a set of resistances for making 
measurements of resistance by the Wheatstone 
bridge (q.v.), and in that case the apparatus is 
known as a combination or portable testing set. 

The D'Arsonval Galvanometer is quite dif- 
ferent in its underlying principle from the in- 
struments already described, for instead of hav- 
ing the magnet suspended and deflected under 
the influence of the current in a surrounding 
coil of wire, the coil itself is suspended between 
the poles of a compound horseshoe magnet. This 
coil is made of fine 
copper wire, wound on 
a rectangular frame 
of thin copper, and 
suspended by a fine 
wire of silver or cop- 
per, through which 
the current flows to 
the coil. The other 
end of the coil is con- 
nected to a similar 
wire, which leads to 
one of the binding 
posts, the supporting 
wire being connected 
with the other. The 
coil can thus oscillate 
freely in the space be- 
tween the two mag- 
nets, and is in a 
strong magnetic field. 
When a current flows through the coil an op- 
posing field is set up, and the coil, being free 
to move, is deflected. The motion of the coil can 
be determined either by a light pointer or by 
means of a mirror and a reflected beam, as in 
the case of the Thomson galvanometer. The 
D'Arsonval galvanometer is, perhaps, at the pres- 
ent time the most used of any form of galva- 
nometer, since it is not affected by any external 
magnetic influences, and is easily adjusted. It 
is also aperiodic, or 'dead beat,' the coil com- 
ing to rest almost instantly and thus saving 
much time to the observer. For these and other 
reasons this galvanometer is extensively used for 
making tests and measurements, and certain 
modifications have been introduced, so as to ren- 
der the apparatus portable and indicate current 
and electromotive force directly by means of a 
pointer and scale. These instruments form the 
most accurate ammeters and voltmeters. 

The Ballistic Galvanometer is intended to 
measure currents of extremely brief duration, 
such as those produced by the discharge of a 
condenser or by induction, and a magnetic needle 
is employed that has a period of vibration 
amounting often to several seconds. Instead of 
coming to rest after its deflection by the current, 
the needle will continue to oscillate, as tliore are 
no damping devices, and as the needle itself has 
considerable mass. When used to measure a 
momentary current, the deflection does not begin 
to move i)ractically until the current has passed, 
and then the throw of the needle is noted. This 
instrument is used to determine the capacity of a 
condenser and to metisure self-induction. Con- 
sult Kem])e, Handbook of Electrical Testing (Cth 
e<l., London, 1900) ; Thompson, FAementary Lea- 
sons in Electricity and Magnetism (New York, 



1901), contains a full elementary description of 
galvanometers and the theory of their action. 

GAI/VESTON. A city, port of entry, and the 
county-seat of Galveston County, Tex., on Gal- 
veston Island, at the mouth of Galveston Bay, 
50 miles southeast of Houston; on the Southern 
Pacific, the International and Great Northern, 
the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, the Gulf, Colo- 
rado and Santa Fe, and other railroads (Map: 
Texas, G 5). Regular steamship communication 
is maintained with important European, Mexi- 
can, and Cuban ports, and there are also lines 
to China, Japan, and South America, as well as 
several coastwise lines. The street-railway sys- 
tem comprises 35 miles of track. 

The city, including Pelican Island, has a total 
area of nearly 13 square miles, and is built 
toward the inland side of the island, while along 
the outer side extends, for a distance of 30 
miles, a hard and level beach. Galveston is the 
seat of Saint Mary's University (Roman Catho- 
lic), opened in 1854, and of the medical depart- 
ment of the State University. It has two Roman 
Catholic academies, the Ball High School- (one 
of the city's principal buildings), and a fine li- 
brary in course of erection, which is to be en- 
dowed with $400,000. There are two orphan 
asylums, a home for friendless children, and an 
old women's home, and two well-equipped hos- 
pitals. Saint Mary's and the John Sealy, the 
latter used in connection with the State Medical 
College. Other notable structures are the county 
court-house, custom-house and post-oflice, city 
hall, railroad depot. Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation Building, Masonic Temple, and several 
of the business buildings. There are here three 
forts, a life-saving station, a State quarantine 
station, an office of the United States Marine 
Hospital Service, and the State branch of the 
United States Weather Bureau. A railroad 
bridge, two miles long, connects with the main- 
land. 

Galveston, with an admirable location for a 
commercial centre, has also improved means for 
handling its important commerce. Both by rail 
and water transportation facilities are excellent. 
By means of rock jetties, 12 miles long, com- 
pleted by the Federal Government in 1896 at a 
cost of $8,000,000, the channel between the 
island and the mainland has been deepened to 
aflford an average of 27 feet. Terminal tracks, 
aggregating 50 miles, extend to the wharves, of 
which there are now 6 miles. There are four 
export grain elevators, with a total storage ca- 
pacity of 3,750,000 bushels, and one clearing 
and conditioning elevator, a coal elevator, marine 
works, creosoting works, etc. 

Galveston in 1901 ranked third among ports 
of the United States in exports (value, $106,- 
526,508), a gain of $14,000,000 over 1900; and 
thirty-sixth in imports (value. $1,048,866). Since 
the improvements in the harbor, the export trade 
has substantially increased, though, on the con- 
trary, imports have decreased. The city alter- 
nates with New Orleans as the largest cotton- 
exporting centre in tiie United States, is the first 
in the amount of cottonseed products, and 
eighth in wheat. In value the leading exports 
for 1901 were: Cotton, $85,857,145; oil cake and 
meal, $5,568,449; cottonseed oil. $1,502,307; 
wheat, $11,476,205; flour, $462,607; lumber, 
$479,457. The live-stock trade is now corapara- 



GALVESTON. 

tively unimportant; the lumber exports have 
fallen off because of the unusual demand at 
home ; and imports of coal have suffered consider- 
ably, owing to the discovery of Beaumont oil, 
which is being used largely for fuel. Galveston 
is the centre of an extensive wholesale and 
jobbing trade. The manufacturing interests are 
important and varied; the products include rope, 
bagging, beer, cement, pipe, ice, iron, sash, doors, 
Winds, cotton oil, flour and meal, etc. 

The government^ under a charter of 1876 (last 
revised in 1893), is vested in a mayor, chosen 
biennially, and a city council, the members of 
which, though elected one from each ward, are 
voted for by the entire city. The executive ap- 
points the recorder and the city clerk, and nom- 
inates, subject to the consent of the council, a 
number of other municipal officials. The boards 
of water commissioners, health, public works, 
and school trustees, the hospital board, and police 
and fire commissioners, are chosen by popular 
vote. The water-works and electric-light plant 
are owned and operated by the municipality. 
Population, in 1890, 29,084; in 1900, 37,789. 

Early in the nineteenth century the site of 
Galveston was a favorite resort for pirates, who 
established themselves here under the leader- 
ship of the notorious Jean Lafitte (q.v.). They 
were driven from the locality in 1820, but soon 
reestablished themselves, and in 1827 were again 
driven away by the United States authorities. 
A permanent settlement w^as made in 1837, and 
two years later the first charter of incorporation 
was obtained. On October 8, 1862, during the 
Civil War, a Federal force took possession with- 
out opposition; but on January 1, 1863, the 
Confederates under Magruder captured the city 
and secured 350 prisoners. In November, 1885, 
there was a destructive fire, and on September 8, 
1900, occurred the most terrible disaster result- 
ing from purely natural causes in the history 
of the North American continent. A West Indian 
hurricane, lasting eighteen hours — the wind veer- 
ing in every direction and reaching a maxi- 
mum velocity estimated at 135 miles an hour — 
swept over the city, and the streets were 
flooded to a maximum depth of '16 feet above 
mean low tide. Within a period of five hours, 
"but chiefly between 7 and 9 o'clock p.m., 6000 
lives were lost, and property, including 7000 
buildings, valued at $18,000,000, was destroyed. 
Help poured in from all parts of the coun- 
try, and much of the suffering was thus 
alleviated, though a large part of the city 
had been totally destroyed. The municipal gov- 
ernment was placed in the hands of five commis- 
sioners, two elected and the others appointed 
by the State Governor, and the work practically 
of creating a new city was begun, with the 
present results as detailed above. During 1901 
nearly $4,000,000 was expended for permanent 
improvements. A committee of eminent engi- 
neers in 1901 made plans and specifications for 
a breakwater, estimating the cost of a eea-wall 
at $1,250,000, and attendant filling in of the 
city to a commensurate grade at $2,250,000. 
In the same year the city received from the 
Federal Government an appropriation of about 
$1,000,000, 90 per cent, of which went for re- 
construction of the fortifications. Other im- 
provements projected for the immediate future 



84 



GALWAY. 



are the repair of the jetties and the widening 
and deepening of the channel. 

GALVEZ, giiFvath, Bernardo, Count de 
( 1755-86) . A Spanish administrator, Governor of 
Louisiana and Viceroy of Mexico. He was born 
near Malaga, a member of a powerful Spanish 
family; entered the army in 1771; studied mili- 
tary science in France in 1772-75; served under 
O'Reilly against the Algerians in the latter year, 
rising to the rank of brigadier; and in 1776 was 
sent to Louisiana as Lieutenant-Governor under 
Luis de Unzaga, whom he succeeded in the same 
year. During the Revolutionary War his sympa- 
thies were largely with the Americans, whom he 
assisted in various ways, even before Spain's 
declaration of war against England in June, 
1779, after which he prosecuted hostilities with 
considerable energy against the English posses- 
sions in this part of the country, and succeeded 
in capturing Fort Manchac, Baton Rouge, and 
Fort Panmure (1779), Mobile (1780), and Pen- 
sacola (1781). For these successes, and as a 
reward for his general administrative efficiency, 
he was raised in 1783 to the rank of count, 
was promoted to be lieutenant-general, and was 
appointed Captain-General of Cuba. This posi- 
tion, however, he relinquished two years later, 
to succeed his father as Viceroy of Mexico, 
where he lived with much ostentation, and for 
this, and for his construction of a fortified 
palace at Chapultepec, was accused by many of 
planning to create an independent Mexican king- 
dom, with himself as king. Both in Mexico and 
in Louisiana he introduced numerous and impor- 
tant reforms, and he has been regarded as one 
of the ablest Spanish administrators ever sent to 
America. Consult: Gayarre, History of Louisi- 
ana, vol. iii. (last ed.. New Orleans, 1885) ; and 
Bancroft, History of Mexico, 1516-1887 (San 
Francisco, 1883-88). 

GAL-'WAY. A maritime county of Connaught, 
Ireland, and, after Cork, the largest of the Irish 
counties ( Map : Ireland, B 3 ) . It is bounded on 
the east by the Shannon and its affluent the Suck, 
and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. Area, 
2452 square miles, of which bog and marsh make 
up about 15 per cent. The coast-line is about 400 
miles in length, and the shore, much broken, is 
fringed with numerous islands. Copper is the 
only mineral of importance that is foimd. Agri- 
culture and fishing are the leading pursuits ; the 
production of kelp is large; and woolens, linens, 
friezes, and felt hats are manufactured. Chief 
towns, Galway, the capital, and Tuam. Popu- 
lation, in 1841, 440,700; in 1851, 322,430; in 
1891, 211,227; in 1901, 192,150. 

GALWAY. The capital of Galway County, 
Ireland, a municipal and Parliamentary bor- 
ough, seaport, and civic county at the mouth of 
the Corrib on the north shore of Galway Bay. 
50 miles north-northwest of Limerick, and 130 
miles west of Dublin (Map: Ireland, B 3). It 
is built on both sides of the river, and on two 
islands in its channel, its parts being united by 
two bridges. It is connected with Lough Cor- 
rib by a canal, and forms the terminus of the 
Midland Great Western Railway. Galway has 
numerous flour and other mills, brush factories 
and breweries, distilleries, foundries, etc., salmon 
and sea fishing, a good harbor, with docks and a 
lighthouse. It exports agricultural produce, wool, 
bacon, fish, kelp, and a fine black marble, and im- 



GALWAY. 



85 



ports grain, timber, petroleum, and manure. The 
old town of Galway is poorly built and irr^ular, 
and some of its older houses have a some- 
what Spanish appearance. One of these houses, 
marked with a skull and cross-bones, was the 
residence of James Lynch Fitzstephen, a mayor 
of Galway, who, in 1493, condemned his son to 
death for murder, and to prevent his rescue, 
caused him to be hanged from his own win- 
dow. The new town consists of well-planned and 
spacious streets, built on rising ground, which 
slopes gradually toward the sea and the river. 
Claddagh, a suburb, is inhabited by fishermen, 
who exclude all strangers from their society, and 
marry within their own circle. These fishermen 
still speak the Irish language, and the Irish cos- 
tume is still worn by the women. They annually 
elect a 'mayor,' whose function it is to administer 
the laws of their fishery, and to superintend all 
internal regulations. Attached to the Anglican 
diocese of Tuam, Galway is also a Catholic epis- 
copal see. The principal buildings are the parish 
"Church of Saint Nicholas, founded in 1320, Saint 
Augustine's Catholic Church, three monasteries, 
and five nunneries. Queen's College, the county 
court-house, barracks, etc. The town returns one 
member to Parliament. 

Galway was taken by Richard de Burgo in 
1232, and the ancestors of many of the leading 
families resident in this quarter settled here 
about that time. Galway rose in commercial 
importance chiefly through its Spanish trade, 
from the thirteenth to the' middle of the seven- 
teenth century. During the seventeenth century 
it sufi'ered for its adherence to the Royalist cause. 
In 1652 it was taken by Sir Charles Coot after 
a blockade of several months; and in July, 1691, 
it was compelled to surrender to General Ginckell. 
Population, in 1851, 20,686; in 1891, 13,800; in 
1901, 13,414. Consult Hardiman, History of 
the Toton and County of Oalway (Dublin, 1820). 

GALWAY BAY. An inlet of the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the west coast of Ireland, between the 
counties of Galway and Clare (Map: Ireland, B 
3). It is 30 miles long from west to east, with 
an average breadth of about 10 miles. The 
islands of Aran form a natural breakwater at 
its entrance between the north and south sounds. 
There are lighthouses on Inisheen, Mutton, 
Eeragh, and Straw Islands, and at the entrance 
to Galway docks. 

GALYZIN, gji-let's6n. See Golitsyn. 

GAMA, gii'mA, Jos:fe Basilio da (1740-95). A 
Brazilian poet, born at SSo Jos6 (Minas Geraes), 
He became a novice in the Jesuit College at Rio 
de Janeiro. Upon the expulsion of the Order in 
1759, he continued his studies at the seminary of 
SAo JohO, and subsequently went to Portugal and 
then to Rome, where in 1763 he was admitted as 
a menil)er of the literary circle known as the 
Arcadia. Having returned by way of Portugal 
to Rio de Janeiro, he was there denounced as a 
.Jesuit, and was sent to Lisbon on a ship of war. 
Here he openly declared against the Jesuit Order, 
found a patron in Pombal. the Portuguese states- 
man, wrote an ode celebrating the dedication of 
an equestrian statue of JosT* 1., was elevated to 
the nobility in 1771, and in 1774 was given an 
ol!icial post in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
When his protector was dismissed from office in 
1777, he proceeded to Rio de Janeiro, where he 



organized an Arcadia Ultramarina, in imitation, 
of that at Rome. This society having been dis- 
solved in 1790 by the new Viceroy, the Count of 
Rasende, who suspected plots, and its members 
having been threatened with imprisonment. Da 
Gama returned to Lisbon and there lived in re- 
tirement until his death. His chief work is the 
epic Uruguay (1769), in which he endeavors to 
show that the Jesuits of the Seven Missions 
sought to found in Uruguay an independent the- 
ocratic State. Besides Uruguay, which enjoyed 
a high popularity in Brazil, he also wrote shorter 
poems entitled "Quitubia" and "Cantico aos 
Campos Elysios." 

GAMA, ga'ma, Vasco da (c.1469-1524). A 
Portuguese navigator and the first European to 
reach India by the maritime route round Africa. 
He was descended from a noble family, and was 
born at Sines, a small seaport of Portugal. 
After some years at Court he was chosen to com- 
mand the expedition dispatched by King Em- 
manuel to India by the all-sea route, the possibil- 
ity of which had been revealed by the rounding 
of the Cape of Good Hope by Bartolomeu Dias in 
1487, and confirmed by the explorations of Covil- 
hao, who had reached India by way of the Red 
Sea, and had crossed the Indian Ocean from 
Goa to Sofala. Vasco da Gama sailed from Lis- 
bon July 8, 1497, and, doubling the Cape of Good 
Hope in November, reached in December the 
Rio do Infante, the farthest point attained by 
Dias. There he had to suppress a mutiny of his 
sailors, Avho shrank from facing the unknown 
dangers that awaited them. They breasted the 
strong Agulhas current, and on Christmas Day, 
1497, sighted the coast, which Da Gama, in 
honor of the day, named Natal (dies Natalis). 
Past Delagoa Bay, Quillimane, and Mozambique 
they sailed, until, on April 15, they anchored 
off Melinde, where they took on board an Ind- 
ian pilot, a native of Gujarat. A voyage of 
twenty-three days across the Indian Ocean brought 
the vessels to the coast of Malabar, w^hich was 
sighted on May 17, 1498. The ruler of Cali- 
cut did not receive the Portuguese very favorably, 
and Da Gama was forced to fight his way out 
of the harbor when he started homeward. He 
rounded the Cape once more in !March, 1499, 
and on September 8 reached Lisbon. A fleet 
was immediately dispatched for India under 
Pedro Alvarez Cabral, whose ships were driven 
out of their course westward, the discovery of 
Brazil being the result. In 1502 Da Gama sailed 
again for India, planting Portuguese colonies on 
the way at Mozambique and Sofala. On reach- 
ing Calicut he bombarded the place, destroyed 
the fleet of the Rajah and forced him to conclude 
peace. In December, 1503, he was back in Por- 
tugal with a fleet bearing rich cargoes, and was 
received with great honor and given the titles of 
Count Vidigueira and Admiral of the Indian 
Ocean. For twenty years Da Gama saw no 
active service. Then in 1524, he was dispatched 
with a flwt to India aa the sixth Viceroy of 
Portuguese Asia, but soon after his arrival 
he died at Cwhin on Christmas Day. 1524. 
The fame of Da Gama is due, perhaps, less to 
the merit of his exploits than to the place 
assigned him by Camoes in his epic, "Os Lu- 
siadas." Consult: Correa, The Three Voyages of 
Vasca da Gama and His Vieeroyalty, Hakluyt 
Society Publications (London, 1869) ; Alvaro Bel- 



GAMA. 



86 



GAMBESON. 



ho, Roterio da viagem que em desccobrimento da 
India pelo cabo da Boa Esperanga fez Dom Vasco 
da Gama em IJfld, trans, by Ravenstein, Hak- 
luyt Society Publications (London, 1898). 

GAMA GRASS, or SESAME GRASS ( Trip- 
sacum ) . A genus of grasses indigenous to 
America, said to be named from the Spanish 
gentleman who first attempted its cultivation 
in Mexico. Only two or three species are known, 
of which the gama grass {Tripsacum dactyl- 
oides) of Mexico is distinguished by usually hav- 
ing three spikes together. It produces a large 
quantity of coarse fodder, for which it is cul- 
tivated, not only in Mexico, but in the United 
States, and to some extent in Europe. In favor- 
able circumstances it yields a very abundant 
crop, and attains a height of nine or ten feet, its 
root-leaves measuring six feet in length. It pos- 
sesses what for some climates is an almost inval- 
uable property of enduring excessive drought 
without injury, but suffers from frost. It seems 
eminently adapted to the climate of Australia. 
Tripsacum fasciculatum, a native of Mexico, 
attains a height of fifteen to twenty feet. 

GAM' ALA. An ancient fortress of Palestine, 
situated on the Lake of Tiberias and supposed 
to be either the modern El-Hussu or Khan-el-ak- 
hah. In the Jewish war of 66-70, Gamala, which 
had been fortified by Josephus, was vainly be- 
sieged by Agrippa, but finally taken by Vespasian, 
who slaughtered 9000 of the defenders. 

GAMALIEL, ga-ma'li-el (Heb., 'God is a re- 
ward') . A noted Pharisee, twice referred to in the 
Book of Acts : ( 1 ) In v. 34-39, where, as a member 
of the Sanhedrin, he counseled, from the point of 
caution, moderate measures regarding Peter and 
the other Apostles; and (2) in xxii. 3, where Paul 
speaks of him as his instructor in the law. Jew- 
ish tradition identifies him with the famous 
Rabbi Gamaliel, the elder, the son of Simon 
and the grandson of Hillel, the founder of the 
more liberal of the two Pharisaic schools. This 
Gamaliel was the first of the seven Jewish doc- 
tors who received the honored title of Rabban, and 
was held in such reputation that, when he died, 
according to Mishna (Sota ix. 15), "reverence 
for the law ceased, and purity and abstinence 
died away." At the same time, in Gamaliel's day, 
instruction in the law was much more in sympa- 
thy with the spirit of practical life than was the 
case in the time of the later law schools of 
Palestine and Babylon. In fact, Gamaliel him- 
self at several points modified the restrictive 
customs of Jewish exclusivism and Jewish Sab- 
batism, while he protected the interests of wives 
in the matter of divorce, and the interests of 
fatherless children in the matter of inheritance. 
He was even liberal enough to be a student 
of Greek literature, which was held in ab- 
horrence by narrow-minded rabbis. In view 
of these facts it is not difficult to understand 
his tolerant position in the Sanhedrin council 
of Acts v., though it is to be doubted whether 
any appreciation of Christianity entered into his 
motives, the legend of his subsequent conversion 
to the Christian faith being worthless. It is 
also not difficult to understand the attraction 
to him of Saul of Tarsus; though the fact that 
Saul afterwards became a persecutor has been 
made a ground for denying the historicity of the 
narrative in Acts v., or the actuality of any 



relations between him and Saul. The develop- 
ment of one of his pupils in fanatical directions, 
however, may after all be due more to the pupil's 
unique surroundings and their influence upon 
his growing conviction that salvation was by 
works, rather than to any inherent bigotry of 
spirit within the pupil that would make un- 
likely instruction at such a teacher's feet, Gama- 
liel died evidently some time before 70, since his 
son Simon was then in public life, while he him- 
self seems to have been forgotten. Many tradi- 
tions are ascribed to him which belong to his 
grandson, Gamaliel II., with whom he is con- 
stantly confused. 

GAMARRA, ga-mar'ra, Agustin ( 1785-1841 ) . 
A Peruvian soldier and politician, born at Cuzco. 
He studied there at the College San Buenaven- 
tura, and rose to be a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Spanish Army, but in 1821 entered the Patriot 
service, and became successively general and 
grand-marshal. In 1829, after the deposition of 
General Lamar, he was inaugurated as President 
of Peru. His administration, not wholly a suc- 
cessful one, closed in 1833. In 1834 he became a 
leader in the insurrection against his successor, 
Orbegoso, but afterwards escaped to Bolivia. He 
subsequently fought under Santa Cruz (q.v.) 
and Salaverry (q.v.), and in 1835 was banished 
by the latter to Costa Rica for an attempt to 
incite revolt. When war was declared be- 
tween Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation 
formed by Santa Cruz, he commanded the reserve 
of the Chilean army sent to invade Peru, and 
after the defeat of the troops of the Confedera- 
tion in 1839, near Yangay, was declared Pro- 
visional President. He was elected Constitutional 
President by Congress with the title of 'Restorer,' 
and obtained the abolition of the liberal Constitu- 
tion of 1834. In 1841 he declared war against Bo- 
livia, commanded the army of invasion, and was 
killed at the defeat of Yngavi ( November 20 ) . 
Despite frequent tyrannical acts, he appears to 
have sought the progress of his country. In 1849 
a mausoleum was erected in his honor in the Pan- 
theon of Lima. 

GAMBA, gam^ba, Bartolommeo (1776-1841). 
An Italian bibliographer, born at Bassano. He 
gave himself entirely to the study of the litera- 
ture of Italy, and for many years was vice- 
librarian of Saint Mark's, Venice. His works in- 
clude : Serie dei testi di lingua ( 1808, 4th enlarged 
edition, 1839) ; Galleria dei litterati ed artisti 
delle provincie venete nel secolo XVIII (1824) ; 
Vita di Dante (1825); Catalogo delta piu im- 
portanti edizioni delta Divina Commedia (1832) ; 
and Bibliografia delle novelle italian^ in prosa 
(1833). 

GAMBARELLI, g-Am'bd-rgn^. The family 
name of five brothers, who were architects and 
sculptors in Rome during the early Renaissance. 
The two foremost, Antonio and Bernardo, are 
best knoNvii by their surname, Rossellino (q.v.). 

GAM'BESON, or Wambais (AS. wamb, from 
OF. gambeson, wambaison, from ML. gambeso, 
wombasium, from OHG., Goth, wamba, stomach, 
Eng. womb). In mediseval armor, a protection 
for the body, composed of layers of cloth, tow, or 
similar material, quilted on a lining canvas or 
leather. It was worn by the infantry as their 
only defense, and by knights under their mail 
shirts. 



GAMBETTA. 



87 



GAMBIEB. 



GAMBET'TA, Fr. pron. gaN'ba'ta', LitoN 
(1838-82). A French statesman. He was born 
April 3, 1838, at Cahors, of a family which had 
come originally from Genoa, and which is said 
to have been of Jewish origin. In 1859 he began 
the practice of law at Paris, and soon made his 
mark as counsel for defendants in political 
prosecutions, showing himself an able and deter- 
mined opponent of the Second Empire. He was 
returned to the Chamber of Deputies from Paris 
and Marseilles in the elections of 1869, and on 
May 5, 1870, he delivered a speech containing a 
panegj'ric of the republican form of government, 
which attracted great attention. After the dis- 
aster of Sedan and the fall of the Empire he 
became Minister of the Interior in the Provi- 
sional Government, and remained for some time 
in Paris after it was invested by the Germans. 
In order to arouse the provinces, he escaped from 
the city in a balloon, October 7, proceeded to 
Tours, and established a virtual dictatorship. 
With untiring energy he organized resistance to 
the invader, putting three great armies into the 
field for the relief of the capital, and calling 
upon tlie nation to rise en masse. He urged his 
countrymen to fight to the bitter end, and de- 
nounced the capitulation of Metz as an act of 
treason on the part of Marshal Bazaine. When 
a National Assembly was resolved upon in 1871 
Gambetta sought to give it an exclusively repub- 
lican character by a decree directing that no 
official of the Second Empire should take part 
in the election. The decree was canceled at the 
instigation of Prince Bismarck, and Gambetta 
resigned office, February 6, 1871. He subse- 
quently entered the Assembly as a member for 
Paris, and became the leader of the Extreme Left, 
violently attacking the monarchical parties. 
After the retirement of M. Thiers his political 
action became more moderate. The Republicans 
owed to his leadership their success in the elec- 
tions of 1877, and their defeat of the attempts 
of the Conservatives to deprive them of its re- 
sults. In the same year he was twice prosecuted 
for violence of speech, and once condemned to 
imprisonment. On the election of Jules Gr6vy 
to the Presidency of the Republic in 1879, Gam- 
betta became president of the Chamber of Dep- 
uties, January 31. 

Upon the fall of the Ferry Ministry in Novem- 
ber, 1881, Gambetta was asked to form a new 
Cabinet. Prevented by L6on Say and others 
from bringing the various factions of the Re- 
public together by giving the representatives of 
each a place in the Ministry, he startled the 
nation by a selection which it could not but re- 
gard with apprehension and alarm. The Roman 
Catholics were directly insulted by the choice 
of Paul Bert, an open skeptic, as Minister of 
Public Worship. The Conservatives, agitated by 
his proposed curtailment of the powers of the 
Senate, joined witli the Church in opposing his 
policy. The Extreme Left also had reasons for 
opposition. At nn early date Gambetta reintro- 
duced his favorite schemes of scrutin dc liste 
(q.v.) and Senatorial abridgment. The Lower 
Chamber was to share in the election of Sen- 
ators, and the vote of the latter upon 
financial measures was to he taken away. The 
scrutin de liste was defeated and Gaml)etta im- 
mediately resigned (January 14, 1882). Al- 
though his influence over national afTairs was 



still felt through his newspaper, the Repuhlique 
Frangaise, he seldom appeared in public after 
his resignation. The Republicans, who had not 
wholly trusted him while in power, were thrown 
into confusion by the news of his death, as it de- 
prived them of the one man whose strong op- 
position the Royalist and Bonapartist factions 
especially feared. A pistol wound in the hand 
aggravated a malady from which he had long 
suffered, and he died December 31, 1882. Gam- 
betta's Discours et plaidoyers have been edited 
in II volumes by Reinach (Paris, 1881-85). 
Consult: Reinach, Ldon Gambetta (Paris, 
1884) ; Tournier, Gambetta (Paris, 1893) ; Har- 
rison, L^on Gambetta, a Fositivist (London, 
1892) ; Coubertin, The Evolution of France 
Under the Third Republic, translated by Hap- 
good (New York, 1897). See Franco-Gebman 
War. 

GAM'BIA. A British colony in Northwestern 
Africa, at the mouth of the river of the same 
name (Map: Africa, C 3). Its area is only 09 
square miles, but it lies adjacent to territory 
under British protection, with an area of 4500 
square miles. The principal exports are ground- 
nuts, hides, beeswax, rice, cotton, and india-rub- 
ber. The trade of the colony shows a rapid 
growth for the last few years, the exports hav- 
ing increased from £93,500 in 1895 to £281,976 
in 1900, while the imports had risen from £97,- 
700 to £277,659 during the same period. Tlie 
population in 1901 was 13,500, while that of the 
adjacent protected territory is estimated at 77,- 
000. Of the population of the colony on\j 193 
are whites. There are 7700 Mohammedans and 
3540 Christians. The principal town is Bathurst 
( q.v. ) . Gambia was included in the British 
West African Settlements from 1866 until it was 
constituted a separate colony in 1888. 

GAMBIA (African Ba-diman, Fourei) . A 
river of West Africa, rising in the mountains 
of Futa-Jallon, Senegal, and flowing through the 
British colony of Gambia (q.v.) (Map: Africa, 
C 3). It falls into the Atlantic at Bathurst 
by a wide estuary. There is a bar a short dis- 
tance from its mouth, which obstructs navigation 
at low tide. The total length of the river is 
estimated at over 700 miles. The lower part of 
the river flows through a swampy region. Sea- 
going steamers ascend as far as Fort George, 
about 170 miles, while lighter vessels reach the 
Barraconda Rapids, about 220 miles from its 
mouth. The river incloses a number of islets. 

GAMBIEK'. A village in Knox County. Ohio, 
50 miles northeast of Columbus; on the Cleve- 
land, Akron and Columbus Railroad (Map: 
Ohio, F 5). It is the scat of Kenyon College 
(q.v.), Kenyon Military Academy. Harcourt 
Female Seminary, and Ifexley Theological Sem- 
inary. Population, in 1890, 660; in 1900, 751. 

GAM'BIER, James, Lord (1756-1833). An 
English admiral. He was born at New Provi- 
dence, Bahamas. October 13, 1756, while his 
father was lieutenant-governor of the islands. 
He entered the na^'y in 1767, was post-captnin in 
1778, and in 1780 took part in the capture of 
Charleston, S. C. He commanded the Defence in 
the battle off Ushant in June, 1794, and ^vas the 
first to break through the French line. He received 
a gold medal for his services, and was made 
colonel of the marines. The following year he be- 



GAMBIEK. 



88 



GAMBLING. 



came rear-admiral and a Lord of the Admiralty. 
In 1799 he was made vice-admiral. In 1802 he 
was appointed Governor of Newfoundland and 
commander-in-chief of the naval station. In 1804 
he returned to the Admiralty, and in 1805 at- 
tained the rank of admiral. For his share in 
the bombardment of Copenhagen and the capture 
of the Danish navy in 1807 he was raised to 
the peerage as Lord Gambler. In command of 
the Channel fleet he blockaded the French fleet 
in Aix Roads, but did not support Cochrane, Lord 
Dundonald, whom the Admiralty had deputed to 
destroy it. When Cochrane complained, Gambler 
demanded a trial, and received a qualified ac- 
quittal by a friendly court-martial. As a chief 
commissioner he took part in the peace negotia- 
tions of the United States at Ghent in 1814, and 
for this service was nominated G. C. B. In 1830 
he was promoted to be Admiral of the Fleet. He 
died April 19, 1833. 

GAMBIEB. ISLANDS. A small group of is- 
lands in the Pacific, situated in latitude 23° 
8' S., and longitude 134° 55' W. (Map: Australia, 
F 6 ) . They number seven, all of coral formation, 
and cover an area of about twelve square miles. 
They are all elevated, well wooded, and have a 
good supply of fresh water. The chief products 
are sugar, bananas, cocoanuts, etc. The largest 
island of the group is Mangareva, with a good 
harbor. The group is under French protection, 
and has a population of nearly 600 inhabitants, 
who are of Raratongan origin, and Roman 
Catholics. 

GAM'BIR (Malay), Terra japonica. A crys- 
talline plant extract similar to catechu ( q.v. ) . 
Like catechu, it is largely used in tanning and 
dyeing, and it is used medicinally as an astrin- 
gent. It is obtained from the leaves and young 
twigs of Uncaria gamhir, which is extensively 
cultivated at Singapore. To prepare it, the leaves 
and twigs are extracted by boiling, the solution 
evaporated to suflicient thickness, cast into small 
cubes, and allowed to harden. Gambir is mainly 
used in England. 

GAM'BLE, Hamilton Rowan (1798-1864). 
An American statesman, 'War' Governor of Mis- 
souri. He was born at Winchester, Va., studied 
at Hampden-Sidney College (Farmville, Va.), 
was admitted to the Virginia bar, and from 1818 
resided in Missouri. In 1823 he was elected Sec- 
retary of State of Missouri. Subsequently he ac- 
quired an extensive legal practice at Saint Louis, 
and rose to be presiding Judge of the State Su- 
preme Court. He was elected in 1861 to the 
Missouri Constitutional Convention, and when on 
July 31st that body established a Provisional 
Government, he was appointed Governor to re- 
place Claiborne F. Jackson, who had joined the 
Secessionists. In 1862 he issued an order com- 
manding the enrollment of the total fighting pop- 
ulation, and giving authority to General Schofield 
to place in active service a force adequate to the 
maintenance of peace. This order occasioned an 
uprising among the partisans of the South, who 
looked upon it as a draft measure, and believed 
that in having given oath not to take up arms 
against the State or Federal Government they 
had become non-combatants. On June 15, 1863, 
at the summons of the Governor, a convention as- 
sembled which adopted an ordinance providing 
for a method of gradual emancipation of slaves. 
This did not satisfy the ultra-Republicans, who 



demanded an immediate emancipation, and there- 
by gained the election of November, 1864. 

GAMBLING^ or GAMING (from AS. game- 
nian, gamen, gomen, game, sport, joy). The art 
or practice of playing a game of hazard, or one 
depending partly on skill and partly on hazard,, 
with a view to pecuniarj'^ gain. Games of this na- 
ture were forbidden by the Romans, both under 
the Republic and the Empire. The ground on 
which this was done was not the tendency of such 
practices to demoralize the populace, but to ren- 
der them efi"eminate and unmanly. It belonged to 
the £ediles to attend to the public interest by pun- 
ishing violations of the gaming laws. During the 
Saturnalia, which was a period of general license, 
these games were permitted, and a like indulgence 
at other seasons was extended to old men both 
among the Greeks and the Romans, Nor has 
this vice been confined to civilized nations, either 
in the ancient or the modern world; Tacitus 
mentions its existence among the ancient Ger- 
mans, and it is known to prevail among many 
half-civilized and even savage tribes at the pres- 
ent day. 

It is remarkable that in England, as in Rome, 
the ground on which gambling was first prohibit- 
ed was not its demoralizing, but its effeminating, 
influence on the community. The act 33 Henry 
VIIL, ch. 9 (1541) had in view the double object 
of "maintaining artillery and debarring unlaw- 
ful games." On that act followed 16 Charles IL, 
ch. 7, and 9 Anne, ch. 14, the latter of which 
declared that all bonds or other securities given 
for money won at play, or money lent at the 
time to play with, should be utterly void, and all 
mortgages or incumbrances of lands made on 
the same consideration should be made over to 
the use of the mortgagor. Such continued to be 
the statute law till 1845, when there was passed 
the act 8 and 9 Vict., ch. 109, which, though it 
repealed the obsolete provisions of 33 Henry 
VIIL, and 16 Charles IL, and 9 Anne, reenacted 
the former prohibitions against card-playing 
and other games, and was followed up (in 
1853 and 1854) by the acts for suppressing bet- 
ting houses (16 and 17 Vict., ch. 119) and 
gaming houses (17 and 18 Vict., ch. 38). By 

8 and 9 Vict., ch. 109, the common law of Eng- 
land was altered, and wagers, which, with some 
exceptions, had hitherto been considered legal 
contracts, were declared to be no longer enforce- 
able in a court of law. This prohibition does 
not aflfect contributing to prizes for lawful 
games. In Scotland an opposite rule had been 
followed, the judges having held, irrespective of 
the character of the game, or of any statutory 
prohibition regarding it, that "their proper func- 
tions were to enforce the rights of parties aris- 
ing out of serious transactions, and not to pay 
regard to sponsions ludicras." But partial as- 
similation has now been eff'ected in this respect 
between the laws of the two countries by a stat- 
ute, which also provides that cheating at play 
shall be punished as obtaining money under false 
pretenses. The mode of enforcing the act 8 and 

9 Vict., ch. 109, was defective, and the act 17 and 
18 Vict., eh. 38, put heavy penalties on those 
who obstructed the police by putting chains or 
bolts against the doors of gaming houses or other- 
wise delaying the entry into such houses, and 
any apparatus or arrangement for giving alarm 
to the persons inside was declared to be evidence 
that the house was a gaming house. The Sum- 



GAMBLING. 



89 



GAME LAWS. 



mary Jurisdiction acts of 1879 and 1884 have 
provided summary remedies against the violators 
ol gaming laws. The Betting-Houses Act (16 
and 17 Vict,, ch. 119) was passed to put down 
another kind of gaming — namely, in houses 
where money is received as or for the considera- 
tion for any undertaking to pay money in the 
event of any horse race, or other race, fight, 
game, sport, or exercise. All such betting houses 
are declared to be gaming houses within the 
statute 8 and 9 Vict., ch. 109, and similar powers 
of search may be resorted to. But nothing in 
the act extends to a person holding stakes to be 
paid to the winner of any race or lawful sport, 
game, or exercise. Besides these statutes, the 
Intoxicating Liquors Licensing Act of 1872 puts 
a penalty on the keeper of any house for the sale 
of liquors allowing any gaming for money or 
money's worth on the premises. By the vagrant 
acts all persons are liable to penalties for play- 
ing at games on a public highway or public place. 
These enactments do not interfere with gaming 
in private houses. 

In most of the States of Germany gaming was 
allowed, and the extent to which it was practiced 
at the German watering places is well known. 
The princes of the petty States often derived a 
large portion of their revenue from the tenants 
of their gaming establishments, whose exclusive 
privileges they guaranteed. Recently these Ger- 
man gaming tables have all been closed. Monaco 
has now the chief public gaming tables of Europe. 

In the United States, as in England, one who 
keeps a gambling house is indictable at common 
law for maintaining a nuisance; .and one who 
wins another's money with false dice, or the like, 
is punishable as a common-law cheat. Legisla- 
tion in our States against gambling has taken a 
course similar to that above described in Britain. 
The tendency has been toward greater precision 
in defining the offenses of gambling and of keep- 
ing gambling houses and implements, toward 
more summary methods of dealing with the vio- 
lators of these statutes, and toward severer pun- 
ishment of violators. Such legislation is so di- 
verse in matters of detail as to render even an 
outline of it impracticable. There has been diffi- 
culty in arriving at a correct definition of gam- 
bling. It cannot be said that a mere contest of 
skill or strength, however great may be the prize, 
is indictable at common law, for in England and 
the United States such contests have at all times 
been sanctioned by public policy and protected by 
the courts. Of course there may be contests not 
objectionable upon this ground which may be 
prohibited for other reasons, as, e.g. cock-fighting, 
which is properly regarded as a cruel and wan- 
ton sport. But it is 'gaming' for persons to stake 
money on chance. The chance nuist be the con- 
trolling factor in the game. It is not enough 
that chance should enter into a contest to make 
it gambling, for it cannot be denied that there is 
a certain element of fortune in almost any con- 
test or undertaking. But this d<x»s not make 
such contest gambling. All competitive examina- 
tions are afl^ted somewhat by chance, yet no 
competitive examination is gambling. So in 
games of skill, as chess and billiards. In such 
games chance may have very little part. If so, 
playing these games, even for a prize or reward, 
is not gambling. It is otherwise when the game 
depends more largely on chance than on skill ; 
BO that it may be said that gambling as a penal 



offense, under the statutes making it such, may 
be defined as a staking on chance. Consult: 
Encyclopwdia of the Laws of England (London,. 
1897-98) ; Bishop, On Statutory Crimes (3d ed., 
Chicago, 1901). 

GAMBOGE, gam-booj', or -boj', or GAM- 
BOGE (from Camhoja, Cambodia, Skt. KamhOjay. 
where the tree abounds). A gum resin brought 
from the East Indies, and believed to be the 
produce chiefly of Garcinia Cambogia, also- 
known as Garcinia cambogioides, a tree of the^ 
natural order Guttiferte, a native of Ceylon, 
Siam, Camboja, etc. The gamboge-tree attains a 
height of forty feet, has smooth oval leaves, small 
polj'gamous flowers, and clustered succulent 
fruit. When the bark of a tree is wounded, gam- 
boge exudes as a thick, viscid, yellow juice, which 
hardens by exposure to the air. The finest gam- 
boge comes from Siam. American gamboge, which 
is very similar, and used for the same purposes, 
is obtained from Vismia Guianensis (natural 
order Hypericinea; ) , a native of Mexico and Suri- 
nam. Gamboge occurs in commerce in three 
forms: (1) In rolls or solid cylinders; (2) in 
pipes or hollow cylinders; and (3) in cakes or 
amorphous masses. The first two kinds are the 
purest. Good gamboge contains about 70 per 
cent, of resin and 20 per cent, of gum, the re- 
mainder being made up of woody fibre, fecula, 
and moisture. The resin of gamboge, known as 
gambogic acid, is a bright yellow substance 
soluble in alcohol and in ether. Its composition 
is represented by the formula C40H23O. It is much 
used by painters to produce a beautiful yellow 
color. It is also employed for staining wood, 
and for making a gold-colored lacquer for brass. 
It has a shelly fracture, is destitute of smell, and 
has an acrid taste. If taken internally, it acts 
as a cathartic, producing a large amount of secre- 
tion. It is but rarely used in medicine, and never 
alone, as it causes griping and irritation of the 
alimentary canal. See Mangosteen. 

GAMBRI'NUS. A mythical king of Flan- 
ders, to whom is ascribed the invention of 
beer. His figure is familiar in German beer- 
cellars and elsewhere, seated astride a cask with 
a tankard in his hand. The name is said to have 
arisen out of that of Jan Primus, Duke of Bra- 
bant (1251-94). He obtained the presidency of 
the Brussels guild of brewers, and his portrait, 
with a foaming glass of beer in his hand, was 
hung up in the hall of the guild. The name was 
presumably converted into German, the prince 
of the story made a king, and the invention of 
beer ascribed to him. But this explanation is- 
probably itself a fiction. 

GAME. See Hunting. 

GAME FOWL. See Fowl; Cock-Fiohtino. 

GAME LAWS. Statutes enacted either for 
the purpose of protecting persons in the enjoy- 
ment of certain sporting rights, or of protecting 
game from improper destruction. 

Previous to the Norman Conquest of England 
there were no restrictions against the hunting 
of game, except a general law prohibiting the 
hunting of game on Sundays ; so far as is known 
this was the earliest gsime law. A subsequent 
law prohibited monks hunting in the woods with 
dogs. .Ml other elas.ses of society were at liberty 
to h\mt over the country at large, except that 
the King's hunting was not to be interfered with; 



GAME LAWS. 



90 



GAME LAWS. 



that is, wherever the King elected to hunt, all 
others had to vacate until the King and his fol- 
lowers had passed. With the advent of the Nor- 
mans in 1066, hunting became the sole privilege 
of the nobles, and the common people were pro- 
hibited, under severe penalties, from the hunting 
of game. They enacted stringent game laws, 
which became known as the Forest Laws, and 
which frequently drove the Saxons, and com- 
mon people generally, into rebellion. Many of 
them, as in the case of the historic Robin Hood, 
became outlaws. During the Middle Ages the 
game laws of England were framed so as to se- 
cure to the landed aristocracy the exclusive right 
of taking game. Under their provisions, accord- 
ing to Blackstone, "All persons of what property 
or distinction soever, that kill game out of their 
own territories, or even upon their own estates, 
without the King's license expressed by grant 
or franchise, are guilty of the offense of encroach- 
ing on the royal prerogative. And those indigent 
persons who do so without having such rank 
or fortune, as is generally called a qualification, 
are guilty not only of this offense, but of the 
aggravations also created by the statutes for 
preserving game." One of the 'qualifications' for 
killing game in Blackstone's time was the owner- 
ship of a freehold estate of £100 per annum, "there 
being fifty times the property required to enable 
a man to kill a partridge," remarks the great 
commentator, "as to vote for a Knight of the 
Shire." Early in the last century all the old 
statutes on the subject were repealed, and the 
Night Poaching Act, 1828 (9 Geo. IV., ch. 69), 
and the Game Act, 1831 (2 Wm. IV., ch. 32 ) , were 
substituted for these. These laws define game 
as hares, pheasants, partridges, grouse, heath 
or moor game, blackgame, and bustards." Later 
statutes have added to the list "landrails, quail, 
snipe, woodcock, rabbits, and deer." These enact- 
ments give to the occupier of land the civil reme- 
dies of trespass and injunction against persons 
entering his land to kill game, or shooting into 
it for such purpose. They also impose criminal 
punishment for various violations of their pro- 
visions, such as deer-stealing, taking of game 
at night, poisoning game, and the like. 

In the United States game laws have been 
framed on different lines from those of England. 
Their primary object has been the protection of 
game itself, not the grant of exclusive rights to 
persons possessed of large property qualifications. 
In 1623 Plymouth Colony declared fowling, fish- 
ing, and hunting to be free, except on certain 
private property. In 1682, in this same colony, 
*'the law prohibiting the catching of fish before 
they have spawned is to be revived by the com- 
missioners att theire next session." In 1709 it 
was enacted that "no wears, hedges, fish-garths, 
stakes, kiddles, or disturbance or incumbrance, 
shall be set, erected, or made on or across any 
river, to the stopping, obstructing, or straitening 
of the; natural or usual course and passage of fish 
in their seasons or spring of the year." In these 
laws are embodied the principles which are the 
basis of all just and reasonable game laws, and 
they are the corner-stones and foundations of all 
the statutes for the protection of fish and game 
that are in force in the States and Territories to- 
day. Class legislation is dead; all wild game 
and fishes are the property of him that reduces 
them to possession by killing or catching, with 
due regard to the law of trespass on private prop- 



erty, be it land or water; wild game and fishes 
must not be molested during the season of repro- 
duction, and they must be allowed free and un- 
obstructed passage to their breeding grounds or 
waters. 

The rule governing the acquisition of property 
in game in this country differs in some respects 
from those in England. There, if a hunter cap- 
tures game upon the land of another, it belongs 
to the landowner, while here it belongs to the 
captor, although he may be liable to an action 
for trespass, and in some States to a criminal 
prosecution, for entering upon the premises of 
another without permission. By the common 
law the right of fishing in the sea and in 
tide-waters generally is public and common to 
every person; but the owners of lands on the 
banks of fresh-water rivers above the tide line 
have the exclusive right of fishing to the middle 
of the stream. If the same person owns lands 
on both sides of the river, he has the sole right 
of fishing in the river as far as his lands extend. 
So the sole right of fishing in ponds or lakes be- 
longs to him who owns the fee of the soil beneath 
the water. Moreover, a person rightfully navi- 
gating a river becomes a trespasser when he 
shoots at or kills wild ducks thereon, in case the 
bed of the river is the property of adjacent land- 
owners. 

This right of fishery, however, is not an abso- 
lute or unqualified right of property. It is sub- 
ject to the police power of the State. Persons 
may be prohibited by legislation from fishing or 
hunting even upon their own lands, during cer- 
tain seasons, and their sale of game which has 
been killed during the open season may be regu- 
lated. This rule rests upon the doctrine that 
the wild game within a State belongs to the peo- 
ple in their collective sovereign capacity. It is 
the subject of private ownership only so far as 
the people may elect to make it so ; and they may 
absolutely prohibit the taking of it, or traffic 
and commerce in it, if this is deemed necessary 
for the protection or preservation of the public 
good. Hence State laws prohibiting the citizens 
of other States from planting oysters within the 
tide-waters of the enacting State are constitu- 
tional. So are" laws regulating the catching of 
fish within the bays of the enacting State, or pro- 
hibiting the catching of fish or the killing of 
game for. the purpose of carrying the same beyond 
the limits of the State. All State laws having 
for their object the protection of game from un- 
necessary slaughter, and the propagation of game, 
have been treated with favor by both State and 
Federal courts, and have received a liberal con- 
struction. Indeed, the Supreme Court of the 
United States has not hesitated to declare that 
it is the duty of the Legislature to enact such 
laws as will best preserve game of every kind 
and secure it as a valuable food-supply for the 
future use of the people of the State. Even the 
sale of fish propagated in private ponds may law- 
fully be restricted during the close season. Such 
restriction, the Supreme Court of Massachu- 
setts has decided, does not differ in principle from 
forbidding persons from catching fish in streams 
running through their own lands. In short, the 
right to take game is a boon or privilege rather 
than a vested legal right. 

Modern game laws do not stop with prohibi- 
tions against killing game out of season. They 
extend to the sale of such game, and even to its 



GAME LAWS. 



possession, during the period of prohibition. 
They have become more stringent and minute in 
their restrictions. The machinery for the en- 
forcement of this provision is far more effective 
than formerly, and civil suits for heavy fines are 
more frequently resorted to than criminal prose- 
cutions under indictments. 

The lack of uniformity of the various State 
laws dictating the seasons during which birds 
and animals shall be protected frequently defeats 
the very purpose for which the laws were framed, 
and, moreover, makes compliance with the pro- 
visions of the Federal law difficult for both ship- 
pers and game dealers, who have to consider the 
open seasons in the State in which the game was 
killed, and that to which it is their purpose to 
ship it. Still more confusion is caused by the 
general diversity in defining the seasons. In 
some States the open seasons are given, and in 
others the closed; while in all their statements is 
to be found every possible variety of inclusion 
and exclusion of the dates named. In some 
States the regular killing season is checked by 
the prohibition of shooting or killing on certain 
days of the week. 

Shipment of Game. This also is an important 
subject of game legislation, for one of the great- 
est factors in the rapid destruction of game in 
recent years has undoubtedly been the illegal 
shipment of game from one State to another. It 
has also been an exceedingly difficult problem to 
cope with, largely because interstate commerce is 
outside the jurisdiction of the several States. 
There was passed by Congress on May 25, 1900, 
an act, popularly termed the Lacey Act, which 
gave to the Secretary of Agriculture all duties 
and responsibilities connected with the preserva- 
tion of game, and at the same time prohibited 
interstate commerce in game killed in violation 
of local laws. The Lacey Act is based, to a 
modified degree, on State laws, so that its proper 
enforcement requires a knowledge of certain local 
provisions which are subject to periodical change. 
Section 4 of this act ordains that every package 
containing game animals or birds, when shipped 
by interstate commerce, must be clearly marked, 
so as to show the name and address of the ship- 
per, as well as the nature of the contents. In 
addition to this the laws of Colorado, Connecti- 
cut, Michigan, Nebraska, Ohio, Oregon, Wiscon- 
sin, New Brunswick, and Ontario require pack- 
ages of fish or game to bear a statement clearly 
indicating the nature of the contents, which 
must cover the kind of game and the amount in 
the package. The majority of the States pro- 
hibiting exports place no restrictions on ship- 
ments within the State; six States, however, 
absolutely prohibit all shipment, as Tennessee, 
quail; Texas, domestic game; Minnesota, most 
game birds ; Kansas, all protected game ; Nevada, 
big game; and New Hampshire, moose, caribou, 
and elk; other States impose various limitations 
ranging anywhere between the two extremes. An 
important event in the development of modern 
State laws was the establishing by the Supreme 
Court of the constitutionality of the Connecticut 
statute prohibiting export of certain game. (Geer 
V8. Connecticut, 101 U. S. 510.) As a result, non- 
export laws have been generally adopted through- 
out all the States, nearly every State prohibiting 
the export of certain kinds of game. Kentucky, 
Mississippi, and Virginia are the only exceptions. 
Vol. VIII.-7 



91 GAME LAWS. 

In some States the sportsman may carry a lim- 
ited amount of game out of the State, but only 
under special restrictions. Deer may not be law- 
fully exported from Alabama, Florida, or any 
of the States or Territories west of the Missis- 
sippi, except Montana, Kansas, and Iowa; any 
of the States north of the Ohio and Potomac 
rivers, except Illinois, Ohio, Delaware, New Jer- 
sey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachu- 
setts; while in Montana they cannot be sold, and 
in Illinois, Iowa, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode 
Island, and Massachusetts they are protected in- 
definitely at all seasons, or else for a definite 
term of years. The most general prohibition 
among game birds is that against the export of 
quail, which, with six exceptions, is in force in 
every State and Territory of the Union. 

Across the border, Canada has a general law, 
covering and prohibiting the export of wild 
turkeys, partridge, prairie-fowl, quail, woodcock, 
and deer, except in the case of d^r raised on 
private reserves ; and an exception which provides 
that non-resident sportsmen may export two deer 
each in a calendar year at certain ports of ex- 
port within fifteen days after the close of the 
open season. Such ports are Halifax and Yar- 
mouth, in Nova Scotia; MacAdam Junction, 
New Brunswick; Quebec, Montreal, and Ottawa, 
in Quebec; Kingston, Niagara Falls, Fort Erie, 
Windsor, Sault Ste. Marie, and Port Arthur in 
C»ntario; and such other ports as the Minister of 
Customs may, from time to time, designate. 

Licenses fob Hunting and Shipping Game. In 
some sections of the United States, as Louisiana 
and Missouri, non-residents are denied the privi- 
lege of hunting, while the same class is denied 
the right to kill game in certain parts of the 
State of Virginia. Throughout Canada, and in 
twenty- five of the States of the Union, non- 
residents may hunt certain game providing they 
have secured a license. In nine States a similar 
restriction is imposed on residents, but the fee is 
usually nominal, and in all cases considerably 
less than that imposed on non-residents. 

With regard to fishing, both for food and game 
fishes, all that has been said on the subject of 
hunting also applies. IVIost of the States have 
their own laws regulating the fishing for food 
and game fish — the open seasons varying accord- 
ing to the State and the species of fish. In some 
States it is illegal to take fish under a certain 
size or weight, while in most it is forbidden to 
take trout, bass, and other fish by netting or 
spearing, or by any method other than with 
hook and line. The laws apply to fishing in 
private waters as well as in those that belong 
to the State. 

Trespassing. The same laws govern trespass 
in fishing as in hunting, although .some States 
have made special laws on the subject. As a 
rule, however, the general law throughout the 
States on this subject decides that if the bottom 
of a lake or stream is subject to private owner- 
ship, the owner has the sole right of fishing, even 
though the water is deep enough to float a boat, 
and is subject to public use as a highway. In 
public waters the right belongs to the State, and 
consequently is usually free to the public, al- 
thougli there are instances where the State grants 
it to particular persons. 

Below will be found tables giving the open and 
closed seasons for the more important varieties 



GAME LAWS. 



92 



GAME OF CHESS. 



of game — fish, bird, and animal — and a compre- 
hensive bibliography: 

Game. 

Deer. — The month of May is a closed season throughout 
the country' ; the regular closed period in each State 
ranging from the entire year, except December, in Min- 
nesota, to May, June, July, and August, in New Mexico. 

Wild Turkey is protected during May, June, July, and 
August throughout all the States. 

Quail is slightly better protected than the wild turkey. 

Grouse, including Prairie Chicken and Pheasant, is only 
immune as a rule during the first two-thirds of the year, 
except in some of the Southern and Southwestern States, 
where it is also protected during the first three months 
of the year. 

Wild Water Fowl enjoy a closed period varying from one 
to three months. 

Rail and Woodcock are protected most of the first half of 
tiie year, and in New York and New England generally, 
during the month of December. The following also en- 
joy periods of immunity, varying according to State 
legislation: Hares, Rabbits, Plover, Snipe, and Squirrels; 
also Elk, Moose, Antelope, Buffalo, Mountain Sheep. 
Among water animals, the Beaver, Mink, Otter, Musk- 
rat, Sable, Fisher, and Marten. 



See Fer^ Natub.^ ; Fishing Laws ; etc. Con- 
sult: Geer vs. Connecticut, 161 United States 
Reports, 517 (1896) ; Commonwealth vs. Giioert, 
160 Massachusetts Reports, 157 (1893); Year 
Book of the Department of Agriculture, 1899, 
pp. 282-287; id., 1901, pp. 634, 635; Oke, Handy 
Book of the Game Laws (4th ed., London, 1897). 

GAMELYN, gam'e-lin. The hero of an Eng- 
lish verse tale of the same name written in the 
fourteenth century. It was formerly ascribed to 
Chaucer, for the reason that all extant copies of 
the poem are found in the MSS. of the Canter- 
bury Tales. It is interesting as furnishing Thomas 
Lodge with an outline for the first part of Rosa- 
lind, upon which Shakespeare afterwards based 
As You Like It. Consult the appendix to the 
variorum edition of Shakespeare's play by Fur- 
ness (Philadelphia, 1890). 

GAME OF CHESS, A. A political comedy by 
Thomas Middleton, satirizing Spain and Roman 



Fish Are out of Season During the Following Months. 
Except where there is only one mark, in which case only part of the month is closed, and the part left blank is open. 



muscalonge 

Dakota 

New Hampshire 

BLACK BASS 

Dakota 

Illinois 

Maine 

Massachusetts 

New Hampshire 

New York 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

Wisconsin 

BLUE fish 

In Southern waters 

In Northern waters 

SALMON 

California 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Maine (with hook and line) 

Maine (in all ways) 

Massachusetts 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania 

West Virginia 

trout 

California and Oregon 

Connecticut 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Maine (by citizens) 

Maine (by others) 

Maryland 

Massachusetts and Minnesota 

Michigan and New York 

New Hampsliire (with hook and line).... 

New Hampshire (in any way) 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

North Carolina, west of the Blue Ridge, 

Ohio „.. 

Pennsylvania (speckled) 

Pennsylvania (lake) 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

West Virginia ;;.";;;! 

Wisconsin 

PERCH 

Maine 

New Hampshire '. 

PIKE AND PICKEREL 

Dakota 

New Hampshire 

Pennsylvania 

Vermont 



Jan. Feb. Mch. April May .Tune ,Tuly Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec, 



GAME OF CHESS. 



93 



GAMESTER. 



Catholicism, produced at the Globe Theatre in 
August, 1624, and published in quarto the same 
year. It was suggested by the notorious Spanish 
Match, and drew much of its abundant detail 
from contemporary tracts which dealt with that 
fiasco. The Spanish Minister immediately pro- 
tested to King James concerning it, and the 
author was temporarily imprisoned. The vogue 
which the play enjoyed at the time was remark- 
able, its nine performances netting £1500, Con- 
sult Doran, English Stage. 

GAME PRESERVE. A park stocked with 
game, or a tract of country, sometimes inclosed, 
and set apart for the protection of game. At the 
beginning of the Middle Ages the rulers of Euro- 
pean countries maintained their own hunting 
grounds or forests, a fashion which was soon fol- 
lowed by the landed nobility, and out of which 
grew up the present system, by which the right 
of hunting and the ownership of game is vested 
in the ownership of the land. (See Game Laws.) 
Austria-Hungary and Germany contain many 
'hunting estates,' as also did France before the 
Revolution; and game of every description is 
plentiful. In none of these countries, however, 
is the preservation of game so much a concern 
of the National Government as of the individual 
proprietor. In the British Isles game preserving 
has attained a high degree of development; but, 
as in Continental Europe, it is due to the indi- 
vidual land-owner rather than to the Govern- 
ment, and the impelling factor is a selfish rather 
than a patriotic motive. 

In England and Scotland the old method of 
shooting birds over dogs has been largely super- 
seded by 'driving.' Instead of hunting the game, 
the sportsmen or 'guns' take up previously ap- 
pointed positions, and the 'beaters' or game-keep- 
ers drive the game in front of the gimners. Vast 
sums are annually expended in breeding the dif- 
ferent varieties of game; but as they are practi- 
cally raised in captivity, they are as a rule 
heavy on the wing, and lacking in the character- 
istics most desired by the keen hunter. Within 
recent times fresh-water fish have come under 
Government protection, local as well as national. 

In Ireland the impoverished condition of the 
great majority of the land-owners has prevented 
the stocking and breeding of game to any great 
extent ; nevertheless there are several estates in 
the midlands, south, and west, where game is 
carefully ])reserved for sporting purposes. 

Scotland possesses the largest single areas set 
apart for shooting and hunting in the United 
Kingdom, the preserve of the Duke of Sutherland 
ranking as one of the largest in the world. The 
vast tracts set apart for these purposes have be- 
come a very real grievance to the Scottish people. 
Grouse, deer, and salmon are especially presers'ed 
in Scotland. 

In the United States the subject of game pres- 
ervation in its largest sense has become a matter 
of national legislation. Every efTort is Iwing 
made to preserve what is left of the bison, the 
Maine caribou, the bald eagle of the Rockies, and 
the ibis and the flamingo of the extreme southern 
forests. Besides the numerous zofilogical gardens 
throughout the country, and the various Govern- 
ment reservations, there are many estates (»wned 
by private individuals or by private clubs. One 
of the oldest of these latter is that founded 
by Fayette S, Giles in 1870, which covers 17.000 
acres, and is known as the Grove Park Associa- 



tion. The first real game preserve in America 
was that of Judge John Dean Caton, the author 
of The Deer and Antelope of America, who 
founded his preserve for the purpose of sport 
as well as for study. The Litchfield tracts at 
Tupper Lake, N. Y., and the Webb holdings at 
Nehasane, N. Y., and Shelburne, Vt., are also 
well-known game preserves. Corbin Park at New- 
port, N. H., next to the Duke of Sutherland's es- 
tate, is the largest inclosed game preserve in the 
world; the latter, however, exceeds it only in su- 
perficial area, and not by any means in scope or 
importance. The Corbin tract consists of more 
than 25,000 inclosed acres, with additional land 
outside, and includes altogether nearly four entire 
townships. An important game fish preserve i» 
that of E. C. Benedict, in Connecticut, at the 
east end of Long Island Sound. The most im- 
portant private game preserve in the United 
States is that of G. W. Vanderbilt at Biltmore, 
N. C, which covers 80,000 acres of diversified 
country, of which 6000 acres are inclosed and the 
remainder open. The preserve is cared for by an 
organized system of rangers, keepers, etc. Private 
game preserves are becoming plentiful in the 
Adirondacks, but the interests of the general 
public are being cared for there as in other 
places throughout the country by the creation of 
Government reserves, both forest and game. See 

FORESTBY. 

Canada has several big preserves, but through- 
out eastern and central Quebec the best stretches 
of game country land and water are all o\\-ned 
by private individuals. A famous preserve is the 
great Caughnaw^aga tract, which is situated north 
of Deux Rivieres, on the Magnacippi River. The 
preserve of the Roberval Club, which has a mixed 
Canadian and United States meml)ership of over 
.300, is in the heart of the Laurentian Mountains, 
and is a little over 500 square miles in extent. 
The most remarkable presen'-e is that belonging 
to Henri Menier, consisting of the whole of Anti- 
costi Island, in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. See 
Fishing; Hunting. 

GAMES, Ancient. The public games of Greece 
and Rome were athletic contests and spectacles of 
various kinds, generally connected with religious 
observances. It is hard to overestimate the 
influence of the public contests of Greece in 
developing the extraordinary appreciation of 
physical beauty among the Greeks, and its re- 
flection in art and literature. They also exercised 
a powerful influence in promoting a feeling of 
national unity in opposition to the many ri- 
valries Avhich tended to disrupt the Grecian world. 
As the contests came to take on more and more of 
the professional character, the admiration for the 
athletes decreased, and the games lost much of 
their early character. In the Homeric poems 
we find games a part of the funeral of a great 
chief, but with the fall of the nobility they 
l)ecome associated with some special sanctuary 
or religious festival. The Romans preferred to 
play the part of spectators, and their shows were 
conunonly gladiatorial and bloody — things en- 
tirely foreign to the feeling of free Gree(*e. See 
Olympic Games: Pythian Games; Nemea; 
IsTiiMis; Panathen.ea; Circus; Amphithe- 
atre: Gladiator. 

GAMESTER, The. (1) A comedy by Shirley 
(1033). It is founded on a novel by Celio 
Malespini, and in its turn suggested Johnson's 



GAMESTER. 

The Wife's Relief (1711) ; Garrick's The Game- 
sters (1758) ; and Poole's The Wife's Stratagem 
(1827). Charles I. approved it highly, and is 
said to have even assisted in the construction 
of its plot. (2) A comedy by Mrs. Centlivre 
(1705). It was taken from Regnard's Le joueur 
(1696), and suggested Destouche's Le Dissipa- 
teur (1736). (3) A bourgeois tragedy in prose 
by Edward Moore, produced with success at 
Drury Lane, February 7, 1753. Garrick wrote 
the scene between Lewson and Stukely in the 
fourth act, and played the principal part. 

GAM'ETAN^GIXJM (Neo.Lat., from Gk. 
ya/i^TT), gamete, wife -|- dyyeiov, angeion, vessel). 
The organ of plants in which the sex cells (gam- 
etes) are developed. In its narrow sense, the 
name is used only in connection with the lower 
algae and fungi, in which the gametes are alike. 
In the higher plants the gametes are unlike 
(eggs and sperms) , and the organs which produce 
them are called oogonia or archegonia, and an- 
theridia. 

GAMETE, ga-met" or gam'et ( Gk. yaiiirri, ga- 
mete, wife, from yd/uos, gamos, marriage, from 
yafieiv, gamein, to marry). The sexual cell 
which fuses with another in the process of fer- 
tilization. In the lowest plants gametes are simi- 
lar in appearance, and there is no apparent 
distinction of sex. In most plants, however, the 
pairing gametes are strikingly different. One 
of them is a small and usually ciliated body 
called the sperm; while the other is a compara- 
tively large and passive body called the egg. 
In every case the gamete is a naked cell. The 
organ in which the gametes are formed is called 
a gametangium ; and when the gametes are dif- 
ferentiated, the gametangium which produces the 
sperms is called an antheridium, while that 
which produces the egg is called the oogonium 
in the algae and fungi ( thallophytes ) and arche- 
^onium in the higher groups. See Fertilization. 

GAM'ETOPHYTE (from Q\i. yafxh-n, gamete, 
wife -f <Pvt6v, phyton, plant). That phase in al- 
ternation of generations of plants which bears 
the sex organs. For example, in mosses the 
ordinary leafy moss plant is the gametophyte, 
while in ferns the prothallium * is the gameto- 
phyte. The alternating asexual phase is called 
the sporophyte. See Alternation of Genera- 
tions; Prothallium. 

GAM'GEE, Arthur (1841 — ). An English 
physiologist. He was born in Florence, Italy, 
was educated at Edinburgh University, was there 
assistant in medical jurisprudence from 1863 to 
1869, and in 1873 was appointed the first Brack- 
enbury professor of physiology in Owens College, 
Manchester. He was also professor of physiology 
at the Royal Institution of Great Britain from 
1882 to 1885, and became an assistant physician 
and lecturer on materia medica in Saint George's 
Hospital, London. After his retirement from 
Owens College as professor emeritus, he practiced 
medicine and conducted private investigations. 
He became particularly known for his researches 
in physiology and physiological chemistry. His 
writings include numerous papers on these sub- 
jects, especially the latter, a translation and edi- 
tion (1875; 2d ed. 1878) of Hermann's Grvndriss 
der Physiologie (Berlin. 1863), and a Text-Book 
of the Physiological Chemistry of the Animal 
Body (1880-93). 



94 



GANANCIAL SYSTEM. 



GAM'MER GUR'TON'S NEEDLE. The title 
of an English comedy, performed at Cambridge 
in 1566, and printed in 1575. It has been 
ascribed on insufficient grounds to John Still 
(1543-1607), Bishop of Bath and Wells. In 
order of time it is the second of the English 
comedies founded on Latin models, the first 
being Ralph Roister Doister, by Nicholas Udall, 
printed in 1566. The theme of the play is the 
loss of a needle by Gammer Gurton, a village 
housewife, while she is mending her husband's 
breeches, and the consequent disturbance in the 
household and the village. The wit is coarse, 
homely, and boisterous. The play contains the 
oldest and one of the most famous drinking 
songs in the English language — "Back and side 
go bare, go bare." For the comedy, consult Dods- 
ley, Old Plays, edited by W. C. Hazlitt, vol. iii. 
(London, 1874-76). 

GAM'MON, Oily. A smooth, swindling so- 
licitor in Warren's Ten Thousand a Year. 

GAMO GENESIS. See Parthenogenesis. 

GAM'OPET'AL^. See Sympetal.^. 

GAMP, Mrs. Sairey. A professional nurse in 
Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit, husky of voice and 
moist of eye, and given to stimulants during her 
night watching. She constantly refers to the 
opinions of her mythical friend Mrs. Harris in 
confirmation of her own views, and is noted for 
her plethoric umbrella, which has given the name 
'gamp' to other umbrellas of similar shape. 

GAMTOOS (gam'tos) RIVER. A river of 
Cape Colony, South Africa, which rises in the 
plateau of the Great Karoo in a number of wady- 
like streams (Map: Cape Colony, J 9). At the 
eastern end of the Zwarte Berge it becomes a 
permanent watercourse, flowing southeasterly to 
the Indian Ocean, which it enters through Saint 
Francis Bay about 50 miles (coastwise) west of 
Port Elizabeth. A number of tributaries are 
received by the main stream from both the north 
and the south; the Konga River from the latter 
being the chief one. 

GAMUNGAN, ga-moon'gan. A Malay people 
in Cagayan Province, Luzon. See Philippines. 

GAM'UT. The name given to a system of 
musical notation invented by Guido of Arezzo, 
a Benedictine monk of the tenth century. He 
called the lowest tone of the musical system 
gamma (Greek letter g), and then, taking the 
syllables from an old Latin hymn, called the 
notes of the hexachord ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la. The 
scale thus formed, with the later addition of si 
for the seventh, acquired the name gamut 
(gamma-ut), or French gamme. 

GANANCIAL SYSTEM (from Sp. ganancia, 
gain, profit). The Spanish law governing the 
title and disposition of property acquired by 
husband and wife during the existence of the 
marriage relation. It is almost identical with 
the community system of the French law and 
many of our Western States, the chief point of 
difference being that under the Spanish rule the 
conjugal community of owTiership cannot be re- 
nounced or modified by any stipulation or agree- 
ment of the parties except in case of a judicial 
separation, whereas under the other system they 
are permitted to regulate the ownership of their 
separate or jointly acquired property by contract. 

Several of the States acquired by the United 



GANANCIAL SYSTEM. 



States from Spain have retained this system 
without material modification, and it exists in 
most of the Spanish-American countries. In 
Spain it is regulated by the Civil Code. The 
term is not generally employed in the United 
States. See Community Property; Husband 
AND Wife. 

GANANOOTTE, ga'nd-nok'. A port of entry 
of Leeds County, Ontario, Can., on the left bank 
of the Saint Lawrence, where it issues from Lake 
Ontario, 18 miles east-northeast of Kingston 
(Map: Ontario, G 3). It is a favorite summer 
resort, convenient for the exploration of the Thou- 
sand Islands, which lie opposite to it. Gordon 
Island, just below Gananoque, has been converted 
into a fine public park. Gananoque has abun- 
dance of water-power, and manufactures of agri- 
cultural implements and machinery, etc. Popula- 
tion, in 1891, 3669; in 1901, 3526. 

GAND, gjiN. See Ghent. 

GANDA, BAGANDA^ bd-ganM^. See Ugan- 
da. 

GANDAK, gun-dak', or SALIGRAMI, sa'l^- 
grii'me. A river of the Northwestern Provinces 
and Behar, India, a northern tributary of the 
Ganges. It rises in the Nepal Himalayas and 
joins the Ganges opposite Patna, after a south- 
easterly course of about 400 miles. Only a small 
portion of its course is navigable below Bhelunji, 
but rafts of timber are floated down from Nepal. 
It drains an area of about 40,000 square miles. 

GANDAMAK, or GUNDAMUK, girn'di- 
muk'. A village in the eastern part of Afghanis- 
tan, about 60 miles east-southeast of Kabul. It 
figures in connection with the fatal retreat from 
Kabul in 1842, when a body of about 100 British 
soldiers and 300 camp followers were massacred 
here, only one man effecting his escape. In 1879 
a treaty was conclndod at Gandamak between the 
British and Yakub Khan. 

GANDABA, gan'dji-r^. A town of Samar, 
Philippines, situated 10 miles north of Catba- 
logan (Map: Philippine Islands, J 8). Popu- 
lation, in 1898, 15,503. 

GANDERCLEUGH, gftnMer-klooK. The im- 
aginary residence of the imaginary editor of 
Scott's Talcs of My Landlord, Jedediah Cleish- 
botham. 

GANdIa, gin-de'A. A town in the Province 
of Valencia, Spain, 47 miles by rail south-south- 
east of the city of Valencia, on the Rfo Serpis, 
or Alcoy, about two miles from the sea (Map: 
Spain, E 3). It is surrounded by walls, and has 
several buildings of merit, among which are the 
ducal palace, the hospital, the town hall, the 
Colegio de Escolapios, founded by Saint Francis 
of Borgia, who was born in Grandfa, and the col- 
legiate church, a Gothic structure with fine 
paintings and sculptures. There are plazas and 
promenades. Tlie town is situated in an ex- 
tremely fertile valley which produces grain, rice, 
oranges, raisins, wine, oil, silk, etc. Through 
the port at the mouth of the river, Gandfa carries 
on a considerable coastwise and foreign trade; 
its principal industrial establishments include 
silk-niills, ribbon and velvet manufa<*tories, and 
tanneries. Population, in 1900, 9924. 

GANDO, gJln'dA. or GANDU, giln'doo. A 
former sulmrdinate sultanate of the Sokoto Em- 
pire, now merged (since a treaty between France 



95 GANGA. 

and England in 1898) in the colonies of Nigeria 
and in Dahomey and the French Military Terri- 
tories; reaching along both sides of the Niger 
from Gomba up to Bimi (Map: Africa, E 3). 
Sokoto is on the east, the region of the Mossi on 
the west, and the District of Ilorin on the south. 
Gando is embraced among the Haussa States, 
being inhabited by the Haussas, Fulbes, and Sur- 
hais. The Sultanate of Gando was founded in 
1802. The capital, Gando, is situated half way 
between Sokoto and Gomba, with a population of 
about 12,000. 

GANDOLFO, gan-d6l'f6. See Castel-Gan- 

DOLFO. 

GAN'DON, James (1743-1823). An English 
architect, born in London, of Huguenot descent. 
He began the study of drawing as a boy, and was 
the first to receive a gold medal for architecture 
from the Royal Academy (1769). Two years 
later he went to Ireland and followed his pro- 
fession there until his death, with a break of two 
years spent in London. Some of the most promi- 
nent buildings in Dublin were planned by him, 
such as the Custom House (1791), Carlisle 
Bridge (1791-94), and the Four Courts (1802). 

GANDU, giin'doo. See Gando. 

GANELON, ga'ne-lon. One of Charlemagne's 
paladins, who plays an important part in the 
Carolingian cycle of romance. It is said that his 
castle was built on the Blocksberg, the loftiest 
peak of the Harz ^foimtains. Ganelon was jeal- 
ous of Roland, and in order to destroy his rival, 
he treacherously planned with Marsillus, the 
Moorish King, the attack of Roncesvalles. He is 
represented as a man of more than ordinary 
build, fierce in his demeanor, and a lover of 
solitude. His name became a synonym of treason. 
He is mentioned in Chaucer's yuiVs Priest's Tale, 
and in Dante's Inferno. See Poland. 

GANESA, ga-nA'shfi, or GANESH, gft-ngsh' 
(Skt., lord of the host, from yana, host + ««a, 
lord). One of the most popular Hindu minor 
divinities, the god of wisdom and remover of 
obstacles. His temples, shrines, or images are 
to be seen even in the smallest villages in India ; 
and his grotesque figure, with an elephant's head, 
four arms, and a huge protruding belly, usually 
painted red, is not only familiar by the wayside, 
but is employed as a sign over the doors of 
shops, to bring luck in business. As a remover 
of ditficulties he is invoked at the beginning of 
Sanskrit literary works, with the formula, \am6 
Ganesdpa, 'Homage to Ganesa'; and he is likewise 
prayed to for success in all sorts of enterprises 
and undertakings. In Hindu mythology, Ganesa 
is the son of Siva and Parvati (q.v.), or of Siva 
alone, and various legendary accounts are given 
to explain the presence of his elephantine head 
with its single tusk. His name, which is found 
also in the form Gana-pati, means lord or leader 
of the company of minor divinities that attend 
upon Siva. He is often represented as riding 
upon a rat, a creature symbolic of the god's fa- 
miliarity with out-of-the-way places and dark or 
obscure matters. Consult: Wilson, Hindu My- 
tholofjy (London, 1900) ; Dowson, Hindu My- 
thology (London, 1879). 

GAN'GA (Catalan, grouse). A local name for 
three birds: (1) any sand-grouse, especially the 
pin-tailed species {Pterocletes alchata) common 
in Southwestern Asia, and in winter in Northern 



GANGA. 96 

India; (2) a South American carrion-hawk, or 
caracara, of the genus Ibycter; (3) the helmeted 
cockatoo {Callocephalum galeatum) , of South- 
eastern Australia and Tasmania; it is prevail- 
ingly gray, with a head and crest of flaming 
red and the feet nearly black. 

GAN'GA SAGOR'. See Saugor. 

GANGES,, gan'jez (Skt. Gangd, stream). An 
important river of Northern India, rising in 
Garhwal, in latitude 30° 56' 4" N., and longi- 
tude 76° 6' 40" E. It drains the southern ranges 
of the Himalayas, and after a southern and east- 
ern course of 1557 miles flows into the northern 
section of the Bay of Bengal through a multi- 
channeled delta 283 miles long (Map: India, 
D 3 ) . Its basin, one of the finest and most 
fertile portions " of the world, covers an area of 
over 390,000 square miles, lying between the 
Himalaya and Vindhya ranges, and extending to 
the mountains which separate Burma from Ben- 
gal. The Ganges is famous as the sacred river of 
the Hindus. Its main source is in a snow-field 
imbedded between three Himalayan mountains 
over 22,000 feet high. It issues as the Bhagirathi 
from an ice cave, 13,800 feet above sea-level, and 
with a fall of 350 feet in a mile descends 10 miles 
to Gangotri, the first temple upon its banks, and 
a favorite pilgrim resort. Seven miles below 
Gangotri it is joined from the right by the 
Jahnavi, and at Deoprayag (q.v.), 133 miles 
from its source, the Bhagirathi joins the Alak- 
nanda, the united streams being from this point 
called the Ganges. The Ganges leaves the Hima- 
layas at Sukhi, and reaches the border of the 
great plain of Hindustan at Hardwar, 157 miles 
from its source and 1024 feet above the sea, after 
a descent of 9276 feet, or nearly 60 feet in a mile. 
From Hardwar it flows past Atrauli and Faruk- 
habad, near which it receives the Ramganga, and 
continues past Kanauj and Cawnpore to Allaha- 
bad after a winding course of 488 miles, beset by 
shoals and rapids, and Math an average fall of 22 
inches per mile. The stream is navigable for river 
craft to Hardwar, for small-draught steamers to 
within 100 miles of the mountains, and for loaded 
barges to Cawnpore, 140 miles northwest of Alla- 
habad. At Allahabad the Ganges is joined by 
the Jumna from the southwest, and thence the 
increasing river flows east to Mirzapur, Benares, 
Ghazipur, Patna, Monghyr, and Bhagalpur, re- 
ceiving from the right the Son, and from the left 
the Gumti, Groga, Gandak, and Kusi. This section, 
which has a fall of about five inches a mile, varies 
in breadth and in depth according to the season of 
the year, but notwithstanding many shoals, is 
navigable even in the dry season for vessels 
drawing 18 inches of water. Around the Raj- 
mahal Hills, at the head of its delta, 563 miles 
from Allahabad, the Ganges bends southward and 
commences a descent of 283 miles to the Bay of 
Bengal. Near Pakaur (assuming the early name 
of the river) the Bhagirathi, and 70 miles lower 
down the Jalangi, branch off, and after individual 
courses of 120 miles each, unite to form the 
Hugli, the westernmost and principal channel of 
navigation, on which Calcutta (q.v.) stands. The 
main branch, throwing out various minor offsets, 
continues as the Padna, or Padda, to Goalundo, 
where it unites with the Jamuna, the main 
branch of the Brahmaputra, and finally flows 
through the wide estuary of the Megna into the 
Bay of Bengal; between this estuary and the 



GANGES CANAL. 



w^estem channel of the Hugli lie the numerous 
mouths of the deltaic channels. The delta, which 
in the northern part is fertile and well cultivated, 
in the south bordering the sea is a dismal net- 
work of swampland, known as the Sundarbans 
(q.v.), infested by crocodiles, tigers, and other 
wild animals. Three distinct species of crocodiles 
are found in the Ganges, the fresh-water, long- 
snouted gavial, the man-eating koomiah, and the 
muggar. 

The Ganges, as a whole, cannot be accurately 
described. From year to year it exchanges old 
channels for new ones, more particularly in the 
alluvial basin of its lower sections. Even as 
high as Fathipur, above Allahabad, this char- 
acteristic is marked. In this part the river bed 
has an average width of four miles, within the 
limits of which it changes its course annually, in 
the lapse of four or five years shifting from the 
one limit to the other. Between seasons the 
fluctuations in some places are more conspicu- 
ous; at Benares, the stream ranges, according to 
the time of the year, from 1400 feet to 3000 feet 
in breadth, and from 35 feet to 78 feet in depth. 
Lower down these vicissitudes produce more 
striking results. Toward the end of July a pro- 
portion of the delta is inundated over an area 
of more than 100 miles in diameter, presenting 
to the eye nothing but villages and trees and 
craft of every sort. To mitigate this evil, ex- 
pensive dams have been constructed with a col- 
lective length of over 1000 miles. The influence 
of the tides extends, at the dry season, a distance 
of 240 miles from the sea. The minimum outflow 
of water per second has been estimated at 36,000 
cubic feet, and its maximum at 494,000 cubic 
feet. Like all rivers subject to floods, the Ganges 
holds in suspension a large admixture of mud and 
sand, depositing in the sea annually millions of 
tons of solid matter. 

The Ganges, or, as it is called, the Ganga 
(feminine), occupies an important position in 
Hindu mythology of the classical and the Puranic 
periods, and is the subject of numerous traditions 
and legends. In the religion of all classes of 
Hindus, it is held in particular veneration as the 
holiest of rivers, the cleanser of sins, and the 
entrance to Paradise, when death and sepulture 
occur upon its banks. Temples and shrines with 
ghats or flights of steps, giving easy access to its 
waters, stud its banks almost from its source; 
the most conspicuous examples are the temples 
and ghats of holy Benares. The junctions of the 
river's various affluents are especially sanctified 
spots; that of the Jumna at Allahabad is con- 
sidered the most sacred and is the most fre- 
quented place of ablution, annually visited by 
thousands of pious pilgrims, who also convey the 
water to all parts of India for use in their 
religious rites. 

GANGES CANAL, Upper and Lower. A 
navigable channel of India (Map: India C 3), 
which obviates the difficulties in the navigation 
of the Ganges above Allahabad, and with nu- 
merous branches irrigates the Doab, or country 
lying between this river and the Jumna. The 
Upper Canal, commenced in 1848, and opened in 
1854, extends on the right bank of the Ganges 
from Hardwar to Cawnpore and Etawah. The 
Lower Canal, commenced in 1873, continues to 
Allahabad. The total length of the main chan- 
nel is 700 miles, and its irrigating branches 



GANGES CANAL. 



97 



GANGS. 



amount 'to nearly 3000 miles. A magnificent 
aqueduct of 15 arches which crosses the Solani, 
and the weir wall at Narora, 3800 feet long, with 
42 sluices, are monumental works upon its 
course. The entire work cost about $25,000,000. 

GANGHOFER, giing'hfi-fer, Ludwig (1855 
— ). A German novelist and playwright, the 
son of August Ganghofer, a celebrated forester. 
He waS" born at Kaufbeuren and studied at the 
universities of Wurzburg, Munich, Berlin, and 
Leipzig. In 1879 he published his first book, 
a volume of poetry entitled Vom Stamme Asra. 
In 1880 his first play, Dcr Herrgottschnitzer 
von Ammergau, achieved success at Munich. 
Two other dramatic successes, Wege des Her- 
zens and Der Anfang vom Ende, were followed 
by his appointment as dramatic author to the 
Ringtheater at Vienna, for which he wrote a 
number of comedies. From 1886 to 1892 he was 
one of the editors of the Vienna Tageblatt. Be- 
sides his plays and several volumes of verse he 
published: Der Jiiger von Fall (1883, dramatized 
as Der Ziveite Schatz) ; Bergluft (1883); Aus 
Heimat und Fremde (1884); Die SUnden der 
Vater (188G) ; Edelweisskonig (1886) ; Oberland 
(1887); Der Vnfried (1888); Der Besondere 
(1890) ; Die Fackeljungfrau (1893) ; Der Klos- 
terjdger (1894); Die M artinskkiuse (1895); 
Schloss Huhertus (1895); Der laufende Berg 
(1897); Das Gotteslehen (1899); Rachele 
Scarpa (1899) ; Der Dorfapostel (1900). 

GANGI, gan'je. A city in Sicily, 2800 feet 
above the sea, on the slope of a steep mountain, 
65 miles southeast of Palermo, on the wagon road 
that leads from Termini Imerese to Leonforte 
(Map: Italy, J 10). Two miles distant is the 
Convent of San Benedetto, built on the ruins of 
the old town that was destroyed in 1299 by 
Frederick II. In ancient times Gangi was En- 
guium, whose celebrated temple of the Matres 
Magna Cicero tells us that Verres despoiled. 
Population of commune, in 1881, 12,021; in 
1901, 11,376. 

GANGLION, gan'gli-on (Lat., from Gk. yay- 
ylmv, tumor). In surgery, a term applied to 
small, tense, rounded swellings containing fluid 
that develop in the course of tendon-sheaths and 
are most often situated on the dorsum of the 
hand and wrist. See Nervous System. 

GANGOTRI, gftn-giVtrA (Hind., Descent of 
the Ganges). A temple erected on the highest 
accessible spot on the (ianges (q.v.), about 10,000 
feet above the level of the sea, on the right bank 
of the river (here called the Bhagirathi), some 
10 miles from its source. Immediately in front, 
the stream expands into a small bay, which is 
subdivided into pools, taking their names re- 
spectively from Brahma, Vishnu, and other gods. 
Though the water is specially sacred, and ablu- 
tion peculiarly efficacious, yet, from various 
causes, the pilgrims are by no means numerous. 
Besides the length and ruggednesa of the journey, 
and the dilliculty of procuring subsistence by the 
way, there is no accommodation for visitors, the 
only dwelling-house in tlie locality being occupied 
by the officinting Brnhmans. However, flasks of 
tile holy element, sealed by the attendant priests, 
are exported. 

GANGBA, gftp'grft. CorNCiL of. A council 
held at Gangra, in Paphlagonia, about A.n. 370, 
against Eustathius of Sebaste, who was the first 



preacher of the ascetic life in the countries 
around Pontus^ where his disciples became nu- 
merous. He taught that it is unlawful to marry 
and to eat certain meats ; separated several mar- 
ried persons; and advised those who disliked the 
public offices of the Church to communicate at 
home. He wore, and imposed on his disciples, 
a distinctive dress, compelled women to cut off 
their hair, and directed his followers to shun, 
as profanation, the communion and benediction 
of a married priest. In opposition to these 
and similar views, the council published twenty 
canons condemning those who pronounced mar- 
riage unlawful, who forbade the eating of meat, 
refused to receive the communion at the hands of 
a married priest, wore a peculiar dress as a 
mark of unusual strictness, forsook their hus- 
bands through a false horror of marriage, and de- 
serted their children or their parents under pre- 
text of leading an ascetic life. Consult Hefele, 
History of the Councils; English translations by 
Clark, Oxenham, and Buch (Edinburgh, 1876-96). 

GANGRENE, gan'gren (OF. gangrene, from 
Lat. gangrcenu, from Gk. yayypaiva, gangraina, 
eating sore, from ypalveiv. grainein, to devour, 
Skt. gar, to swallow ) . The loss of vitality in a 
part of the living body, whether external or 
internal, the part becoming often, in the first 
instance, more or less red, hot, and painful, then 
livid, and finally dark and discolored, black, or 
olive green, according to circumstances, and later 
putrescent; after which a separation takes place 
gradually between the living and dead parts; 
and if the patient survive, the disorganized tis- 
sue sloughs off", and the part heals by the for- 
mation of a cicatrix. (See Cicatbization.) 
Gangrene is classified into two main varieties by 
the surgeon — moist and dry — according to the 
condition found in the part. The first variety 
is usually characterized by rapid, the second by 
slow, development. Gangrene may be brought 
about by local agencies, such as pressure, extreme 
heat or cold, chemicals, or disease or injury of 
the blood-vessels; or it may be due to constitu- 
tional disturbances such as accompanj' certain 
mental and nervous aflfections, cardiac disease, 
fevers, exhausting diseases, nephritis, and dia- 
betes mellitus, or follow the administration of 
certain drugs, as ergot. The treatment requires 
that the strength of the patient be maintained 
by a nourishing and stimulating diet, to counter- 
act constitutional causes, and that amputation 
be done or natural separation favored by the 
surgeon, according to his judgment. In gan- 
grene from frostbite, or in senile gangrene, to 
await natural separation is the rule. 

GANGS, Agricultiral. A name applied to 
groups of women, girls, and boys brought to- 
gether for labor in the fen districts of England, 
or the low tracts south of the Wash in the coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Cambridge, Norfolk. Sufl'olk. and 
Rutland. Not long ago this part of the country 
was a marsh: but since dikes and canals have 
b(HMi constructed to drain it, it has become one 
of the most fertile districts of England, Instead 
of erecting houses on this land to l>e used as 
homes by farming tenants, the landlords escaf-jed 
the exactions of the poor laws by employing 
laborers from the villages on the highlands near 
by. As women, girls, and boys worked cheaper 
than men, they were exclusively employed to 



GANGS. 

the number of 27,000. Near the close of the 
session of 1866-67 an act was passed regulating 
agricultural gangs. It provided that no woman 
or child should be employed in the same gang 
with men or boys, and that no woman or girl 
was to be employed under a male gang-master, 
unless a woman licensed to act as superintendent 
was also present with the gang. The effect of 
this act was most salutary, A commission was 
appointed in 1867 to inquire into the employ- 
ment of women and children in agriculture, to 
investigate how far the principles of the factory 
acts could be applied to agriculture, with the 
special view of securing the better education of 
the children. On August 5, 1873, was passed 
the Agricultural Children Bill, which provided 
that no child should be employed under the age 
of eight; none between the age of eight and ten 
who had not a certificate showing 250 days at- 
tendance at school the previous year; and none 
between the ages of ten and thirteen who could 
not produce a ceTtificate showing 150 days' at- 
tendance. 

GANGUE, gang (Fr., from Ger. Oang, vein). 
The stony matrix in which metallic ores occur. 
Quartz is the most common gangue mineral, but 
calcite, barytes, fluor-spar, and other minerals 
are not uncommon. Portions of the gangue are 
sometimes worked and submitted to metallurgic 
processes, since they may contain enough metal- 
lic material to be classed as low-grade ore. 

GANGWAY. A passageway or thoroughfare 
in a ship; now generally applied to the opening 
in the ship's rail leading to the gangway ladder, 
or gang-plank, and to the part of the deck in 
this vicinity which is forward of the quarter 
deck. In old-type ships the term is applied to 
the passages or parts of the upper deck between 
the quarter deck and forecastle. In the days 
when the quarter deck was only a partial deck, 
the gangway was a raised platform connecting 
it with the forecastle. When a ship is not lying 
at a wharf the gangway is reached by means of 
an accommodation ladder, which is a portable 
flight of steps bolted to a gangway platform 
(sometimes called the upper grating) at the 
upper end and reaching down nearly to the water. 
At the lower end it is supported by an iron 
span and ropes from above, or rests on a lower 
platform or grating. When at sea the platforms 
and ladder are unshipped and placed on deck; 
the side may then be climbed by means of iron 
brackets or wooden cleats secured to the side 
of the ship, forming a sea ladder. 

GANGWAY (in geology). See Level. 

GAN-HWUY, gon hwoo'e. See Ngan-hwei. 

GANISTER. A hard, siliceous variety of 
clay, commonly associated with the coal meas- 
ures. Owing to its refractory character, it is 
used as a lining for furnaces, particularly in 
ijon-smelting. 

GANNAL, gi'naF, Jean Nicolas (1791- 
1852). A French chemist. He invented the 
elastic rollers used in printing, and made impor- 
tant improvements in the manufacture of borax 
and the preparation of talloAv. He also discov- 
ered the method of preserving anatomical prepa- 
rations, and of embalming bodies by means of 
solutions of aluminum salts, etc. He wrote 



98 



GANNET. 



Histoire des emhaumements et de la preparation 
des pieces d'anatomie normale (1841). 

GANNAT, g4'n&'. The capital of an arron- 
dissement in the Department of Allier, France, 
pleasantly situated on the Andelot, a tributary 
of the Allier, amid hills covered with vines and 
timber-trees, 34 miles south-southwest of Mou- 
lins (Map: France, K 5). In former times it 
was fortified by walls and ditches; the ruined 
castle is utilized as a prison. The Church of 
Sainte Croix presents interesting architectural 
features of the eleventh to the fourteenth cen- 
turies. Gannat has mineral springs, breweries, 
tanneries, manufactures of cutlery, and a trade 
in com, wine and cattle. Population, in 1901, 
5324. 

GANNET (AS. ganot, ganet, OHG. ganazzo, 
MHG. ganze, gander; connected ultimately with 
Lat. anser, Gk. x^**, chen, Skt. hainsa, goose). 
A large gregarious sea-bird, closely allied to the 
pelicans. Gannets frequent the coasts of most 
parts of the world offering rocky cliffs upon 
which they may breed in fair security, and nine 
species are known, constituting the genus Sula 
and family Sulidse. Most of the species inhabit 
the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere, and are 
called boobies (see Booby) by sailors. 

The typical and best-known member of the 
family is the gannet of the North Atlantic {Sula 
Bassana), which derives its specific name from 
its frequency on Bass Rock, in the English Chan- 
nel; it is also called solan (i.e. Solent) goose, 
for the same reason. It is scattered in summer 
at suitable places all around the British and 
Scandinavian coasts, about the islands of the 
il^orth Atlantic, and from southern Greenland 
down to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Neverthe- 
less, their colonies are scattered and steadily 
diminishing. This gannet has a body much like 
that of a goose, but weighs less; its total length 
is about three feet, much of which belongs to the 
neck, and long, strong, conical beak. Its gen- 
eral color when adult is white, with the head 
and neck buft*, and the primaries of the long 
wings black and very conspicuous as they lie 
crossed above the tail when folded. Young 
specimens are mottled brown until three or four 
years old. In winter the gannets migrate to 
the northwest coasts and islands of Africa, or 
to the Gulf of Mexico; but early in the season 
they go north again, appearing at their breed- 
ing haunts in April, where by May they are col- 
lected in thousands about the sea-fronting cliffs. 
The gannets of Bass Rock Avere estimated in 
1831 at 20,000, and in 1869 at 12,000, and are 
known to be decreasing there and in the Hebrides, 
owing to the excessive gathering of their eggs 
and downy young. On the American coast they 
nest along the shore of Labrador, and at Perce 
Rock and Bonaventure Island, off the Gaspe Pe- 
ninsula, and on Bird Rock, an outlier of the 
Magdalen group, in company with murres, kit- 
tiwakes, etc. ; but even in these almost inaccessi- 
ble places are growing less in numbers, although 
somewhat protected. Upon the summits and 
ledges, wherever a square yard of room may be 
found, a gannet places its shallow nest of seaweed, 
and lays and incubates its single chalky-white 
egg. The sitting females crowded along the ledges 
make them look sometimes as if covered with 
snow, while the neighborhood will be full of 



GANNET. 



99 



GANS. 



their mates, roosting, flying about, or darting 
down into the sea. They sail about at a consider- 
able height, their eyes searching the surface for 
fish, and when one is seen they turn downward, 
shut the wings, and seem to drop upon it with 
amazing velocity, rarely missing a capture. They 
also make long excursions seaward, and toward 
the close of the breeding season are of service 
to the fisherman by finding and disclosing to 
him shoals of herrings and the like, which they 
follow and prey upon in great numbers. For 
the gannets in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, con- 
sult the following richly illustrated books : Chap- 
man, Bird Studies with a Camera (New York, 
1900) ; Job, Among the Waterfowl (New York, 
1902). 

GAN'NETT, Ezba Stiles (1801-71). An 
American Unitarian clergyman, son of Rev. 
Caleb Gannett, and grandson of Ezra Stiles, 
President of Yale College. He was born in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and was educated at Harvard. He 
became assistant to Channing in the Federal 
Street Church, and later (1842) succeeded him 
as pastor. His incessant toil as the first secre- 
tary of the American Unitarian Association, one 
of the prime movers in the formation of the 
Benevolent Fraternity of Churches, founder and 
editor of the Scriptural Interpreter, and in 
many other interests, resulted in his breaking 
down in 1830, and soon after he was crippled 
by a paralytic stroke. But his mental activity 
was not abated. He edited the Monthly Miscel- 
lany of Religion and Letters and the Christian 
Examiner, besides attending alone to his large 
parish. He was an overseer of Harvard College 
from 1835 to 1858, and received the degree of 
doctor of divinity from that institution in 1843. 
He retired from pastoral work in 18G9, and was 
killed in a railroad accident. He was a Uni- 
tarian of the more conservative type, an excellent 
preacher, and an ardent reformer. Sec the mem- 
oir l)y his son (1875) . 

GANNETT, Hexry (184C— ). An American 
geographer. He was born in Bath, Maine; 
graduated at Harvard in 1809 and at the' Hooper 
Mining School in the following year; Avas an 
assistant in the Harvard College Observatory in 
1870-71; was topographer of the Hayden Na- 
tional Survey, and in 1882 became chief topog- 
rapher of the United States Geological Survey. 
He contributed much of the geographical matter 
to the present edition of the 'New International 
Encyclopwdia. His })ublications include; A 
Manual of Topographic Methods (1893); Dic- 
tionary of Altitudes (2d ed. 1801) ; and Building 
of a Nation (1895). 

GANNETT, ^^'ILLIAM Ciiannixo (1840—). 
An American clergyman of the Unitarian Church, 
born in Boston, Mass. Having been ordained 
to the Unitarian ministry, he became pastor 
at Saint Paul, Minn,, and subsequently at Roch- 
ester, N, Y. His publications include .1 Year 
of Miracle and The Thought of God in Uymns 
and Forms (with F. L. Hosnier). 

GAN'ODON'TA. An order of Tertiary mam- 
mals, allied to the Edentata ((j.v. ),an<l apparcjit- 
Iv representing the ancestral forma from which 
they, or some of them, Mere derived. The oldest 
type (Hemiganus) is found in the earliest Eocene 
strata of North America, and is highly general- 
ized, combining in its skeleton characters now 



marking the armadillos and ground-sloths. It had 
a full complement of teeth and powerful jaws. 
The next representative is Psittacotherium (Up- 
per Puerco beds), and is noticeable for its re- 
duced dentition, and the fact that incisors (only 
one pair in each jaw) have enamel only upon 
their anterior faces. The foot is decidedly eden- 
tate. Calamodon is larger and shows progress 
toward the modern edentate tyi)e; and a still 
later form, Stylinodon, advances this progress. 
A review of the series shows "a gradual diminu- 
tion of the incisors, a gradual loss of enamel on 
the teeth generally, and the production of hypse- 
lodont teeth growing from persistent pulps; all 
of which are features of the later edentates" 
( Beddard ) . The order, however, includes an- 
other family, Conorj'ctidae, including the genera 
Conoryctes and Onychodectes, whose position 
with reference to the Edentata is more doubtful. 
Consult: Wortman, "The Ganodonta," etc., in 
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, vol. ix. (New Y^ork, 1897) ; Beddard, 
Mammalia (London, 1902). 

GANOFDEI (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from Gk, 
ydvog, ganos, brightness -\- elihg, eidos, appear- 
ance), or Ganoidea. One of the four orders of 
fishes in the classification of Agassiz. They are 
characterized by ganoid scales, horny plates cov- 
ered with enamel, and angular (rhomboidal or 
polygonal) shiny scales. The small number of 
ganoid fish living at the present time do not 
form a natural group, for they have been found 
to be members of the three orders Crossoptery- 
gii, Chondrostii, and Holostii, examples of which 
are, respectively, the bichir ( Polypterus) , the stur- 
geon (Acipenser), and the gar-pike ( Lepidosteus ) . 
In Paleozoic and early Mesozoic times ganoid fish 
were the prominent typw of Teleostomes. and their 
remains are found in abundance in the Carbon- 
iferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cre- 
taceous rocks of Europe and North America. 
With the close of Cretaceous time the ganoid 
types began to disappear and to give way to the 
teleost fishes, which are the predominating types 
at present. Thus, the ganoid structure is seen to 
represent an ancient, more primitive stage in 
the evolution of teleost fishes. Some well-known 
fossil ganoids are: Holoptychius, of the Upper 
Devonian; Macropoma, of the Chalk; Paliconis- 
cus, of the Permian; Platysomus, of the Per- 
mian; Catopterus, of the Triassic shales of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey; 
and Chondrosteus, Lepidotus, Eugnatlius, and 
Mesturus. See BiciiiR; Gar-Pike ; Sturgeon; 
and the generic names mentioned above. 

GANS, gilns, Enr.VRn (1708-1839). A German 
jurist, leader of the philosophical school of juris- 
prudence in Germany. He was the son of a Jew- 
ish banker, *nnd was born in Berlin, and educated 
there, at Giittingen, and at Heidellwrg. After 
his conversion to Christianity he was appointed 
professor at Berlin. He was a philosopher rather 
than a jurist, a strong Hegelian, and one of the 
foremost opponents of the historical method in 
jurisprudence, as represcjited by Hugo and Sa- 
vigny. The philosophic theory' of jurisprudence is 
presented by him in : Vchcr romischrs Ohligation- 
rccht (1819) ; Scholien zum Gajtut: Das Erhrecht 
en iceltgeschichtlicher Entwicklung (1824-35); 
System drs romischen Cirilrrchts (1827) : and in 
his edition of Hegel's Grundlinicn der Philosophie 
dcs Rcchta (3d cd. 1854). The Prussian Govern- 



GANS. 



100 



GAR. 



ment prohibited his lectures on contemporary 
history, later published as "Vorlesungen iiber die 
Geschichte der letzten fiinfzig Jahre," in the His- 
torisches Taschenhuch (1833-34). His other 
works include: Vermischte Schriften (1834); 
the personal Riickblicke (1836), describing his 
travels in England and France; and the peri- 
odicals Beitrage zur Revision der preiissischen 
Gesctzgebung (1830-32) and Jahrbiicher fiir 
wissenschaftliche Kritik (1827). 

GANSEVOORT, gans'voort, Peteb (1749- 
1812). An American soldier, born in Albany, 
N. Y. On the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War he joined the Patriot army, and on June 30, 
1775, was appointed major of the Second New 
York Regiment. He subsequently accompanied 
Montgomery on his expedition against Canada; 
was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel in March, 
1776; was placed in command of Fort George, 
on Lake George, in July; became a colonel in 
November; and from August 2 to August 22, 
1777, defended Fort Schuyler (formerly Fort 
Stanwix) against Saint Leger, with a large force 
of British Tories and Indians, until the arrival 
of reinforcements under Gen. Benedict Arnold. 
(See Fort Stanwix.) He was a brigadier- 
general in the militia of New York State from 
March, 1781, until the close of the war, and in 
February, 1809, received the same rank in the 
Regular Army of the United States. He also 
filled successively the offices of commissioner of 
Indian affairs, commissioner for fortifying the 
frontiers, and military agent. 

GANSFORT. See Wessel, Johannes. 

GANTANG (gan'tfmg) PASS. A mountain 
pass leading eastward from Kunawar, a district 
of Bashahr, in the Punjab, India, into Tibet. 
Its height is 18,295 feet above the sea, and it is 
overhung by a peak of its own name about 3000 
feet loftier. The place is unspeakably desolate 
and rugged. Beset with perpetual snow and 
devoid of fuel, it is little frequented. 

GANTEATJME, gaN'tom', Honors Joseph 
Antoine, Count (1755-1818). A French naval 
officer, born at La Ciotat. He entered the navy, in 
1771, as a lieutenant, and saw service during the 
American Revolution, In 1794 lie attained the 
rank of captain, in 1798-99 participated in the 
expedition to Egypt, and, with the rank of rear- 
admiral, he commanded the naval forces at the 
sieges of Jaffa and Acre. In 1799 he was given 
the title of Councilor of State. In 1804 he be- 
came vice-admiral, in 1808 commander of the 
Mediterranean Squadron, and in 1810 a member 
of the Council of the Admiralty. He supported 
the Bourbons, and was elevated to the peerage by 
Louis XVIII. 

GAN'YMEDE (Lat., from Gk. 'Tapv/i-^^Tis). 
According to the Iliad, the son of Tros; or, ac- 
cording to others, of Laomedon, Ilus, or Erich- 
thonius. The most beautiful of mortals, he was 
carried to heaven to become the cup-bearer of 
Zeus. The legend gradually developed, and it 
was the common belief that he had been borne 
away by the eagle of Zeus, or by Zeus himself 
in the form of an eagle. The eagle carrying 
away the boy was seemingly a favorite subject 
with later artists. The most celebrated was the 
work of Leochares, of which some conception 
may be obtained from a small marble copy in 
the Vatican. Ganymede was also identified with 



the divinity who presided over the sources of the 
Nile. The Greek astronomers likewise placed 
him among the stars, under the name of Aqua- 
rius ( the water-bearer ) . 

GAP, giip. The capital of the Department of 
Hautes-Alpes, France, pleasantly situated on the 
right bank of the Luye, 84 1/^ miles from Grenoble 
by rail ( Map : France, N 7 ) . It is approached 
through avenues of walnut trees, and is sur- 
rounded by vine-clad hills. The chief public 
buildings are the handsome Gothic cathedral, 
rebuilt since 1887; the bishop's palace; the pre 
fecture building, containing a museum and the 
marble mausoleum of the Constable de Lesdi- 
gui^res; a lyceum, a seminary, a library, and a 
theatre. The city is the seat of a bishop since 
the fifth century, has a court of assize, and a 
commercial tribunal. It has manufactures of 
hats, cement, leather, etc. Population, in 1901, 
11,018. Gap (the ancient Vapinicum) was for- 
merly capital of a district of Dauphine to which 
it gave the name of Gapengais. At the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century it is said to 
have had about 16,000 inhabitants. Its decay 
dates from 1692, when it was sacked and almost 
wholly reduced to ashes by Victor Amadeus of 
Savoy. 

GAP AN, ga-pan'. The largest town of the 
Province of Nueva Ecija, Luzon, Philippines 
( Map : Luzon, E 4 ) . It is situated in a level 
region four miles east of San Isidro. Popula- 
tion, in 1898, 20,216. 

GAPER, gap'er. The soft clam {Mya trun- 
cata) of Great Britain, highly esteemed as food. 
The name' is also occasionally applied to other 
similar edible bivalves. See Clam. 

GAPES, gaps ( from gape, Icel. gapa, a yawn ) . 
A disease of poultry, due to the presence of a 
round gapeworm {Syngamus trachealis) of near- 
ly universal distribution, found in the trachea of 
gallinaceous birds. Infested birds assume a char- 
acteristic drooping attitude in walking or stand- 
ing, are attacked by frequent fits of coughing, 
and rapidly become emaciated. Many experi- 
ments seem to show that the earthworm is the 
intermediate host of the gapeworm, which gains 
entrance to the fowls when earthworms para- 
sitized by gapeworms are eaten. On the other 
hand, some investigators deny any such inter- 
relation. A favorite remedy is turpentine ap- 
plied with a feather inside the windpipe. Inter- 
nal doses of asafetida, garlic, or turpentine 
sometimes give good results. The most effective 
and convenient method is to make the fowls 
breathe the dust of air-slaked lime. This irri- 
tates the mucous membrane of the respiratory 
passages and produces violent coughing, during 
which the gapeworms, already aff"ected by the 
lime, are thrown out. During the operation the 
fowls should be in a box or coop. Infested soil 
should be treated with a strong solution of com- 
mon salt before the fowls are allowed to run 
upon it. Such treatment would probably kill 
the gapeworms. 

GAR (from AS. gar, spear). The name of 
two diff'erent sorts of fishes having an external 
similarity, namely: (1) the marine garfishes, 
needle-fishes, etc., of the teleost family Esocidae; 
and (2) the fresh-water gar-pikes or billfishes 
of the ganoid family I^epidosteidae. 

( 1 ) The gars of the family Esocidae are round 



GAB. 



101 



GARAT. 



slender fishes, sometimes five feet long, and hav- 
ing the jaws prolonged into a stout bill, and 
studded with sharp teeth; they are found in all 
warm seas, and are classified in four genera with 
about fifty species. They are voracious carniv- 
orous fishes and powerful surface swimmers, 
pursuing the fleet flying fish and similar small 
gregarious prey, and often leaping high out of 
the water in their eagerness. The best-known 
species is the Old World garfish {Belone vul- 
garis), or greenbone, congeners of which dwell in 
the South Pacific and along the Asiatic coast; 
a prominent Oriental species is the great Belone 
gigantea, illustrated on the Colored Plate of 
Philippine Fishes. This genus is character- 
ized by the presence of fin- rakers. On the tropi- 
cal American coasts occur many species of the 
genus Tylosurus, popularly known as needle- 
fishes, spear fishes, longjaws, agujones, hound- 
fishes, etc. One of these {Tylosurus marinurs) is 
common as far north as Cape Cod, often, like the 
others, ascending rivers to spawn. They are par- 
ticularly numerous about the West Indies and in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and annoy the fishermen by 
tearing their nets. See Aguja, and Plate of 
Needtj:-Fish. 

( 2 ) The fresh-water gars, billfishes, bony pikes, 
or pikes, form a family of ganoid fishes ( Lepidos- 
teidae ) , the only living" representatives of the order 
Rhomboganoidea, which was rich in forms in ear- 
lier geological times. (See Ganoidei.) They have 
an elongated nearly cylindrical body, covered 
with a bony case of rhomboidal scales. The head, 
Avhose external bones are very hard and rugose, 
terminates in a long beak-like snout, with nos- 
trils near the end of the upper jaw; and the 
jaws are set with several series of sharp recurved 
teeth. The dorsal fin is set well back, above the 
anal fin. There is a single genus, Lepidosteus, 
comprising five species, inhabiting the lakes and 
rivers of North America and China, some of 
which are very numerous in individuals. The 
most familiar species is the common billfish or 
gar-pike of the United States (Lepidosteus 
osseus) , which under favorable conditions be- 
comes five feet long, and is numerously found in 
lakes and rivers from Vermont to Texas. It lives 
by preying upon other fishes, and is not itself 
good for food. It is nocturnal in its activities, 
and in early summer seeks shallow places in 
which to lay its eggs, which are glutinous and 
adhere to the first object they come in contact 
with. When the fry hatches from the eff» it has 
a row of suckers above a very large mouth with 
which it clings to submerged stones. The short- 
nosed gar (Lepidosteus platostoinus) is smaller 
and has a shorter bill ; it has a northerly range. 
The great or alligator gar, or manjuari (Lepi- 
dosteus tristwchus) , belongs to the Southern 
States, Cuba, and Mexico, and sometimes reaches 
sixteen feet in length. A fourth species inhabits 
the west-coast streams of Central America, and 
a fifth is found in China. Compare BiciiiR. 

GARAM ANTES, gftr'A-msln'tez. An ancient 
people of (laranin (.Terma) , northwest of Murzuk, 
in the oasis of Fezzan (Phazania). Tripoli. North 
Africa. This was tlie southern limit of the 
Roman Conquest. At the end of the seventh cen- 
tury the Arab Mohammedans swe])t away the 
vestiges of the Roman power. With perhaps a 
strain of negro blood, there are mixed in the 
veins of the present inhabitants that of Hainite, 



Mediterranean, and Semite. They are akin 
closely with the native population of Ghadames, 
in common with whom they were conquered by 
the Quiestqr Cornelius Balbus in the reign of 
Augustus. 

GAR'ANCINE (Fr. garance, Lat. garantia, 
madder). A red dye-stuff which may be derived 
from madder, and which was formerly much used 
on an industrial scale. It was originally obtained 
by Robiquet and Colin in 1827, who treated the 
ground madder with an equal weight of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid. This treatment caused 
the formation of alizarin (q.v.), which was the 
coloring principle of garancine, and of which 
the latter contained a higher percentage than 
madder. Garancine therefore dyed more readily 
than madder, yielding brilliant reds and pinks 
with yellow tone, and lilacs with a gray shade. 

GARASHANIN, ga'ra-shii'nen, Iliya ( 1812- 
74 ) . A Servian statesman, born at Garachi. He 
studied at the Normal School of Semlin, entered 
the civil service, and in 1844 became Minister of 
the Interior. From 1852 to 1854 he was presi- 
dent of the Council, and in 1857-58 again Min- 
ister of the Interior. In 1862 he was once more 
at the head of the Cabinet, conducting the de- 
partment of Foreign AflFairs until 1867. As 
Minister of the Interior he inaugurated many re- 
forms, particularly in connection with the sys- 
tem of public education and the administration 
of justice. 

GARAT, ga'ra', Dominique Joseph (1749- 
1833). A French statesman and man of letters. 
He was born at Bayonne, and as a youth came to 
Paris, where he soon became known as a writer 
of eloges and editor of the Journal de Paris. 
After 1786 he enjoyed immense vogue as a lec- 
turer on history at the Lycee, Going over to the 
partisans of the Revolution, he became a slavish 
adulator of Danton, whom he succeeded as Min- 
ister of Justice in 1792, becoming Minister of the 
Interior the following year. He was imprisoned 
during the Reign of Terror, but was freed 
after the fall of Robespierre, and became Min- 
ister of Public Instruction. He was Ambassa- 
dor to Naples in 1798, and meml>er of tht 
Ancients in 1799. Made a Senator and a count 
by Napoleon, he remained faithful to him after 
tile first Restoration, and was consequently 
ousted by Louis XVI II. from the Institute of 
France, to which he had been elected in 1795. 
After 1830 he became a inenil)er of the Academy 
of Morals and Political Science. Carat's char- 
acter, like his brilliant literary style, was in- 
herently weak, resting on no steadfast principles. 
Hungry for success and applause, he fawned 
upon Bourbon and Sans-culotte, Napoleon and 
Louis Philippe with equal assiduity. 

GARAT, Jean Pierre (1762-1823). A French 
singer and composer, born at Ustariz. He be- 
gan to study law and went to Paris to finish his 
course; but his great talent for music was al- 
most immediately recognized, and he was pat- 
ronized by the Count d'Artois, who introduced 
him to Marie Antoinette. He gave her lessons in 
singing and became a Court favorite. During the 
Revolution he went to Germany with Rode, the 
violinist, where his success was astonishing. He 
returned to France in 1794. and sang in the con- 
certs at the Thf'fttre Feydeau (1795). He then 
went abroad again and sang throughout the 



GABAT. 



102 



GABBAGE DISPOSAL. 



Continent with equal success. About 1796 he was 
made professor at the Conservatory, and was 
a popular teacher. He is said to have been the 
most wonderful singer France evei; produced. 
His voice ranged from tenor to barytone, and 
suited all styles of music. He was also a com- 
poser; but his songs, it is said, owed most of 
their charm to his manner of singing them. 
Among these songs are: Je Vaime tant; Beli- 
saire; and Le menestrel ex^ile. 

GABAY, gor'oi, Janos (1812-53). An Hun- 
garian poet, born at Szegzard. He was an ardent 
patriot, and all his poems deal with national 
subjects, although they are formed on German 
models. He held a chair in the University of 
Pesth for a year (1848), and was librarian there 
from 1850 until his death. His works include: 
Csaidr (1834), an epic, which made him widely 
known, and the tragedies Arhoez (1837), 
Orszdghlona ( 1837 ) , and Bdtori Erzsehet { 1840) . 
His lyric poems are of a high order. There is 
an excellent edition of his complete works by 
Ferenczy (1888), who also wrote his Life (Buda- 
pest, 1883). 

GABAY, ga-ri^ Juan de (1541-84). A Span- 
ish soldier, born in Biscay. He Avent to Paraguay 
about 1565, was appointed secretary to the Gov- 
ernor, made a voyage up the Parana River, and 
in 1573 founded the city of Santa Fe de Vera 
Cruz. Subsequently he was appointed a lieuten- 
ant-general, and in 1580 he founded on the site 
of the first settlement the present city of Buenos 
Ayres. While returning to Asuncion, he was 
massacred by hostile nativesi In his dealings with 
the Indians he was humane and beneficent. His 
doings are celebrated by Bareo Centenera in the 
poem La Argentina (Lisbon, 1602). 

GABB, or GABBE- (OF. garhe, jarhe, Fr. 
gerhe, from OHG. garha, Ger. Garhe, sheaf; ulti- 
mately connected with Lith. grapti, Skt. grabh, 
to grasp ) . In heraldry, a sheaf of any kind of 
grain. If it is blazoned garb simply, wheat is un- 
derstood; if any other kind of grain is intended, 
the kind must be mentioned, as a 'garb of oats.' 
See Heraldry, 

GABBAGE AND BEFUSE DISPOSAL 

(ME. garbage, entrails of fowls; probably from 
OF. garbage, tribute paid in sheaves, from garbe, 
sheaf) . A term used in the United States to des- 
ignate kitchen wastes of animal and vegetable 
origin, incident to the preparation and serving of 
food. Associated with it there is likely to be 
more or less inorganic matter, some of which, 
such as tin cans and bottles, have been in con- 
tact with food materials. It is not uncommon 
to place all household wastes, other than sewage, 
in the garbage can or box, including ashes. In 
England all the wastes named are classed under 
the general head of refuse, and are placed in a 
common receptacle, or dust-bin. Aside from 
household wastes there are various classes of 
trade and manufacturing refuse, such as paper, 
rags, and shavings: also green stuff from vege- 
table markets, and the odds and ends from 
butcher shops, such as bones, scraps of meat, 
grease, and oflFal. 

Much of the organic matter named, when fresh, 
is similar to, and generally quite as inoflFensive 
as, the food supplies from which it was rejected, 
but its unstable character renders it liable to 
offensive decomposition. Hence it must be re- 



moved promptly from dwellings and other build- 
ings, and so transformed or otherwise disposed 
of as to give rise to no offense. The most primi- 
tive means of disposal are dumping on land or 
in water. A slight improvement on these proc- 
esses is the burning of a portion of the wastes in 
the open air, but this rarely affects more than 
certain light combustibles, like paper and shav- 
ings, that have been mixed with the garbage 
proper. As the population of a city and its 
suburbs increases land disposal becomes intoler- 
able except by burial, and finally impracticable 
by that means. The dumping of garbage and 
refuse at sea is expensive at best, besides being 
likely to cause the fouling of beaches and har- 
bors. 

By keeping organic and inorganic wastes in 
separate receptacles their final disposal is greatly 
simplified, but the difficulties incident to their 
storage and prompt removal from the premises of 
householders is thereby increased. Ashes, as they 
come from stoves and furnaces, are composed of 
inert inorganic matter, with no harmful or ob- 
jectionable qualities save those due to dust and 
dirt. In America, town ashes seem to be of little 
use for any purpose except filling, for which they 
are most excellent. Paper, like many other 
classes of light, dry household and industrial 
wastes, is not necessarily offensive, but its un- 
sightliness and possible association with organic 
wastes make its speedy and complete disposal 
highly desirable. Occasionally wastes of this na- 
ture are made to yield a revenue sufficient to 
pay a part of the cost of their collection and dis- 
posal. 

Considering the vast quantities of material 
and large number of cities and toAvns concerned, 
the problem of the final scientific disposal of 
the city wastes is still in its infancy. Their 
collection, however, is on a far better basis, al- 
though leaving much to be desired. There do 
not appear to be more than three hundred cities 
and towns, in all the countries of the world, that 
have adopted thoroughly modern sanitary meth- 
ods of garbage and refuse disposal; and many 
of the cities falling within this class have made 
but a beginning as yet. Great Britain and the 
United States seem to be far in the lead in mat- 
ters of final disposal. Outside of some of the 
larger American cities, nearly all the improved 
processes of disposal employ cremation, or burn- 
ing, in specially designed furnaces. In Europe 
the practice is to make the refuse consume it- 
self, without extra fuel. In America large 
quantities of extra fuel are almost always re- 
quired, for reasons explained below. In Great 
Britain many of the destructors, as they are 
called, are fitted with boilers, which generate 
steam for use about the plant, or for electric 
lighting, a number of combined refuse destruc- 
tors and electric-light plants having been built 
recently. Besides utilizing the heat, the clinkers 
from the English furnaces are often put to a 
variety of uses, being ground up and mixed with 
cement, for making slabs or tiles for sidewalks, 
or being used for the foundations of pavements. 
In the United States nearly all the attempts to 
recover anything from garbage treatment have 
aimed to extract grease from the garbage, and 
to make the tankage, left after separating the 
grease and water, into a fertilizer base. 

Great Britain took the lead in the installation 



GABBAGE DISPOSAL. 



103 



GABBAGE DISPOSAL. 



of garbage furnaces, both in point of time and in 
superior results attained. From 1870 to 1876 
several crude furnaces were tried. In the latter 
year the city of Manchester put in operation the 
prototype of the more recent and more success- 
ful furnaces, thus antedating by many years the 
first furnace built for a city in the United 
States, which was erected at Des Moines, Iowa, 
in 1887. The common use of soft coal in open 
fireplaces in England leaves a larger percentage 
of combustible matter in the ashes from dwellings 
in that country than in the domestic ashes of 
American cities, while the people of the United 
►States produce far larger quantities of watery 
green vegetable wastes, particularly in summer, 
than is the case abroad. Both of these facts 
favored the more rapid development of garbage 
furnaces, or refuse destructors, in England than 
in America, besides which the need for improved 
nieans of disposal was felt sooner in the former 
country. The tendency in America has been and 
still is to exclude ashes, and, to a less extent, 
old or broken crockery and the like, from gar- 
bage. This was partly due to the American prac- 
tice of feeding garbage or swill to hogs, and, in 
the earlier days, even to cows. Farmers from the 
surrounding country would gather the swill for 
their stock, but would refuse that containing for- 
eign matter. These food wastes were, and are yet, 
sometimes gathered by the municipality, or by a 
general contractor, and delivered to farmers at 
the outskirts of the city. Originally householders 
may have received a small sum for their swill, 
but latterly they have been fortunate if they can 
get it taken away without expense. At present, 
collections by or for American farmers are gen- 
erally restricted to small towns, or to the hotels 
and restaurants of the larger places. The feed- 
ing of city garbage to either cows or hogs, par- 
ticularly to milch cows, should be prohibited by 
State and city legislation. Household wastes in 
the country, when so fed, are generally fresh and 
harmless, but in the city they are lialile to be in 
such a state of decomposition as to affect in- 
juriously the milk of cows and the flesh of ani- 
mals used for food. It may be added that wher- 
ever there is any attempt to recover paper, rags, 
glass, and the like from city wastes those sub- 
stances should not be mixed with either garbage 
or ashes, since the sorting made necessary where 
mixing is allowed is a disgusting if not danger- 
ous task for those engaged in it. The sorting is 
all the more objectionable because most of the 
work is done by women and cliildrcn. 

Before describing garbage furnaces and re- 
duction plants n few words regarding the collec- 
tion of city wastes may be said. Garbage proper 
should be collected in carts or boxes provided 
with water-tight, non-absorbent boxes or tanks, 
with closely fitting covers. Steel is now consid- 
ered to be the best material for such tanks. Ashes 
and other dry wastes should l)e gathered in tight 
oarts. well covered to prevent scattering by jolt- 
ing or wind. The best material for the ash-wngon 
boxes, or tanks, is also steel, but this matters 
comparatively little from a sanitary standpoint, 
so long as the conditions named are fulfilled. 
The frequency of collection should vary with 
the character of the wastes and the population. 
Market wastes, the garbage of hotels and restau- 
rants, and of houses in crowded districts, often 
require daily collection, particularly in the sum- 



mer. Domestic garbage, under ordinary condi- 
tions, requires collection from two to three times 
a week in warm, and once or twice a week in cool 
or cold weather. Ashes, paper, and all other inor- 
ganic wastes, so long as not mixed with garbage, 
may be collected to suit the convenience of the 
householders and the municipality, the tendency 
being to increase the frequency with the density 
of population and consequent lack of room for 
storage. Cleansing or disinfection of garbage 
cans and wagon boxes or tanks is practiced in 
the most progressive communities. Whether 
garbage and refuse collection and disposal should 
be performed by contract or directly by the 
municipality is a question for each community 
to settle for itself. Many sanitarians favor direct 
municipal performance, as giving better sani- 
tary results. An efficient city government can 
secure good work under either plan, but perhaps 
complaints of poor service may receive more 
prompt attention when the work is done by the 
municipality. In many American cities the col- 
lection, and in still more the final disposal, of 
garbage and refuse is left entirely to private 
scavengers, under little or no municipal control. 
The results are that the people having most need 
of good service get none whatever, being unwill- 
ing or unable to pay for it, while the work as a 
whole is generally poorly done. The final dis- 
posal, under this plan, is almost always a make- 
shift. Whatever may be done as to ashes and 
inorganic wastes, good sanitation demands that 
the collection and disposal of garbage, offal, and 
dead animals should be attended to by the 
municipality, either under the contract or day- 
labor system. As a matter of economy it is prob- 
able that all the wastes considered in this article 
should be handled by or under the direction of 
the city or town. 

Garbage Furnaces, or Refuse Destructors, as 
they are called in Great Britain, consist of one 
or more grates upon which the garbage is burned, 
ash-pits, flues, and chimneys, together with the 
necessary feeding holes for the garbage, and 
stoking holes or doors. In America supple- 
mentarj'^ fuel is almost invariably used, generally 
on a separate grate. In England, as already 
explained, special fuel is rarely employed; a 
boiler for steam-raising is generally used, and 
it is becoming more and more common to use 
either steam jets or blowing fans to produce a 
forced draught. Most of the American furnaces 
have level grates, the heat from the extra fuel 
passing horizontally over one and sometimes two 
garbage grates. The English furnaces generally 
have one level grate, with an inclined surface 
leading to it from the feeding hole above, so 
designed that th^ ivfuse is dried and heated he- 
fore it reaches the main fire. The English 
furnaces are usually composed of small units, 
or cells, of uniform size, each having a grate 
surface of 25 square feet. Any desired capacity 
is secured by increasing the number of cells, 
which are commonly placed back to back, with a 
central flue. In America the cells are larger, 
and the various manufacturers have not adopted 
a standard size. A few years ago it was the 
accepted practice in Great Britain to have a 
small special fire, generally of coke, in the base of 
the stack. This was designed to produce a high 
temperature for the complete combustion of all 
the gases from the main fires, before they passed 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



104 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



up the chimney and into the atmosphere. These 
fume cremators are being discontinued in Eng- 
land, with the introduction of forced draught and 
higher temperatures. They were never so gen- 
erally used in America, but are still employed 
here and there in forms more or less modified 
from the English practice. Some form of dust- 
arrester is often used in the later English furnaces 
to hold back the fine ashes which might otherwise 
pass up through the chimney and cause a 
nuisance in the surrounding territory. These are 
chambers or passages designed to bring the dust 
to rest and to retain it for future removal. 
Probably such devices are more essential in Eng- 
land than in America, owing to the large quan- 
tities of ashes put through the furnaces and the 
use of forced draught in the former country. 
The temperature of a garbage furnace should be 
in the vicinity of 2000° F., in order to insure 
complete combustion and to prevent odors from 
the chimney gases. Boilers for utilizing heat 
from garbage furnaces should not be placed di- 
rectly over the tire, since the water in the boiler 
will lower the temperature in the furnaces. To 
avoid this, the boilers are placed between the 
furnaces and the chimney, or between two fur- 
naces. This causes a loss of heat for steaming, 
but sanitary considerations should come tirst. In 
the later English plants water-tube boilers are 
being installed. 

In America practically nothing has been ac- 
complished in the way of utilizing heat from 
garbage furnaces. Early in 1900 a single gar- 
bage furnace was installed at one of the mu- 
nicipal electric-lighting stations in Chicago, and 
arrangements were made for a similar installa- 
tion at Grand Rapids^ Mich, The combined 
refuse destructor and electric-lighting plant at 
Shoreditch, England (a part of the city of Lon- 
don), has attracted much attention. The de- 
structor was opened on June 28, 1897. There are 
twelve furnaces, or cells, each having a grate area 
of 25 square feet; six water- tube boilers, with 1300 
square feet of heating surface; and a thermal 
storage tank 8 feet in diameter and 35 feet long, 
designed to store water heated by the steam at 
times of small demand for electric lighting. The 
thermal storage tank does not seem to have 
been tried at any other garbage furnace. A 
forced draught, rated at 8000 cubic feet per 
minute, is supplied by three fans, driven by 
electric motors. The chimney is 150 feet high, 
with a dust-arrester at its base. Each furnace 
has a capacity of 8 to 12 tons of refuse in 24 
hours, or 96 to 144 tons in all. The aggregate 
horse-power of the connected boilers is about 
1200. During the first two years of its opera- 
tion, the Shoreditch plant consumed about 25,000 
short tons of refuse a year. The value of Eng- 
lish refuse for steam-raising purposes appears to 
run from 5 to 15 per cent, that of coal, assuming a 
coal that will evaporate 10 pounds of water from 
and at 212° F. per one pound of coal. This is 
omitting extremes. Probably 10 per cent, is the 
maximum safe figure upon which to base esti- 
mates for continuous work, and even that may 
be too high. 

The following particulars relating to some 
other European refuse destructors have been 
taken from Goodrich, The Economic Disposal of 
Town's Refuse (London and New York, 1901). 
Birmingham has over fifty cells in use, burning 



about six long tons per cell per day. In 1897 
the total amount of refuse burned was 96,309 
long tons, out of a total of 200,703 long tons col- 
lected. Leeds also has about fifty cells, with an 
average capacity of about seven long tons each. 
Liverpool has some forty-four cells with a capac- 
ity of about seven long tons per cell per day. 
Manchester, although the first city in the world 
to put in permanent garbage furnaces (in 1876), 
still sends some 70,000 long tons of refuse to the 
dumps each year, but has ordered 18 new cells. 
At Hunstanton 3% long tons of refuse per day is 
burned, the heat from which furnishes steam 
sufficient to drive the pumps supplying the town 
with water. Berlin and Hamburg, Germany, are 
the chief examples of Continental cities with 
garbage furnaces. Over twenty furnaces are 
said to be in use in Berlin, having an estimated 
capacity of some 1300 long tons a day. Coal is 
used as a secondary fuel, and it seems that 
relatively little steam is utilized. Mr. Goodrich 
appears to have attempted to secure a complete 
list of all the cities in the world having gar- 
bage furnaces, together with at least a brief de- 
scription of each. His summary, with figures for 
the United States and Canada, as collected by the 
Engineering News, is as follows: England, in- 
cluding 18 districts in the metropolitan district 
of London, 123 cities; Scotland, 6; Ireland, 2; 
Channel Islands, 1 ; Continental Europe, 4 ; 
South Africa, 2; India, 3; South America, 3; 
Australia, 4; the East, 3; Canada, 2; United 
States, 50; total, 203. Outside of Great Brit- 
ain, Canada, and the United States, quite a 
number of cities may have been overlooked, and 
possibly 10 to 15 additional cities in the United 
States should be included. It should be noted, 
too, that the garbage of 16 of the largest cities 
of the United States is treated by the reduction 
process, as stated in more detail below. 

American garbage furnaces, as may be seen 
from what has preceded, have not been so fully 
developed as English, such superiority as can be 
claimed for American sanitary engineers in this 
respect being for the reduction rather than the 
cremation of refuse. Just how large a part of 
the difference between the two countries is due 
to variations in the character of their respective 
wastes it is hard to say, since there does not seem 
to be any thoroughly satisfactory data on this 
point. In general, it may be noted that some 
English writers give the average percentage com- 
position of ash-bin refuse as follows : Breeze ( or 
partially burned coal) and cinder, 50; coal and 
coke, 1; ash, 12; dust and dirt, 20; paper, straw, 
fibrous material, and vegetable refuse, 13; bones 
and offal, 0.6 ; rags, 0.4 ; bottles, tins, metals, 
crockery, broken glass, 3 ; total, 100. After the 
refuse passes an English furnace there remains 
20 to 40 per cent, of the original weight in the 
form of ashes and cinders. It is believed that 
American garbage, even when mixed with ashes, 
contains more organic matter than is shown by 
the figures just given, and that its percentage of 
moisture is far higher. The latter must be 
evaporated before the combustible matter can be 
burned. To add still further to the difficulty of 
burning American wastes, the ashes, when mixed 
with the other refuse, appear to contain less com- 
bustible matter than those in England, owing 
partly to the large quantities of soft coal 
burned, and that imperfectly, in England. An- 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



105 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



other drawback to the development of American 
garbage furnaces is the practice of awarding 
short-term contracts for disposal, or changing 
the methods in vogue with each change of city 
administration. Under all these circumstances 
it is not strange that American garbage furnaces 
have not been brought to a higher state of per- 
fection, nor that it is hardly known what they 
might accomplish in long service under favorable 
conditions. Some of the most successful fur- 
naces in America follow English practice very 
closely. Of a list of 50 cities with garbage 
crematories in the United States, all but 15 
had populations of 25,000 or more by the census 
of 1900. The largest city and most capacious 
plant in the list is San Francisco, Cal., where a 
private company owns 32 furnaces, or cells, 
with a rated daily capacity of 600 tons per day. 
The company has a franchise under which it has 
thus far succeeded in compelling the private 
scavengers who collect garbage, ashes, and other 
refuse in San Francisco to bring their collections 
to the furnaces and pay the company 20 cents a 
load for burning it, the loads not to exceed 
one cubic yard each. The weight of the refuse 
is estimated at 800 pounds per cubic yard. On 
this basis, over 6 1^,000 short tons, or 215 tons a 
day, were burned in 1899. At both Milwaukee, 
Wis., and Minneapolis, Minn., large furnaces 
were under construction early in 1901. A small 
portion of the garbage of Greater New York is 
burned in a number of furnaces scattered over 
outlj'ing districts. The one small furnace in 
Chicago has already been mentioned. Boston has 
the distinction of being the only city in the 
United States with a well-equipped refuse-sorting 
plant. Light refuse from a part of the city is 
brought to this station, dumped, shoveled onto 
an inclined conveyor, from which men and boys 
sort out various grades of paper, rags, and all 
other merchantable refuse as the particular kinds 
pass the person to whom the task of removing it 
is assigned. The residue is dumped automatically 
into a furnace and readily burned, producing 



put in use, including the Warner, Horsfall, and 
Meldrum. The first American garbage furnace, 
opened at Des Moines, Iowa, about September, 
1887, was designed by Andrew Engle. In De- 
cember of the same year a Rider furnace was 




SECTION OF FBYER REFUSE DE8TKUCTOR. 

fired up at Pittsburg, Pa. At present, the Engle, 
Dixon, Smith-Siemens, and Thackeray furnaces 
lead in North America, most of the plants being 
supplied with either Engle or Dixon apparatus. 
The Thackeray furnaces at Montreal and San 
Francisco have inclined drying grates, but larger 
than those employed in the English furnaces. 

Garbage reduction aims to recover grease and 
fertilizing material from animal and vegetable 
household and market wastes, while at the same 
time affording a sanitary means of final dis- 
posal. The process requires, for its greatest suc- 
cess, a rigid exclusion of all other wastes from 
those named, both to reduce the bulk of inert and 
unprofitable refuse and to prevent damage to the 
plant. The first step is the extraction of grease. 
This is effected by melting with steam heat, com- 
bined with pressure, or by means of such solvents 
as naphtha and benzine. Sulphuric acid has been 




Longitudinal Section X-Y. 

OARBAOB CREMATORY AT MILWAUKEE, WIS., LONGITUDINAL SECTION. 



more than enough stoam to run the plant. The 
paper and like salable material is baled ready 
for shipment. 

The first permanent English furnaces, built at 
Manchester, England, were designed by Alfred 
Fryer. Since then many other styles have been 



tried and found unsatisfactory. In most of the 
plants, and for the greater part of the garbage 
now being treated, steam is used. Where a sol- 
vent is employed, naphtha is more often chosen 
than benzine, but the general process is much the 
same in either case. 



CABBAGE DISPOSAL. 



106 



GABBAGE DISPOSAL. 



In the steam plants the grease is extracted in 
rendering tanks^ after which the residue, or 
tankage, is pressed and then dried to free it 
from moisture. Where naphtha is employed, the 
drying generally takes place before the solvent 
is applied. The rendering tanks, or digesters, 
are cylindrical, some 5 feet in diameter and 15 
feet high, with tightly fitting covers for the 
charging holes and a horizontal valve at the foot 
of the conical bottom, to empty the charge. Pipe 
connections are provided for admitting steam or 
chemicals, as the case may be, and pipes or other 
channels for leading away the various liquids 
after the garbage has been treated for a sufficient 
length of time, generally a number of hours. The 
tankage is sometimes pressed by steam in the ren- 
dering tank and sometimes in presses of either 
the cheese-cake or roller type. The driers are 
generally steam - jacketed horizontal cylinders, 
fitted with revolving stirring arms, mounted on 
a longitudinal axis. Grinding-mills are some- 
times provided for such of the tailings from the 
screens as are of value, chiefly bones. The dried 
and screened tankage is generally sold to fer- 
tilizer manufacturers, but at a few plants phos- 
phates and other rich fertilizers are mixed with 
it, so as to produce a finished or commercial fer- 
tilizer. The grease and water are separated by 
gravity, in tanks, the grease rising to the top and 
being skimmed off. In some cases the grease is 
refined at the reduction works, but usually there 
is little attempt to do much refining. It may be 
shipped to buyers in tank cars or in barrels. 
Where naphtha is used it is recovered by distil- 
lation. The water from the digesters is some- 
times discharged directly into a sewer, stream, 
or lake. In other cases it is evaporated to 'stick,* 
and mixed with the dried tankage, increasing the 
value of the latter, and at the same time not 
polluting any body of water. In the best plants 



Draining TanHs 



plants require an extensive equipment of boilers, 
engines, pumps, tanks, driers, and other ap- 
paratus, the capital charges on which, together 
with the expenses for fuel and other supplies, and 
for labor, make up a large total. On the other 
hand, there is a considerable revenue from the 
sale of grease and tankage. All the reduction 
plants in the United States are owned and oper- 
ated by private companies, which do not wish 
to reveal the details of their business to their 
rivals nor to the municipalities with whom they 
have or from whom they hope to secure con- 
tracts. It is, therefore, impossible to give re- 
liable figures as to the cost of constructing and 
operating reduction plants, or the amount and 
value of the grease and fertilizer recovered and 
sold. Obviously, these figures vary widely with 
the character and amount of garbage handled and 
with local conditions governing the cost of con- 
struction, of fuel, and of labor. Information 
collected under the direction of the late Col. 
George E. Waring, Jr., in 1895, showed that 3000 
tons of summer garbage, from different cities 
and treated by various methods, gave the follow- 
ing average composition: 





Per cent. 


Pounds 
per ton 


Rubbish 


7 
71 

2 
20 


140 


Water 


1,420 


GreSpSP 


40 


Tankage 


400 




100 


2,000 



The selling value of the products from a ton of 
such garbage was given as follows; 

Grease, 40 lbs. at 3 cts $1.20 

{Ammonia, 13 lbs. at 8 cts 1.04 
Phosphoric acid, 13 lbs. at 1 ct 13 
Potash, 3 lbs. at ZVi cts 10 

Total .$2.47 




SfcOfe Doors-^--^ 
Horizontal Section 



Fire Door "Sfe/; Door-- ' Fire Door 
Horizontal Sect-ion E-F. 



C-D. 
PLAN AND SECTIONS OF GARBAGE CREMATORY AT MILWAUKEE, WIS. 

all objectionable vapors are condensed and the Based on the total Aveight of tankage, the value 
gases are purified by scrubbing, or else conveyed of the 400 pounds would be about one-third cent 
to and burned in the boiler furnaces. Reduction per pound. Winter garbage would contain a 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



107 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



larger percentage of grease and less moisture. 
The price of both grease and tankage is liable to 
wide liuctuations. 

The sixteen cities in the United States where 
contractors were treating garbage by reduction 
early in 1901, with their respective populations 
by the census of 1900, and the method of grease 
extraction employed, are as follows: 



CITY 



Boston 

New Bedford 

Buffalo 

New York 

Syracuse 

Utlca 

Allegheny 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburg 

Washlngibon 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbus, Ohio., 

Indianapolis 

Detroit 

Saint Louis 

Total 



Pop'n 



64,442 
352.387 

3,437,202 

108.374 

66,383 

129.896 

1.293,697 
321,616 
278,718 
325,902 
381,768 
125,560 
169,164 
285,704 
575.238 



Method 



8.466.943 



Steam 

Naphtha 
Steam 



Naphtha 
Steam 

Naphtha 
Steam 

Benzine 
Steam 



Naphtha 



It will be noted that all these cities have popu- 
lations of over 50,000. The list includes 10 of 
the 19 cities in the United States having popu- 
lations of 200,000 or more. Of the other nine 
cities in that class, San Francisco, Milwaukee, 
Louisville, and Minneapolis have furnaces; Chi- 
cago has one small one, insignificant in com- 
parison with its total garbage output. Balti- 
more, New Orleans, Newark, and Jersey City 




treatment at Detroit and for cremation at Mil- 
waukee. 

Prominent because of the size of the cities 
employing it, and the completeness of the plants 
in many of their details, is the Arnold system, 
in use at New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. 
The New York plant has a contract capacity of 
1000 short tons a day, and is said to have been 
crowded to a rate of 1500 tons. The only gar- 
bage-disposal plant approaching it in size is the 
crematory at Berlin, Germany, with a reported 
capacity of 1300 long, or about 1450 short, tons. 
The New York works are located on Barren 
Island, about 25 miles, by water, from the Bat- 
tery, or the extreme lower end of old New York. 
There are really two plants here, one built for 
New York and one for Brooklyn, before consolida- 
tion, but the contractors operate them together. 
The contractors receive the garbage on scows at 
the various docks, tow it to the works, and treat 
it, for $89,990 a year, under the New York con- 
tract, and for an average of $121,000 a year, 
under the Brooklyn contract; but the latter in- 
cludes collection from houses and other buildings, 
as well as towage and final disposal. For the 
year 1899 there were treated under the New York 
contract 151,600 short tons, giving a rate of 
about 60 cents per ton for transportation and 
treatment. Under the Brooklyn contract, a total 
of 104,000 tons was collected, shipped, and 
treated, at an average cost to the city of $1.20 
per ton. It must be understood that these quan- 
tities do not include ashes, street sweepings, and 
light refuse, most of which are dumped at sea, 
nor quite all the garbage of Greater Ne^^- York, 
a small part of which is burned in furnaces 
located in outlying districts. At Barren Island 
the garbage is shoveled from the scows onto con- 
veyors, which deposit it in the digesters, from 
which it goes to the driers. Early in 1900 there 
were 96 steam digesters in use, and the addition 
of 16 more was proposed, which would raise the 
ordinary working capacity from 1000 to 1200 short 
tons a day. There were also 17 boilers, of about 



SKCTIONAL SKETCH OP GARBAQB RBDVOTION WOBK8 AT BYRAOUBK. N. T. 



have no improved means of garbage disposal, but 
something is proposed at Baltimore, and there 
was once a reduction plant at New Orleans. 

The first reduction plant in the United States 
was put in use at Buffalo, N. Y., in or about 
the year 1888, under ITnited States patents 
granted in 1886 to Joseph Merz, of Bruen, Mo- 
ravia. The Merz system has been modified since 
by Charles W. Preston and F. G, Wiselogel. Merz 
patents were taken out abroad as early as 1882. 
Tlie patents covered the extraction of grease by 
use of the lighter hydrocarbons. Naphtha is 
used in the Merz ])rooess. At one time the system 
was in use at Buffalo, Detroit, Milwaukee, and 
Saint T.ouis. bui it has been abandoned for steam 

Vol. VIII.— 8. 



250 horse-power each, and various engines, 
pumps, and accessories. An immense fan, some 
20 feet in diameter, and with a face of 6 feet, 
was used to exhaust steam and gases from the 
digester and press-house, and send it to a large 
scrubber. The gases from the various inclosed 
tanks and other vessels are passed through jet 
condensers. 

A small but compact and apparently well- 
designed plant, built under what is known as 
the Holthaus sysjtem, is in use at Syracuse. N. 
Y. There are four digesters, in which the gar- 
bage is treated wifh steam under a pressure of 
abo\it 60 pounds per square inch; a cylindrical 
press, working under a pressure of 2000 pounds 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 



108 



GARCIA MORENO. 



per square inch; a steam drier, a conveyor, ele- 
vator, and screen for the dried tankage ; a grease 
and water separator; and an evaporator for the 
water, besides means for treating the gases and 
vapors; boilers with a combined capacity of 180 
horse-power, a 100 horse-power engine, an electric- 
lighting plant, and a fertilizer factory. The 
daily capacity of the plant is stated as 50 tons. 
One of its noteworthy features is the arrangement 
of the digesters over the press and the press 
over the drier, with proper connections, so the 
garbage is not exposed to the air from the time 
it goes into the digesters until it comes out as 
dried tankage. 

For additional information, consult: Goodrich, 
The Economic Disposal of Toicn's Refuse (New 
York, 1901) ; Maxwell, The Removal and Disposal 
of Town Refuse (London, 1898) ; Waring, Street 
Cleaning and the Disposal of a City's Wastes 
(New York, 1897). The latter, however, con- 
tains but little on garbage furnaces or reduction 
plants. Goodrich's book has a chapter devoted 
to American practice. Many descriptions of in- 
dividual American plants have been given in the 
Engineering News and Engineering Record (both 
of New York) during the past ten or twelve 
years. 

GARBE, gar-Tje, Richard Karl (1857 — ). A 
German Orientalist, born at Bredow, Pomerania. 
He studied at Tiibingen, became a lecturer in 
1878, and in 1880 professor, at Konigsberg. In 
1885-87 the Prussian Government defrayed his 
expenses for travel and residence in India, and 
the study there of the native philosophy. In- 
dische Reiseskizzen (1880) chronicles some of 
his impressions at that time. His further pub- 
lications include an edition (1878) and transla- 
tion (1878) of the Vaitdna Mtra; The Crauta 
Mtra of Apastamha (1882-85); The Sdrhkhya 
Sutra Vritti (1888; an English translation was 
published in 1892) ; and Die Sdmkhya-Philoso- 
phie (1894). 

GARBO, gar'bo, Raffaelino del. See Raf- 

FAELINO DEL GaRBO. 

GARBORG, gar'borg, Arne (1851—). A 
Norwegian novelist and publicist, born on the 
island of Time, in the District 'of Jsederen. In 
1877 he founded the Fedraheimen, a journal 
in the popular idiom^, and his novels are 
written in the same language. Among these, 
nearly all translated into Danish or Swedish, 
are the following: A Free Thinker (1881) ; The 
Students of the Country (1883); Stories and 
Traditions (1884) ; Mew' (1886). He also wrote 
The New Norwegian Language and the National 
Movement (1887) and Free Discussion (1889). 

GARQAO, giir-souN', Pedro Antonio Correa 
(1724-72). A Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon. 
He was one of the members of the celebrated 
*Arcadia' of Lisbon, and was the author of some 
beautiful verse. His "Cantata a Dido" i? espe- 
cially fine. He is called 'the Portuguese Horace.' 
His Ohras poeticas have gone through several edi- 
tions; the latest (1888) contains an excellent 
biography. 

GARCIA, gar-se'a, DiOGO (1471-1529). A 
Portuguese navigator, born at Lisbon. Under 
commission of a mercantile firm at La Coruiia, 
he sailed with three ships for South America in 
1526, arrived at San Vincente, Brazil, on Janu- 
ary 11, 1527, and explored the Uruguay and 



Parana rivers. He aided the expedition of Se- 
bastian Cabot, which was besieged by natives on 
the lower Paranfi^ and in 1528 returned to Spain 
without having discovered any precious metals. 
It is said that he afterwards made a voyage to 
the East Indies, and that the island of Garcia, 
in the Indian Ocean, is named from him. 

GARCIA^ gar-the'a, Manuel del P6polo 
Vicente (1775-1832). A famous Spanish tenor 
singer and teacher of singing, born at Seville. At 
six years of age he was a chorister in the cathe- 
dral there. His teachers were Ripa and Almarcha, 
whose thorough training, combined with his own 
great talent, brought him distinction when but 
seventeen in the triple roles of singer, composer, 
and conductor. After winning an established 
reputation as a singer in Cadiz and Madrid, he 
went to Paris (1808), and achieved instantane- 
ous success at the Italian opera. In 1811 he 
proceeded to Italy, meeting with great popular 
manifestations of public favor. The next five 
years were spent in study, and on his return to 
Paris, in 1816, disagreement with Catalani, the 
manageress of the Theatre Italien, ended in his 
going to London (1817), where he was enthusi- 
astically received. Either alone or with a com- 
pany he visited England, South America, the 
United States, and Mexico, meeting everywhere 
with unqualified success. His compositions are 
now forgotten, although they were successful in 
their day, and included forty-three operas, writ- 
ten either in Spanish, French, or Italian. His 
fame as a teacher is enduring, his theories, 
proven by successful results, forming the ground- 
work of the best modern teaching. Among his 
successful pupils were his daughters, Maria Fe- 
licita Malibran and Pauline Viardot Garcia, and 
the singers Nourrit, Rimbault, and Favelli. He 
died in Paris. 

GARCIA - GUTIERREZ, giir-the'a-goo-tya'- 
rath, Antonio (1812-84). A Spanish dramatist, 
born at Chiclana. As a youth he studied medi- 
cine at Cadiz, but his bent was always toward 
literature, and in 1836 he produced his play 
El trovador. It was a brilliant success. Verdi 
afterwards took this drama as a subject for his 
opera Trovatore. None of Garcia-Gutierrez's other 
works was well received, although several of 
theni were finer, especially Juan Lorenzo (1865). 
His poetry was published under the title Luz y 
tiniellas (2 vols, 1842, 1861). This volume also 
includes some pretty comedies. His plays were 
published by himself, as Ohras escogidas (1866). 

GARCIA HIDALGO,, gar-the'a He-dal'g6, 
Jose (c.1656-c.1712). A Spanish painter, born 
at Murcia. He studied in that town under 
Villacis and Gilarte, and then went to Italy, 
where he received instruction from Pietro da 
Cortona, Salvator Rosa, and Carlo Maratta. He 
was made painter to the King in 1703. The 
works of (xarcia belong to the period of de- 
cadence. With Carrino he painted some frescoes 
in the cloi^er of San Felipe el Real. 

GARCIA MORENO, gilr-se'a m6-ra'n6, Ga- 
briel (1821-75). A politician of Ecuador, born 
at Guayaquil. He was educated at the University 
of Quito and in Europe, and became successively 
professor of chemistry and rector at Quito. In 
1859 he was chosen head of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, and in 1861 President. After an ad- 
ministration marked by cruelty and many con- 



GARCIA MORENO. 



109 



GARCIN DE TASSY. 



cessions to the ecclesiastical power, he proclaimed 
himself Dictator in 1865. In 1869, and again 
in 1875, he was reelected President, but previous 
to his inauguration in the latter year was assas- 
sinated. 

GARCIAS, gar-the'as, Pedro. A wealthy li- 
centiate, spoken of by Le Sage in the preface to 
Gil Bias. Two journeying scholars came upon 
a fountain bearing the inscription, "Here is 
buried the soul of the licentiate Pedro Garcias." 
On removing a stone they found a leather purse 
containing 100 ducats. 

GARCIA Y INIGUEZ^ gtir-se'^ ^ ^-ne'g6s, 
Calixto ( 1836-98). A Cuban patriot and soldier, 
born at Holguin, Santiago Province. He began the 
practice of law; but in 1868 became associated 
with Donate del Mdrmol as a leader in the Ten 
Years' War, and soon attained the rank of briga- 
dier-general. Subsequently, upon the removal of 
Gen. Mfiximo Gomez by the Provisional Govern- 
ment, he was appointed commander-in-chief of 
the Cuban forces. At San Antonio del Bahar, 
with a band of 20, he was surrounded by 500 
Spaniards, and to avoid capture shot himself 
through the breast, but, having recovered, was 
deported to Spain and there imprisoned. In 
1880 he fought with Jose Maceo in the six 
months' rebellion known as the 'Little War,' 
again was captured, and for fifteen years was 
held in Spain under police surveillance. Upon the 
outbreak of the final insurrection against Spain, 
he escaped in 1895 to Paris, and thence went 
to the United States, where he was active as a 
filibuster. An expedition fitted out under his 
direction, and embarked on the J. W. Hawkins, 
failed through the wreck of the vessel, and $200,- 
000 worth of arms and ammunition was lost. 
Afterwards he succeeded in reaching Cuba on the 
Bermuda, with six field guns and other supplies. 
During the insurrection, as commander of the 
troops in Cameguey and the Oriente, he won sev- 
eral brilliant victories, and in the Spanish- 
American War led a Cuban force of 4000 at El 
Caney (July 1, 1898). He died while in Wash- 
ington as the head of a commission sent by the 
Assembly of the Provisional Government to dis- 
cuss Cuban affairs with President McKinley. 

GARCILASO DE LA VEGA, giir'th^-la'sft di 
la vjVga (1503-3()). A Spanish soldier and 
poet. He was born at Toledo, and early adopted 
the profession of arms. He gained a distin- 
guished reputation for bravery in the wars car- 
ried on by the Emperor Charles V. against the 
French and Turks, but was mortally wounded 
while storming a castle near Fr^jus, in the south 
of France, and died at Nice. Garcilaso, though 
prematurely cut ofT, lived long enough to win 
immortality by the part which he played, in 
conjunction with his friend l^oscan, in revolu- 
tionizing the national ])oetic taste of his coun- 
trymen. Like Boscan, he imitated the Italian 
])oetieal manner, and substituted Italian verse 
forms for the older national measures, which he 
used in only very few cases. His eclogues, it 
should be said, siiow also a Vergilian influence. 
His pieces consist of only thirty-seven sonnets, 
five canzones, two elegies, one epistle, and three 
pastorals. Singular to say, they do not contain 
a trace of military ardor, but are inspired by a 
tender sweetness and melancholy which appear 
to have deeply affected his countrymen. Garcila- 



so's poems were first published in 1543, in an 
edition of Boscan's works. They are most ac- 
cessible in the collection of Spanish masterpieces 
called the Bihlioteca de autores espanoles, vols, 
xxxii. and xlii. (cf. Wiffen's English translation, 
published in 1823). For the best account of his 
life, consult Navarrete, in Salvd y Baranda, Docu- 
mentos ineditos para la historia de Espana, voL 
xvi. (1850). 

GARCILASO DE LA VEGA (e.1540-1616). 
A Peruvian historian^ known as 'the Inea.' He 
was the son of one of the Spanish Conquistadores^ 
and grew up amid the civil turmoil of the early 
years of Spanish rule in Peru. He became famil- 
iar with the men and events of the time, so that 
his history has all the flavor of actuality. At his 
home he met relatives of his mother, an Inca prin- 
ces5, who told him much of the history of his fam- 
ily and of the land over which they had ruled. 
After his father's death, Garcilaso decided to go 
to Spain. He entered the army as a captain, and 
served against the Moriscoes. Becoming involved 
in debt, he retired from the military service and 
entered on a literary career. He translated Abar- 
band's Dialogues of Love from the Italian, pub- 
lished in 1590, and then turned his attention to 
history. From an old soldier, a companion of 
De Soto, he learned the story of the conquest of 
Florida, which he wrote out in a bombastic liter- 
ary style. Meanwhile he had gathered from his 
early schoolmates their recollections of early 
days in Peru, and by combining these with his 
own memories, especially of what he had heard 
from his mother's people, he prepared the Royal 
Commentaries of Peru, a work of prime im- 
portance, filled with interesting detail and in 
the main authoritative. The first part was pub- 
lished in 1609, and the second in 1617, a year 
after the author's death, which took place at 
Cordova, where he had passed the latter half of 
his life. The Commentaries have been translated, 
with notes and an introduction by ^larkham, and 
published by the Hakluyt Society (London, 
1869). 

GARCIN DE TASSY, giir'sJiN' dr ta's^', Jo- 
seph HtLiODORE Sagesse Vertu (1704-1878). A 
noted French Orientalist. He was born in Mar- 
seilles, studied Oriental languages as a pupil of 
the distinguished Silvestre de Sacy, and in 1828 
was appointed to the chair of Hindustani espe- 
cially founded for him at the Ecole des Langues 
Orientales. In 1838 he was elected to succeed 
Talleyrand in the Acad(^mie des Inscriptions et 
Belles-Lettres. Subsequently he became presi- 
dent of the Soci(^t6 Asiatique and an adminis- 
trator of the Ecole. Originally known as a stu- 
dent of Mohammedanism and a translator from 
the Arabic, he was later recognized as the fore- 
most European savant in the undeveloped and 
difficult field of the Hindustani language and 
literature. His annual review. La langue ct In 
Utt&rature hindoustanies (1872-77), was authori- 
tative, not only throughout Europe, but as well 
among native Indian scholars. His publications 
include: Les oiseaux et les flettrs (1821), Arabic 
text, with translation; Les aventures de Kam- 
rup, Hindustani text (1835); Les opuvres de 
^Va^i, with text, translation, and notes (1863) ; 
La po<^sie philosnphique et rehgieuse chez Irs 
Persans (1864) : and his chief work, a Histoire 
de la languG et de la Utt&rature hindoues et hin- 
doustanies (2d ed., 3 vols., 1871). He also 



GARCIN DE TASSY. 



110 



GARDENIA. 



prepared a French edition (1849) of Sir William 
Jones's Grammar of the Persian La/nguage 
(1771). 
GARCIN'IA. See Mangosteen. 

GARD, g'dr. A department of France, in 
Languedoc, bounded on the east by the river 
EJiOne, its southern extremity reaching into 
the Mediterranean, in a headland which has a 
coast line of about 10 miles (Map: France, L 7). 
Area, 2253 square miles. Population, in 1896, 
416,036; in 1901, 420,836. A considerable part 
of the surface is occupied by forests, plantations, 
and vineyards. On the coast there are extensive 
and unhealthful marshes. It is watered mainly by 
the Rhone and its tributaries — the Gard, the an- 
cient Vardo (from which the department has its 
name), and the C&ze. The northwest is occupied 
by a branch of the Cevennes Mountains; the re- 
mainder slopes toward the Ehone and the Mediter- 
ranean. The soil is in general dry, the best lands 
occurring in the river valleys. Coal, iron, lead, 
and zinc are found in several places, and salt is 
manufactured in the south. The vine, the olive, 
and the mulberry are extensively cultivated. The 
silk industry is important. Lignite is worked in 
the northeast of the department. Wine is large- 
ly exported. The department is divided into 
the four arrondissements of NImes, Alais, Uz6s, 
and Le Vigan. Capital, Nimes. 

GARD A, garMa (Lat. Lacus Benacus) . The 
largest lake in Italy. It is 34 miles long, from 
3 to 11 miles broad, 189 square miles in area, 
and its greatest depth is 1135 feet (Map: Italy, 
E 2 ) . Its northern extremity is in Tyrol, 
and Peschiera, at its southern extremity, is 16 
miles west of Verona and 77 miles east of Milan. 
There is communication by steamboat once or 
twice daily between different points on the lake. 
The principal fish are salmon trout, trout, pike, 
and eels. The water is often rough, especially 
when there is a storm from the north. (Consult 
Vergil, Georgics, II., 160.) The southern shores 
are low and flat; but as the lake narrows 
toward the north the spurs of the Alps rise 
boldly from the water's edge. The chief tribu- 
tary is the Sarca, and the only outlet is the 
Mincio, which descends from Peschiera to Man- 
tua, and discharges into tlie Po. 

The most fashionable resort is Gardone-Ri- 
viera; but dearest to the poet and to the anti- 
quarian is Sirmione, a narrow promontory that 
extends 2% miles out into the lake. The view 
from it is magnificent, and there are the ruins 
of Roman baths and of a building said to be the 
villa of the poet Catullus. Salo, a small town 
with terraces of lemon groves, has a church con- 
taining several interesting paintings; Maderno 
has a basilica of the eighth century. Malcesine is 
the place where Goethe was arrested by the Vene- 
tian officials. To the beautiful little village of 
Garda the lake owes its name. Riva, at the 
north end of the lake, in Austrian territory, is 
popular with tourists, on account of its hotels, 
ruins, and climate in summer. It is the starting- 
point for numerous excursions over the moun- 
tains. 

GARDAIA, gar-di'A, or GHARDAYA (lo- 
cally, Faghardcit). An important trading point 
of the Sahara, and the chief town of the Mzab 
District in Algeria, situated on a hill in the 
oasis of Gardaia, amid rocky mountains, 312 



miles in a direct line south-southeast of Algiers 
(Map: Africa, El). It is fortified by a wall 
surmounted with towers and pierced by gates; 
possesses several mosques, one remarkable for 
its size, and has a flourishing caravan trade 
with Tunis, Algiers, Fez, Morocco, Sudan, and 
Timbuktu, in slaves, barley, dates, pottery, pro- 
visions, oil, wool, cotton, indigo, leather, gold 
dust, ivory, and all the varied raw products of 
Central and Northern Africa. Its trade is for 
the most part in the hands of Jews, who inhabit 
a separate quarter. The population consists 
chiefly of the Beni Mzab, who speak a Berber 
dialect modified by Arabic. Gardaia is sur- 
rounded by extensive date-palm orchards, and is 
irrigated by artesian wells. In the vicinity are 
the ruins of a Roman tower. The Mzab Con- 
federation, formerly independent, has acknowl- 
edged the sovereignty of France since 1850. In 
1857 Gardaia, its capital, was surrendered to the 
French and was made a inilitary station. Popu- 
lation, in 1892, 38,967. 

GARD'ANT, Fr. pron. gar'daN' (Fr., gazing, 
pres. p. of garder, to look). In heraldry (q.v.), 
a term used of an animal which is represented 
full-faced. 

GAR'DEN, Alexander (c.I730-91). An 
American physician and naturalist. He w^as 
born in Charleston, S. C; was educated in 
Scotland, was professor in King's College (now 
Columbia University) in 1754, and in 1755 set- 
tled as a physician in Charleston. At the time 
of the Revolutionary War he sided with Great 
Britain, and in 1783 emigrated to London, where 
he lived until his death. He wrote a number of 
papers on zoological and botanical subjects. The 
genus Gardenia was named in his honor. 

GARDEN, Alexander (1757-1829). An 
American soldier and writer, born in Charleston, 
S. C, and educated at Glasgow, Scotland. On 
the outbreak of the Revolutionary War he joined 
the Patriot party, and from March, 1781, to the 
close of the war was volunteer aide-de-camp to 
General Greene. He is known chiefly as the 
author of Anecdotes of the Revolutionary War, 
icith Sketches of the Character of Persons Most 
Distinguished in the Southern States for Civil 
and Military Services ( 1822 ; last ed., 3 vols., 
1868). 

GARDE NATION ALE, gard na'syd'n&l'. See 
National Guard. 

GARDEN CITY. A village in Nassau Coun- 
ty, N. Y., about 20 miles from New York, on 
the Long Island Railroad. It was projected 
by A. T. Stewart as a model suburban village, 
and is the seat of the Protestant Episcopal Bish- 
op of Long Island, with the cathedral schools of 
Saint Paul's and Saint Mary's. The Cathedral 
of the Incarnation is a fine specimen of Gothic 
architecture, erected by Mrs. Stewart in honor 
of her husband. It has a magnificent organ, one 
of the largest in the world, that cost $100,000. 

GARDEN CITY. A popular name for Chi- 
cago, from its numerous parks and gardens. 

GARDENER-BIRD. See Bower-Bird. 

GARDE'NIA (Neo-Lat.. from Alexander Gar- 
den). A genus of trees and shrubs of the order 
Rubiacese, natives of tropical and subtropical 
countries, many of which are now favorites in 
greenhouses and hothouses, on account of their 





"THE GARDEN OF THE GODS" 

CATHEDRAL SPIRES (UPPER) 
THE SEAL AND BEAR (LOWER) 



GARDENIA. 



Ill 



GARDINER. 



beautiful and fragrant flowers. Some of them 
are hardy enough to endure the open air in 
summer. The corolla is funnel-shaped, or ap- 
proaching to salver-shaped, the tube much longer 
than the calyx; the fruit, a berry, crowned with 
the calyx. The name Cape jasmine is given to 
Gardenia jasminoides, popularly known as Gar- 
denia Florida; a Japanese species is well known 
in America. The fruit, which is about the size 
of a pigeon's egg and orange-colored, is sold in 
the shops of China and Japan for dyeing silks 
yellow. A beautiful yellow resin exudes from 
wounds in the bark of Gardenia gummifera, an 
East Indian species. The wood of Gardenia 
Thunhergii and Gardenia Rothmannia is very 
hard, and is used for agricultural implements, 
wheel-axles, etc., at the Cape of Good Hope. 
Both of these species are grown in American hot- 
houses. See Jasmine. 

GARDENING. See Horticulture. 

GARDEN OF ENGLAND. Worcestershire: 
so named because of its fertility. 

GARDEN OF EUROPE. A frequent desig- 
nation for Italy, from its fertility, climate, and 
scenery. 

GARDEN OF FRANCE. A name sometimes 
used of the ancient Province of Touraine. 

GARDEN OF ITALY. A popular designa- 
tion of Sicily, because of its fertility and scenery. 

GARDEN OF THE GODS. The name given 
to a region in Colorado, near Colorado Springs, 
covering about 500 acres, and remarkable for the 
strange forms of the rocks with which it is cov- 
ered. The red and white sandstone here assumes 
grotesque shapes to which various names have 
been given. The Gateway is formed by two huge 
masses of rock, of a bright red color, and 330 
feet high, between which the road passes. 

GARDEN OF THE HESPERIDES. See 

Hesperides. 

GARDEN SNAIL. The British name of the 
largo, brightly colored land-snail (HeZia? aspersa) , 
common and sometimes troublesome in gardens 
throughout Europe. It is edible when well 
cooked, but not so often eaten as another species 
{Helix pomatia), known and cultivated as the 
'edible' snail. Some interesting folklore attaches 
to this species in the rural districts of England 
and Scotland. See Snail, and Colored Plate of 

LANn-SXAIT,.S. 

GARDENS OF C-ffiSAR. See C^sar, Gar- 
dens OK. 

GARDENS OF LUCUL'LUS. See LucuL- 
Lus, (Jarde.ns of. 

GARDENS OF M^CE'NAS. See M^cenas, 
Gardkns of. 

GARDENS OF SALLUST'. See Sallust, 
Gardens of. 

GARDEN VEGETABLES. See Vegetables. 

GARDEN WARBLER. An English name of 
a small brownish warbler (Sylvia hcyrtcnsis) of 
Southern Kurope, called in England 'greater 
pettychaps,' familiar about gardens, and noted 
for its sweet and varied song, whence the 
Germans call it 'false nightingale.' It is often 
caged, \mder the French name fnuvettc, but does 
not endure captivity well. This is the bird known 
to the Italians as beccafico (q.v. ), because it 



}, as illustrated in 



punctures the ripening 
Plate of Figs. 

GARDE SUISSE, gard sw^s. See Swiss 
Guard. 

GARDIE, ^r'dd, Magnus Gabriel de la 
(1622-86). A Swedish statesman, bom in Reval. 
He studied at the University of Upsala, became 
Ambassador to France, and subsequently com- 
manded the Swedish Army in Livonia. During 
the minority of Charles XI. he was Lord Chan- 
cellor, but later fell into disfavor and was de- 
prived of his estates. He presented to the Univer- 
sity of Upsala the famous Codex Argenteus. (See 
Ulfilas.) His very extensive collection of manu- 
scripts was acquired in 1848 by the library of 
the University of Lund. 

GARDINER, glird'ner. A city in Kennebec 
County, Maine, six miles south of Augusta; on 
the Kennebec River, and on the Maine Central 
Railroad (Map: Maine, D 7). Naturally endowed 
with excellent water-power, it has saw, paper, and 
pulp mills, foundries and machine-shops, a shoe- 
factory, and manufactures of lumber in various 
products. Lumber and ice are largely exported. 
There is a public library with about 6000 vol- 
umes. Settled in 1760, * Gardiner was part of 
Pittston until 1803., when it was incorporated as 
a town. It was chartered as a city in 1849. The 
government is administered under the charter as 
revised in 1895, by a mayor elected each year, 
though custom extends the term to two years, 
and a bicameral council. Population, in 1890, 5491 ; 
in 1900, 5501. Consult Hanson, History of Gar- 
diner, Pittston, and West Gardiner (Gardiner, 
1882). 

GARDINER, Frederic (1822-89). An Ameri- 
can Episcopalian scholar. He was born at Gar- 
diner, Maine, September 11, 1822; graduated at. 
Bowdoin College, 1842; entered the Protestant 
Episcopal ministry; was professor in the Berke- 
lev Divinity School at MiddletoA\Ti, Conn., from 
1868 to his death, July 17, 1889. He was one of 
the best Bible students of his day, and his publi- 
cations include commentaries upon Leviticus, 
II. Samuel, Ezekiel, and Jude ; a harirtony of the 
Gospels in Greek and in English (1871): The 
Principles of Textual Criticism (1876): The 
Old and New Testaments in Their Mutual Rela- 
tion (1885) ; Aids to Scripture Study (1890). 

GARDINER, James (1688-1745). A daring 
Scottish soldier, famous for his remarkable re- 
ligious exi>erience. Ho was born at Carriden. 
Linlithgowshire, Scotland, in 1688. When only 
fourteen he obtaine<l a connnission in a Scotch 
regiment in the Dutch service. In 1702 he en- 
tered the English Army, and fought with dis- 
tinction in the campaigns of Marlborough. Ho 
was promoted to the rank of major in 1718. Up 
to this time his life had been extremely dissolute. 
But in 1719, while Innit upon pleasure, he hap- 
pened to take up a religious book, and while read- 
ing it saw what he considered a vision of Jesua 
Christ. He was immediately 'converted' and 
thenceforth lived a pious and excellent Christian 
life. He became colonel in 174.'J. and two years 
later was mortally wounded in the battle of Pres- 
tonpans. Consult: Doddridge, Some Remarkable 
Passafies in the Life of Col. J. Gardiner (London, 
1747: many later editions): Carlyle, Autobi- 
ography, edited by Burton (Edinburgh, 1860). 



GARDINEK. 



112 



GARDINER. 



GARDINER, John (1731-93). An American 
lawyer, the son of Dr. Sylvester Gardiner. He 
was born in Boston, studied law, and practiced 
his profession for a time in London and in Wales. 
A friend of John Wilkes, he appeared as junior 
counsel of the latter in 1764. While serving in 
the Massachusetts Legislature, he procured the 
abolition of the law of primogeniture in Massa- 
chusetts, and the prohibition of special pleading, 
and strove earnestly for the repeal of the anti- 
theatrical laws. He was one of the leaders of the 
original Unitarian movement in Boston. 

GARDINER, Lion ( 1599-1663 ) . An English 
settler in America. He was a military engineer, 
and had seen service in the English Army in the 
Netherlands. In 1635 he arrived at Boston under 
contract to remain for a term of four years in 
the service of a company which had obtained the 
patent of a tract of land situated at the mouth 
of the Connecticut River. He designed and built 
a fort which he called Saybrook, and remained in 
command there until 1639. In that year he 
bought from the Indians the island called by 
him the Isle of Wight, now known as Gardiner's 
Island, where he made the first English settle- 
ment within the present limits of the State of 
New York. To his little domain of nine miles 
in length by a mile and a half in width he gained 
proprietary rights which enabled him to rule 
independent of external authority as lord of the 
manor. 

GARDINER, Samuel Rawson (1829-1902). 
An English historian. He was born at Ropley, 
Hants, March 4, 1829, and was educated at 
Winchester, and at Christ Church, Oxford. He 
subsequently studied at Edinburgh and at Got- 
tingen, taking the degrees of J.U.D. and Ph.D. 
In 1884 he was elected fellow of All Souls, 
and in 1892 fellow of Merton. Until 1885 
lie was professor of modern history at King's 
College, London, and was examiner in history 
at Oxford University, 1886-89. On the death 
of Froude he was offered, but declined, the regius 
professorship of modern history at Oxford. On 
August 16, 1882, he was granted a Civil List 
pension of £150. Gardiner's first important 
work was his History of En'gland from the 
Accession of James J. to the Disgrace of Chief 
Justice Coke, 1603-1616 (2 vols., 1863). Subse- 
quent installments appeared at various intervals 
until 1881, when they were reissued in a revised 
collective edition, the earlier volumes much al- 
tered, under the title History of England from 
the Accession of James I. to the Outbreak of the 
Great Civil War, 1603-16^2 (10 vols., 1883-84). 
The History of the Great Civil War appeared in 
3 vols. (1886-91), and was reissued in a slightly 
revised form for the collective edition in 4 vols. 
(1893). The third and last installment of the 
great combined work, under the title History of 
the Commonwealth and Protectorate, of which 
three volumes, including the year 1656, appeared 
in 1894-1901, was arrested by Mr. Gardiner's 
death. He was the first English writer to treat 
this controversial period in detail from a non- 
partisan standpoint. His work rests upon the 
most laborious and exhaustive study of all the 
sources of the period which has been attempted. 
In this his efforts were lightened for the earlier 
part of the work by the various Calendars of 
State Papers still in process of publication. He 
was also greatly favored by numerous discoveries 



of new material, among which the most important 
are that of the great collection known as the 
Clarke MSS. in the library of Worcester College, 
Oxford, the Verney MSS., the 'Paston Letters' of 
the seventeenth century, the 'Nicholas Papers,' 
the 'Hamilton Papers,' and the secret corre- 
spondence of the Papal agent Rossetti in England 
with Cardinal Barberini. In the history of the 
Long Parliament Mr. Gardiner explains ade- 
quately for the first time the rise of the Cavalier 
party, and the division, growing into the Civil 
War, which arose from difi'erences of opinion in 
matters of religion. Besides his great work, Mr. 
Gardiner edited numerous volumes for the Cam- 
den Society, and contributed many articles and 
reviews to the English Historical Review, of 
which he was editor from 1891 to 1901. He sum- 
marized the results of his labors in the following 
recent works: CromiveU's Place in History 
(1897) ; Oliver Cromwell, a biography first pub- 
lished in an elaborately illustrated volume (1899) 
and afterwards in a cheaper form without the 
illustrations (1901). Other works are : Constitu- 
tional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 
(1889; 2d ed. 1899) ; What the Gunpowder Plot 
Was (1897) ; The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 
(1874) ; The First Two Stuarts, and the Puritan 
Revolution, 1603-1660 (1876). Of his works for 
the use of students, the following deserve special 
mention: A Student's History of England (3 
vols., 1890-92) ; A School Atlas of English His- 
tory (1891) ; with Mullinger, Introduction to the 
Study of English History (1881; 3d ed. 1894). 
He died at Seven Oaks, Kent, February 23, 1902. 

GARDINER, Stephen. An English prelate 
and statesman, born about 1483. He was the re- 
puted son of John Gardiner, a cloth-worker, at 
Bury Saint Edmunds^ and studied at Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, where he distinguished him- 
self in classics. In 1520 he became doctor of 
civil law, next year of canon law, and in both 
branches speedily attained eminence. In 1524 he 
was appointed Rede Lecturer in the University, 
and the same year became tutor to a son of the 
Duke of Norfolk. That nobleman introduced him 
to Cardinal Wolsey, who made him his secretary. 
In this capacity he gained the confidence of Henry 
VIIL, and, owing to his legal qualifications, was 
sent to Rome in 1528, to conduct the negotiations 
with the Pope for the King's divorce from Cath- 
arine of Aragon. His arguments were unavail- 
ing, but on his return he was made Secretary of 
State. In 1531 he was appointed Archdeacon of 
Leicester, and the same year was installed Bishop 
of Winchester, vacant by Wolsey's death. A de- 
termined opponent of the Reformation and a 
stanch Catholic, he nevertheless wrote De Vera 
Ohedientia (1535) in support of the King's su- 
premacy. Various embassies to France and Ger- 
many were now intrusted to him, and after the 
execution of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 
whose downfall was due mainly to him, he ac- 
quired great power. The tale of his impeachment 
of Catharine Parr and subsequent disgrace by 
Henry VIII. is doubtful, but on the accession of 
Edward VI. he was imprisoned for his opposition 
to the Reformation, and deprived of his bishopric. 
When Mary came to the throne in 1553 she re- 
stored him to his see, and made him Lord Chan- 
cellor and Prime Minister. He officiated at the 
Queen's coronation, and at her nuptials with 
Philip of Spain. How far he was responsible for 



GARDINER. 



113 



GARDNER. 



the persecution of Protestants during her reign 
is a debated question. He was a man of great 
erudition, and a friend of learning in every form. 
His writings consist of a number of tracts on 
theological' and literary subjects, and include 
his interesting letters to Sir John Cheke against 
the Anglicizing of Greek pronunciation. Although 
a worldly-minded ecclesiast, he was a devoted 
and zealous worker, and conspicuous for religious 
consistency. He died in 1555. Consult: Cooper, 
Athenw Cantahrigiensis, vol. ii. ( Cambridge, 1858 ) , 
for his writings; Gairdner, Letters and Papers 
. . . of the Reign of Henry VIII. (15 vols., Lon- 
don, 1862-9G) ; Brewer, Reign of Henry VIII. (2 
vols., London, 1884) ; Maitland, Essays on the 
Reformation in England (London, 1849) ; Dixon, 
History of the Church of England (4 vols., Lon- 
don, 1878-91 ) ; Burnet, History of His Own Time 
(6 vols., Oxford, 1833); Lingard, History of 
England (13 vols., London, 1837) ; Froude, His- 
tory of England (12 vols., New York, 1870). 

GARDINER, Sylvester (1707-8G). An 
American pliysician. He was bom in South King- 
ston, R. I., studied medicine in Paris and London, 
and began practice in Boston. He was instru- 
mental in colonizing that part of the 'Plymouth 
Purchase' lying along the Kennebec River, and 
in settling the town of Pittston, Maine, from 
which the present city of Gardiner, named in his 
honor, was subsequently set off. He established 
ti church and library there, and was one of the 
founders of King's Chapel, in Boston. On the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War he joined the 
Loyalist element in Boston, and in 1776 removed 
to Halifax. N. S., whence he subsequently re- 
moved to England, his name having meanwhile 
been included in the proscription and banishment 
act of 1778. In 1785 he returned to this country, 
and settled at Newport, where he died. 

GARDINER'S ISLAND. A portion of Suf- 
folk County, N. Y., lying five miles off Long 
Island on the south side of the east entrance of 
Long Island Sound, in the bay formed by the two 
arms of Long Island (Map: New York, H 4). 
It has an area of 3300 acres. It has been the 
property of the Gardiner family ever since the 
white settlement of the country. It was on this 
island that the noted pirate (or privateer) Cap- 
tain Kidd secreted much of his treasure, which 
was afterwards discovered and appropriated. 
There is a lighthouse on the north side of the 
island. 

GARD'NER. A town in Worcester County, 
;Mass. (^lap: Massachusetts, D 2), including the 
villages of Gardner Centre, South Gardner, and 
West Gardner, 25 miles north of Worcester; on 
the Fitchburg branch of the Boston and Maine 
Railroad. It has the Levi Heywood Memorial 
Library, an almshouse, and a home for the aged, 
and Dunn and Crystal Lake parks. It is the 
sf-at of an extensive chair-manufacturing indus- 
try that employs 3000 persons. The government 
is administered by town nv'ctings. convened when- 
over necessary. Gardner was incorporated as a 
town in 1785, its population then being about 
375. Pojuilation, in 1800, 8424; in 1000, 10,813. 

GARDNER, Elizabeth Jane (1842—). An 
American artist, born at Exeter, N. H. She 
studied in Paris under Merle, Lefebvre, and Bou- 
guereau, and her pictures have been exhibited 
<^onstantly in this country and abroad. Among 



her works are: "Cinderella;" "Cornelia and Her 
Jewels" (1872); "Corinne" (1874); "Fortune 
Teller" (1876) ; "Maud Muller" (1879) ; "Daph- 
ne and Chloe" (1882) ; and some portraits. 

GARDNER, Ernest Arthur (1862—). An 
eminent English archaeologist, born in London. 
He was educated at the City of London School, 
and at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 
of which he was fellow 1885-94. Since 1884 he 
has devoted himself to archaeological work, and 
was director of the British School of Archaeology 
at Athens (1887-95). At present he is Yates 
professor of archaeology in University College, 
London. He conducted the excavations at Nau- 
critis in Egypt (1885-86), and has carried on 
similar explorations in Ciyprus, at Megalopolis, 
and on many other sites in Greece. His numerous 
publications include a Handbook of Greek Sculp- 
ture (1890-97) ; Catalogue of Vases in the Fitz- 
william Museum (1897). He has been a frequent 
contributor to archaeological journals, and since 
1897 has been co-editor of the Journal of Hellenic 
Studies. 

GARDNER, George (1812-49). A Scotch 
botanist, born in Glasgow. He studied at the 
University of Glasgow, qualified as a surgeon, 
turned his attention from medicine to botany, 
and, assisted by subscriptions obtained in great 
part through the influence of his instructor. Sir 
W. J. Hooker, explored Brazil from May, 1836, 
to the close of 1840. During his absence he for- 
warded to England 60,000 specimens divided 
among 3000 different species. His total number 
of specimens represented more than 6000 differ- 
ent species. In 1842 he was elected a member of 
the Linnaean Society of London, in 1844 was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the botanical garden 
of Ceylon, and in 1845 visited India for botaniz- 
ing purposes, and became an associate editor of 
the Calcutta Journal of Xatural History. He 
aided H. B. Fielding in the writing of Sertum 
Plantarum (1844), and published Travels in the 
Interior of Brazil (1846), and many papers in 
the London Journal of Botany and other periodi- 
cals. 

GARDNER, Henry Brayton (1863—). An 
American political economist and educator, born 
in Providence, R. I. He graduated in 1884 at 
Brown University, studied at the Johns Hopkins 
University, and was subsequently appointed pro- 
fessor of ipolitical economy at Brown. In 1897-98 
he was vice-president of the American Economic 
Association. His publications include Statistics 
of Municipal Finance (1889; in new series, No. 
2, of the American Statistics Association's pub- 
lications), and a second monograph under the 
same title in new series. No. 2 ( 1899) , of the pub- 
lications of the American Economic Association. 

GARDNER, Percy (1846—). An English 
classical arolurologist, born at Hackney. He re- 
ceived his education at the City of London School 
and at Christ's College, Cambridge, of which he 
was made a fellow in 1872: since 1887 he has 
lx?en professor of classical archieolog>' in Oxford 
University. Professor Gardner is hont known 
for his numerous publications dealing with 
ancient numismatics. Among his other works 
are: Xcw Chapters in Greek Historjf (1892); 
Sculptured Tomha of Hellas (1896). etc. He is 
corresponding meml>er of archjcological insti- 
tutes in many foreign countries. 



GARDNER GUN. 



114 



GARFIELD. 



GARDNER GUN (named after its inventor, 
Capt. M. W. Gardner). A machine gun wliich 
consists of two simple breech-loading rifle-barrels, 
placed parallel to each other, about 1.4 inches 
apart, in a case or compartment. The two barrels 
are loaded, fired, and relieved of shells by one 
revolution of the hand crank. The only Gardner 
guns at present used in the United States service 
are of .45 inch calibre. See Machine Guns, and 
Ordnance. 

GAREFOWL, or GAIRFOWL (Icel. geir- 
fugl, Swed. garfogel, Dan. geirfugl; probably 
from geir, as in the analogous instance of Icel. 
geirfalki, Eng. gerfalcon; connected with OHG. 
gir, Ger. Geier, vulture, OHG. ger, girl, greedy 
+ fugl, AS. fugol, Ger. Vogcl, fowl). An 
Anglicized form of the Hebridean name of the 
great auk {Plautus impennis) , once frequently 
seen in the Hebrides, but long ago exterminated. 
It was the largest of its race, standing about 29 
inches high, and resembling a big razor-bill. It 
was black above and white beneath in winter, the 
head changing to snuff-brown in summer. Its 
small wings were useless for flying, and it wad- 
dled about with great difficulty on land. Its de- 
fenselessness and stupidity made it easy to kill, 
even with clubs, and at first it was slaughtered 
and its rookeries robbed of eggs for food or 
amusement. Later the demand for its feathers 
caused a rapid destruction of the few left, and 
the last bird was killed about 1844. See Auk; 
Extinct Animals; and Plate of Albatross, 
Auks, etc. 

GA'RETH, Sir. The youngest son of King 
Lot and Morgaine in the Arthurian legends. He 
entered the Court of his uncle. King Arthur, con- 
cealing his identity at the request of his mother, 
and received from Sir Kay the nickname Beau- 
mains. At the expiration of a year he received 
knighthood and, at the request of Linet, liberated 
her sister Liones, who was imprisoned in Castle 
Perilous, and whom he afterwards made his wife. 
Tennyson has introduced some slight variations 
into the mj^th in Gareth and Lynette. 

GARFIELD, James Abram (1831-81). 
Twentieth President of the United States. He 
was bom at Orange, Cuyahogh, County, Ohio, 
November 19, 1831; was early left fatherless, 
and spent his youth in alternate periods of study 
at school and hard manual work for his own sup- 
port. He worked on a farm; is said to have 
driven horses for a time on the Ohio Canal ; 
learned the carpenter's trade, and worked at it 
during his school vacation in 1850. He had al- 
ready entered the Geauga Seminary at Chester, 
Ohio, where he began the study of Latin, Greek, 
and algebra. In 1851 he entered the Western 
Reserve Eclectic Institute (now Hiram College) 
at Hiram, Ohio, and in 1854 entered Williams 
College, Mass., where he graduated with dis- 
tinguished honor in 1856. He then became teacher 
of Latin and Greek in the . institute at Hiram, 
Ohio, of which he was elected the head one year 
later. Before entering college, he had united 
with the Disciples Church, in which he had been 
brought up, and. according to the usage of that 
denomination, though never formally ordained to 
the ministry, he often preached. In 1858 he 
entered his name as a student with a law firm in 
Cleveland, Ohio, though his study w^as carried 
on by himself at Hiram. Having taken some part 
as a Republican in the campaign of 1856, he was 



in 1859 elected to represent the counties of Port- 
age and Summit in the State Senate. In August, 
1861, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of vol- 
unteers, and in September colonel. In December 
he reported for duty to General Buell at Louis- 
ville, Ky., and was ordered in command of a 
brigade of four regiments of infantry, to repel 
the Confederates under General ^Marshall from 
the valley of the Big Sandy River. He accom- 
plished the task in January, 1862, defeating 
Marshall in the battle of Middle Greek, and forc- 
ing him to retreat from the State. He was com- 
missioned brigadier-general, was placed in com- 
mand of the Twentieth Brigade, and was ordered 
to join General Buell. He reached, with his 
brigade, the field of Shiloh on the second day of 
the battle, and aided in the final repulse of the 
enemy; and next day, at the front with Sherman, 
took part in the attack on the enemy's rear guard. 
He participated in the siege of Corinth, and, af- 
ter its evacuation, was detailed to rebuild the 
railroad to Decatur. In October, 1862, he served 
on a court of inquiry, and in November on the 
court-martial which tried General Fitz-John Por- 
ter. In February, 1863, he joined the Army of 
the Cumberland under Rosecrans, just after the 
battle of Stone River, and was appointed chief of 
staff. In the discussion with regard to a forward 
movement, Garfield, as chief of staff, collated 
the written opinions of the seventeen corps, di- 
vision, and cavalry generals, and summarized 
their substance with cogent arguments of his 
own. This report induced RoseCrans to move for- 
ward, contrary to the opinions of most of his 
generals, in the Tullahoma campaign, opening 
the way for the advance on Chattanooga. In the 
battle of Chickamauga, September 19th, Garfield 
issued the orders, as chief of staff, and after the 
retreat of the right of the army rode under fire 
across country, and took word to Thomas, com- 
manding the left Aving, of the necessities of the 
situation, and, under Thomas, assisted in re- 
trieving the disaster. Garfield was sent to Wash- 
ington with dispatches, and was promoted to be 
a major-general for his services in the battle. 

Having been elected a Representative in Con- 
gress, he resigned his commission December 3, 
1863, and took his seat in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, where he served as member of the 
Military Committee until the close of the war. 
Largely through his efforts and arguments, the 
commutation clause of the Enrollment Act was 
repealed, and the draft enforced at a time when 
otherwise the army would have been fatally de- 
pleted. In 1865 he was assigned to the Commit- 
tee of Ways and Means, and on ^larch 16. 1866, 
made an elaborate speech on the public debt and 
specie payments. In 1867-68. as also later, he 
took strong ground against the improper inflation 
of the currency. In December, 1867, he returned 
to the Military Committee as chairman, and 
held that place during the discussions on the 
reconstruction of the Southern States, delivering 
a speech January 17, 1868, on the power of Con- 
gress in this relation, in which he severely criti- 
cised the action of the President, and the course 
of Major-General Hancock in his celebrated 
'Order No. 40.' He also sustained the motion to 
impeach the President. Later he was chairman 
of the Committee on Banking and Currency, and 
of a special committee to investigate the cause of 
the gold panic in September, 1869, which cul- 



GARFIELD. 



115 



GARGANTUA. 



minated in the crisis of 'Black Friday/ He also 
draughted a bill for the taking of the census of 
1870, which was rejected by Congress, but was 
made the basis of the law passed ten years later 
for the census of 1880. In 1871-75 he served as 
chairman of the Committee on Appropriations, 
and in this capacity introduced many important 
reforms. In 1873 charges of corruption were 
made against him in relation to the Credit Mo- 
bilier (q.v.). These attracted attention through- 
out the country, and especially in his own Con- 
gressional district. After earnest discussion he 
was renominated by the three-fourths vote of the 
convention, and was reelected by a large major- 
ity. The charges were renewed two years later, 
but were met with greater strength. In 1870 
there was no opposition in the convention, and in 
1878 he was reelected by a large majority. In 
the Forty-fourth Congress (1875-77) the Demo- 
cratic Party was in the majority. Garfield be- 
came a member of the Committee of Ways and 
Means. He was a frequent and careful speaker 
on important measures, and was recognized as one 
of the leaders of the minority. After the Pres- 
idential election of 1876, he was one of the 
prominent Republicans requested to witness the 
counting of votes in Louisiana, and one of two 
Republican members appointed by the House 
of Representatives to sit in the Electoral Com- 
mission (q.v.). In December, 1876, he was nomi- 
nated by his party for Speaker of the House of 
Representatives, and received the same nomina- 
tion on two subsequent occasions. In the Forty- 
fifth Congress (1877-79) he earnestly advocated 
the resumption of specie payments, and spoke 
against the Bland Silver Bill. In 1880 he was 
elected by the Ohio Legislature United States 
Senator for six years from ]March 4, 1881. 

In the Republican national convention at Chi- 
cago, June, 1880, he was an earnest advocate of 
the nomination of John Sherman of Ohio. The 
convention was divided between the advocates of 
Ceneral Grant and the opposition favoring James 
G. Blaine, John Sherman, and others. Garfield 
was not at first considered a candidate, but after 
more than thirty ballots without a choice, and 
earnest discussion in which, as well as in the 
advocacy of his favorite candidate, he won the 
admiration of delegates from all sections, he re- 
ceived the nomination. In November he received 
214 electoral votes as against 155 for his oppo- 
nent on the Democratic ticket, Gen. Winfield S. 
Hancock, and was inaugurated on March 4, 1881. 
With the single exc('j)tion of Robert T. Lincoln, 
Secretary of War, liis Cabinet, headed by James 
G. Blaine, as Secretary of State, was drawn from 
that wing of the Ropublioan Party of which Gar- 
field himself was a member, and which antago- 
nized the so-called 'Stalwarts' (q.v.), among 
whom the Vice-President, Arthur, ranked him- 
self. Both in public and in private, however, Gar- 
field had signified his earnest desire to unite all 
factions in support of his Administration, and 
the ])eo])le in general were disposed to trust in 
his ])r()iuises. On March 2'M the President sent 
in the name of William II. Robertson as his ap- 
pointee to the ofiice of Collector of the Port of 
New York. As ;Mr. Robertson was known to 
be a political enemy of Senator Conkling. the 
leading spirit among the 'Stalwarts,' Conkling 
looked upon the nomination as an affront to him- 
self, and when he found that he could not pre- 



vent the Senate from confirming it, he and his 
colleague, Thomas C. Platt^, resigned their of- 
fices (May 16th) and returned to New York to 
seek vindication by reelection. The New York 
Legislature, however, refused to reelect either 
one, and after a long and tedious struggle Messrs. 
Lapham and Warner Miller were chosen in their 
stead. Meanwhile the President's nomination had 
been confirmed in the Senate, and the breach be- 
tween the Stalwarts and the Administration was 
ho^jelessly widened. On July 2d Charles J. Gui- 
teau, a man whose vanity had been oftended by 
the refusal of an otfice, and whose unbalanced 
brain had been excited by the dissensions in the 
Republican Party, shot Garfield in the railway 
station at Washington. The crime excited the 
horror and execration of all parties alike; and 
foreign nations joined in the universal sorrow 
and indignation. For eighty days Garfield lin- 
gered between life and death. Toward the end 
of August his medical attendants felt that his 
last chance of recovery depended on his removal 
from the malarious climate of Washington, and 
on September 6tli he was taken by train to 
Elberon, N. J., where he died thirteen days later, 
on the 19th. His body was taken to Washington, 
where it lay in state September 22d-23d, and then 
to Cleveland, Ohio, where it was buried, Sep- 
tember 26th. A subscription started in New 
York for the bereaved family soon reached the 
sum of $360,000. The assassin Guiteau was con- 
victed after a protracted trial in which the only 
defense offered was that of insanity, and was 
hanged in the jail at Washington on June 30, 
1882. 

Many of Garfield's speeches were published at 
the time of their delivery, and after his death 
B. A, Hinsdale collected his writings and pub- 
lished them in two volumes (Boston, 1882). For 
his biography, consult: Gilmort (New York, 
1880); Coffin (Boston, 1880); Bundv (New 
York, 1880) : Mason (London, 1881) ; and Stod- 
dard (New York, 1889). 

GARFIELD MONUMENT. A monument at 
Cleveland, Ohio, in memory of the martyretl 
President, dedicated May 30, 1890. Its cost, 
$135,000, was defrayed by popular subscription. 
The monument is a round tower, 50 feet in diam- 
eter and 148 feet high, containing a marble statue 
of Garfield. 

GARFISH. See G.\r. 

GARGAMELLE, gar'gft'mfP. Tlie wife of 
Grangousier and mother of Gargantua. in Ral)o- 
lais's romance, Oargantua et Pantagruel. 

GAR'GANEY. A European teal duck {Qiivr- 
qncduJa rircia) resembling the American blue- 
winged teal (see Teai,), which never ranges far 
north of Central Europe, but is known eastward 
to China. It is also called 'summer teal,' and in 
Italy 'garganello.' 

GARGANO, gilr-gU'n6 (Lat. Garfinuus). A 
])eninsula on the east coast of South Italy, called 
botli Monte Gargano and Monte Sant' Angelo. 
It is an almost treeless mass of mountains, sepa- 
rated from the rest of the Apennines by the broad 
valley of the Candelaro, while it is washed on 
three sides by the Adriatic. It is 54 miles long, 
27 miles broad, and in Mount Calvo rises to the 
height of 3465 feet. 

GARGANTUA, Fr. pron. gjlr'gilN'tn'A'. A 
leading character in Rabelais's satire. The Grand 



GARGANTUA. 



116 



GARIBALDI. 



and Inestimable Chronicles of the Grand and 
Enormous Giant Gargantua (1531). He appears 
also in another Gargantua (1535), the first part 
of the work now known as Gargantua and Panta- 
gruel (1532-64). See Kabelais. 

GARGA^'PHIA. The name of a valley near 
Plataea in Greece, the place where Actaeon was 
torn to pieces by his own hounds. Jonsoii has 
also employed it as the scene of his comedy 
Cynthia's Revels. 

GAR'GARA, or GAR'GARUS. See Ida. 

GAR^'GERY, Joe. A simple-minded, open- 
hearted blacksmith^ in Dickens's Great Expecta- 
tions, who suffers much from the shrewish 
tongue of his virago wife, Pip's sister, and has 
an innocent desire for 'larks.' 

GARGET, gar'get. See Mammitis. 

GARGET-ROOT. See Phytolacca. 

GARGLE, or GAR'GARISM ( OF. gargouille, 
throat, from Lat, gurgulio, gullet). One of a 
group of medicines intended not to be swal- 
lowed, but to be ejected from the mouth after 
having been churned about in the mouth and 
throat, with a view to cleansing the parts when 
aflected with discharges from ulcers, or to acting 
as astringents (q.v. ) or stimulants (q.v.) in 
sore throat. The best gargles are composed of 
boric acid solution, or alcohol and water; of 
chlorine water or solution of permanganate of 
potash, in putrescent cases; of port wine, alum, 
and capsicum (cayenne pepper), when a stimu- 
lating effect is required; of tannin or oak-bark 
decoction with alum or borax, in case a pure 
astringent is needed. Gargles are very useful in 
the later stages of sore throat, in almost all its 
varieties. 

GARGOYLE (OF. gargoille, gargouille, Fr. 
gargouille, throat, connected with Lat. gurgulio, 
throat). A projecting spout, discharging the 
water from the roof-gutters of buildings. Gar- 
goyles of various forms have been used in almost 
all styles of architecture. Early examples are 
found in the temples of Edfu and Denderah in 




GAKGOYLE8 

decorating the Sacristy of the Cathedral of Notre Darae 
at Paris. 

Egypt. Those of painted terra-cotta and of 
marble, often in the shape of lions' or boars' 
heads, were a prominent part of classic and 
Etruscan temples. But the term is especially 



applied to the varied development of the spout 
in connection with Gothic architecture. The gar- 
goyles of French buildings have usually great 
prominence, much more than in England. Some 
gargoyles are small and plain, others large and 
ornamental, according to their various positions. 
They are carved into all conceivable forms — an- 
gelic, human, bestial, and grotesque; and as in 
fountains, the water is generally spouted through 
the mouth. The mediaeval love of the grotesque 
found congenial expression in creating weird and 
deformed heads and figures for them. Some of 
them are famous, as at Saint Jacques and Notre 
Dame in Paris. In late castellated buildings they 
frequently assume the form of small cannons pro- 
jecting from the parapet. In modern times the 
use of metal pipes to convey the water from roofs 
has almost entirely superseded the use of gar- 
goyles. 

GARIBALDI, ga're-bal'de, Giuseppe (1807- 
82 ) . An Italian patriot and liberator, born at 
Nice, July 4, 1807. He was a sailor's son, and 
adopted the sea as his own calling, and as early 
as 1830 was in command of a brig. It was 
about this time that he became interested in the 
Italian national movement, which afterwards be- 
came the great passion of his life. He made the 
acquaintance of Mazzini and other leaders of 
Young Italy in 1833, and became imbued with 
an unquenchable hatred of despotism. He was 
compromised by his participation in the futile 
outbreak at Genoa in 1834, and fled to French 
territory, while his condemnation to death was 
published in Italy. He resumed his sea-faring 
life, and sailed to South America, where he took 
an active part in the struggle of the new Republic 
of Uruguay, against the Argentinian dictator, 
Manuel Rosas. He distinguished himself as an 
intrepid partisan leader on sea and land, and 
contracted a romantic marriage with Anita, the 
remarkable woman who for several years shared 
his campaigns. Upon receiving news of the ris- 
ing of Northern Italy against Austria in 1848, 
Garibaldi hastened to Europe to share in the 
struggles of his countrymen. He bore an effective 
part in the whole of the Sardinian campaign as 
the commander of a volunteer corps. He then 
joined the Revolutionary Government at Rome, 
and distinguished himself by his defense of the 
city against the French forces under Oudinot 
in June and July, 1849. After a retreat of un- 
paralleled difficulty through districts occupied 
by Austrian forces. Garibaldi, accompanied by 
his heroic wife, set sail in a small fishing craft 
toward Venice; but being pursued by Austrian 
vessels, they were compelled to land where they 
could, and, not far from the shore, his wife, ex- 
hausted by the dangers and terrible exertions of 
their flight, expired in the arms of her husband. 
Garibaldi at length reached Genoa in safety, and 
thence embarked for Tunis. He afterwards lived 
in Staten Island, N. Y., supporting himself by 
making candles in a factory, revisited Soutli 
America, and commanded an American trading- 
vessel on the Pacific coast. 

Though a republican by conviction, Garibaldi 
did not follow Mazzini in opposition to the Sar- 
dinian monarchy, but accepted it, as the hope of 
Italy, in the years preceding the war of 1859. As 
the head of an irregular auxiliary force of the 
Piedmontese army on the commencement of hos- 
tilities in 1859 his services were brilliant and ef- 




GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI 



GARIBALDI. 



117 



GABIBALDI. 



fective, notwithstanding the limited scope assigned 
for his operations. In 18G0 he undertook the 
most momentous enterprise of his career. After the 
disappointing peace of Villafranca had defeated 
the hope of liberation from the Austrian yoke 
just when it seemed to be approaching realiza- 
tion, the Italian people resumed the revolutionary 
operations which had been temporarily suspended 
in the hope that Italian unity would be ac- 
complished through the efforts of Sardinia. In 
Sicily, early in 1860, disturbances broke out and 
Francesco Crispi (q.v.) obtained from Garibaldi 
a promise of assistance. In fulfillment of this 
promise, Garibaldi assembled at Genoa a volun- 
teer force of 1070 patriots, and on May 5th set 
sail for the island of Sicily. On the 11th his 
two small transport steamers reached Marsala in 
safety, and the landing of his followers was suc- 
cessfully effected in sight and partially under the 
fire of the Neapolitan fleet. On the 15th, in the 
battle of Calatafimi, 3600 Neapolitan troops were 
routed by Garibaldi's small force, and this open- 
ing victory cleared the way to Palermo. On the 
27th of the same month Garibaldi and his little 
army occupied the heights which commanded 
Palermo, and after a desperate conflict with the 
royalist troops fought their way into the city, 
which for several suljsequent days had to sustain 
a ruthless bombardment from the united fire of 
the Neapolitan garrison and fleet. The interven- 
tion of the British fleet, however, and the isolated 
and destitute condition of the garrison shut up in 
the forts, induced the Neapolitan general to 
capitulate June 6th, and on his departure with 
his troops Garibaldi remained in undisputed 
possession of the city and strongholds of Palermo. 
He issued a proclamation as dictator in the name 
of Italy and Victor Emmanuel, armed the citi- 
zens, and on July 20th, at the head of 2500 men, he 
gave battle at Milazzo to 7000 Neapolitans, who 
were completely defeated, and compelled to evacu- 
ate that fortress. On the 25th the Neapolitans 
were driven back into Messina, into which Gari- 
baldi made his triumphal entry on the 27th. 

On August 1 9th Garibaldi crossed over into 
Calabria, and was immediately joined by large 
bodies of volunteers from all directions, by whom 
he was accompanied on his memorable and event- 
ful march to Naples. On September 5th his 
army, which then amounted to 25,000 or 30,000 
men, occupied Salerno on the withdrawal of the 
royalists, and on the 7th, amid the frenzied en- 
thusiasm of the inhabitants, Garibaldi entered 
Naples with only one or two friends, to prove 
to Europe that his advent was that of a welcome 
liberator, and not of a conqueror. On the pre- 
vious day the capital had sullenly witnessed the 
withdrawal of the King, Francis II., to the fort- 
ress of Gaeta. On the 1st of October the royalist 
troops, numbering 15,000 men, advanced from 
Capua, and attacked the whole line of Gari- 
hnldians spread along the Volturno. For some 
hours the outcome of the battle was in doubt, and 
more than once it seemed as if success were about 
to desert the patriots at the last moment; but 
finally the royalists were driven back to Capua in 
disorder. Victor Emmanuel, at the head of the 
Sardinian army, now crossed the Papal frontier, 
routed the troops under Lamoriciftre, and passed 
on into the Kingdom of Naples, where Garibaldi 
relinquished into his sovereign's hands the un- 
wnditional disposal of his army, and absolute 



sway over the Neapolitan provinces. Francis II. 
was now besieged by the Sardinian forces in his 
stronghold of Gaeta, where on February 13, 1861, 
he was compelled to surrender to Victor Emman- 
uel. Garibaldi retired to Caprera, but in June, 
1862, he raised a force of volunteers at Palermo, 
invaded Calabria, and marched upon Rome, which 
he believed must be wrested from the Pope be- 
fore the unity of Italy could be accomplished. 
Victor Emmanuel, however, fearing that Gari- 
baldi's attempt on Rome would bring about 
foreign intervention with disastrous consequences 
to Italy, dispatched an army to check his prog- 
ress. Garibaldi was defeated by the Italian troops 
at Aspromonte August 29th, and taken prisoner, 
but was pardoned in October. 

During the campaign of 1866 Garibaldi took 
the field, and was engaged in operations against 
the Austrians in the Tyrol. The year 1867 was 
disastrous for him. Impatient of the long de- 
lays in completing the unification of Italy, and 
bitterly opposed to the Papal power, he organized 
an open invasion of the Papal States, which 
the Italian Government could not countenance. 
France came to the aid of the Pope, the Gari- 
baldians were defeated at Mentana, November 3d, 
and their leader was made a prisoner, but was 
afterwards allowed to return to Caprera, in the 
neighborhood of which a man-of-war was sta- 
tioned to prevent his escape. He left Caprera to 
fight for the French Republic in 1870, and was 
nominated to the command of the irregular forces 
in the region of Burgundy. In 1871 he was re- 
turned a Deputy to the French National Assembly 
which met at Bordeaux, but encountered such 
bitter criticism of his conduct during the war 
that he returned to Caprera. He entered the 
Italian Parliament in 1874. After much hesita- 
tion he accepted from the Parliament an annual 
pension of 10,000 lire. In 1860 Garibaldi was 
inveigled into an unhappy marriage, which was 
annulled in 1879, when he married Francesca, a 
peasant, who had been an inmate of his family 
for many years. He died at Caprera June 2, 1882. 
Garibaldi's novels, Clelia and Cantoni il volon- 
tario, have little literary value. Of his two sons, 
the elder one, Menotti, fought with credit by his 
father's side. 

Bibliography. A comprehensive literature 
centres about Garibaldi, and only the most useful 
and accessible books may be mentioned. The first 
in importance is naturally Garibaldi's own 
Memoirs, translated into English by Werner, and 
published under the title. Autobiography of Giu- 
seppe Garibaldi (London, 1889). This authorized 
edition contains a supplement by Jessie \Miite 
Mario, and embodies all that Garibaldi wished 
to have published. IMuch is omitted which Gari- 
baldi preferred not to discuss, and there are 
many minor errors, as the memoirs were written 
entirely from memory, without verification of 
dates and other facts. The volumes are, never- 
theless, of great value. Dwight, Life of General 
Garibaldi, Translated from His Private Papers 
(New York, 1877), is also autobiographical. 
Consult also: Bent, The Life of Giuseppe Gari- 
baldi (London, 1881); Marriott, The Makers of 
Modem Jtaly (New York, 1889), which includes 
three Oxford lectures, one on Garibaldi. See 
Italy. 

OARIBAXDI (so called from its color, red 
having been worn by adherents of Garibaldi). A 



GARIBALDI. 



118 



GARLIC. 



name in California for the red perch {Hypsypops 
ruhicundus) . 
GARIEP' RIVER. See Orange. 

GARIGLIANO, ga're-lya'n6 (Lat. Liris, ear- 
lier Giants) . A river of South Italy, 92 miles 
long, which rises in the Abruzzi as the Liri (Map : 
Italy, H 6). It receives the waters of the 
Sacco, the Melsa (at this point changing its 
name to Garigliano ) , and the Rapido, and then 
flows sluggishly through marshes, past the ruins 
of Minturnae, into the Gulf of Gaeta. In the 
marshy swamps near the river Marius found 
concealment when pursued by Sulla. On its 
banks in 1503 the Spaniards, under Cordova, won 
a famous victory over the French. On November 
3, 1860, the Neapolitan troops north of the river 
were defeated by the Sardinians, and as a result 
the investiture of Gaeta began. 

GARIGTJE, ga'reg' (Fr,, uncultivated land. 
Cat. garriga, from garrig, oak ) , A term applied 
to the barren and rocky desert-like areas of the 
Mediterranean region, where neither shrubs nor 
trees give tone to the landscape. 

GAR'LAND, Augustus Hill (1832-99). An 
American politician. He was born in Tipton 
County, Tenn., but when less than a year old was 
taken by his parents to Arkansas. He was edu- 
cated at Saint Mary's College, Lebanon, Ky., and 
at Saint Joseph's College, Bardstown, Ky., stud- 
ied law, and was admitted to the Arkansas bar in 
1853, and soon became prominent both as a 
lawyer and politician. In politics he was a Whig, 
and was opposed to secession, but finally went 
with his State. He was elected to the Pro- 
visional Congress of the Confederate States in 
1861; was reelected to the House of the same 
Congress in 1862, and was afterwards elected to 
the Confederate Senate, of which he continued 
to be a member until the close of the war. He 
then devoted himself to his profession, and in 
1874 was elected Governor of Arkansas, under 
the new Constitution. He was a member of the 
United States Senate from 1877 to 1885, and 
from 1885 to 1889 was Attorney-General of the 
United States in the Cabinet of President Cleve- 
land, after which, until his death, he practiced 
law in Washington, D. C. 

GARLAND, Hamlin (I860—). An Ameri- 
can poet and story-writer, born at La Crosse, 
Wis., September 16* 1860, of Scotch descent. His 
youth was passed in various Western towns, 
among them the Quaker community Hesper, 
Iowa. He completed his school education at 
Cedar Valley Seminary, Osage, Iowa, in 1881, 
farmed and taught in Illinois and Dakota, went 
to Boston in 1884, and devoted himself to lit- 
erature there till 1891, since when he has lived 
chiefly in the West. His first book was Main- 
Traveled Roads (1891), frankly realistic fiction. 
Somewhat similar in character are: A Spoil of 
Office (1893); Prairie Folks (1893); A Little 
?^^orsk (1893); and Rose of Butcher's Coolly 
(1895), probably his best novel. Other novels 
are: Jason Edwards (1891) ; A Member of the 
Third House (1892); Wayside Courtships 
(1897); Her Mountain Lover (1901). He has 
also written a volume of vigorously iconoclastic 
criticism entitled Crumbling Idols (1894); 
Prairie Songs (1893), a volume of verse; Ulys- 
ses Grant: His Life and Character (1898), a 



sympathetic biography; The Trail of the Gold 
Seekers (1899) ; The Eagle's Heart (1900) ; and 
Captain of the Gray Horse Troop (1902). 

GARLAND, Landon Cabell (1810-95). An 
American educator, born in Nelson County, Va. 
He graduated in 1829 at Hampden- Sidney College 
(Farmville, Va.) in 1833, was appointed pro- 
fessor of physics in Randolph-Macon College 
(Ashland and Lynchburg, Va.), and from 1835 to 
1847 was president of that institution. In 1847- 
53 he was professor of mathematics and as- 
tronomy in the University of Alabama (Uni- 
versity, Ala.), of which he was president from 
1855 to 1866. Professor of physics and astronomy 
in the University of Mississippi (Oxford) from 
1866 to 1895, he was appointed in the latter year 
chancellor of Vanderbilt University (Nashville, 
Tenn.), and professor there of physics and as- 
tronomy. He resigned from the chancellorship 
in 1893. He published Trigonometry, Plane and 
Spherical (1841), one of a projected series of 
text-books, the remaining manuscripts of which 
were destroyed by fire. 

GARLIC (AS. garleao, from gar, spear + leac, 
leek, so called from the shape of the leaves ) , 
Allium sativum. A bulbous-rooted plant, native 
of the East, cultivated from the earliest ages. 
The stem rises to the height of about two feet, 
is unbranched, and bears at the top an umbel of 
a few whitish flowers, mixed with many small 
bulbs. The leaves are grass-like, obscurely 
keeled, and not fistulous like those of the onion. 
The bulb, which is the part eaten, consists of 
about twelve to fifteen ovate-oblong cloves or sub- 
ordinate bulbs. It has a penetrating and power- 
ful onion-like odor and taste. It is in general 
use as a condiment with other articles of food in 
Southern Europe, but has only a limited use in 
the United States. Garlic, or its fresh juice, is 
also used in medicine. It owes its properties 
chiefly to oil of garlic. The cultivation of garlic 
is extremely esLsy; it is generally propagated by 
its cloves. Many species of the genus Allium are 
popularly called garlic, with some distinctive 
addition. Allium oleraceum is sometimes called 
wild garlic in England, and its young and tender 
leaves are used as a pot-herb. Its leaves are 
semi-cylindrical, and grooved on the upper side, 
and its stamens are all simple. In America, wild 
garlic is Allium ceneale, a perennial also known 
as field garlic and wild onion. This is a serious 
weed pest in pastures, hay and grain fields of the 
Eastern United States from New York to South 
Carolina. When eaten by cattle it imparts a 
very disagreeable odor and flavor to the milk, 
butter, cheese, and other dairy products. The 
species has hollow, thread-like leaves surround- 
ing a slender scape, which bears an umbel of 
gieenish-white or rose-colored flowers in mid- 
summer, which are followed in early autumn by 
either seeds or bulblets. The easiest way to 
eradicate it in fields is to alternate heavy crop- 
ping with clctin cultivation. See Allium; Al- 
liaceous Plant ; Plate of Onions, etc. 

GARLIC,^ Oil of. When cloves of garlic are 
distilled with water, about 0.2 per cent, of a 
broA\'n hea%y oil, with an acrid taste and a 
strong disagreeable smell, passes over. By care- 
ful rectification from a salt-water bath, about 
two-thirds of the oil may be obtained in the 
form of a yellow liquid, which is lighter than 



I 



GABLIC. 



119 



GARNET. 



water, and which, when treated with chloride of 
calcium (in order to dry it), and subsequently 
distilled from fragments of potassium, passes 
over pure and colorless as sulphide of allyl, an 
organic compound of very considei»ble interest, 
whose formula is (03115)28. The crude oil also 
contains a compound of allyl still richer in sul- 
phur than the sulphide. Sulphide of allyl exists 
not only in oil of garlic, but also in the oils 
of onions, leeks, cress, alliaria, radishes, asa- 
fetida, etc. It is a light^ clear, pale-yellow oil, 
with a penetrating odor of garlic; it boils at 
140° C, and dissolves readily in alcohol and 
ether. 

GAR'M AN, Samuel (184G — ). An American 
naturalist, bom in Indiana County, Pa. He 
graduated in 1870 at the Illinois State Normal 
University, was principal of the Mississippi State 
Normal School in 1870-71, was a pupil of Louis 
Agassiz in special work in natural history (1872- 
73), and received appointment as assistant in the 
departments of herpetology and ichthyology at 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge. 
His writings include: Fishes and Reptiles from 
Lake Titiraca { Bullet in of the Museum, vol. iii., 
1871-76, No. 11) ; (joint author) Exploration of 
Lake Titicaca (ib., vol. iii., 1871-76, Nos. 11, 12, 
15, and 16) ; On Certain impedes of Chelonioidce 
(ib., vol. vi., 1879-80, No. f) ; New Specimens of 
Selachians in the Museum Collection (ib., vol. vi., 
1879-80, No. 11) ; The Reptiles and Batrachians 
of North America {\femoirs of the Museum, vol. 
viii., 1883, No. 3) ; and Reptiles and Batrachians 
of the West Indies ( 1887 ; printed in the Bulletin 
of the Essex Institute, and in monograph form). 

GARNEAU, gar'ny, FRANgois Xavier (1809- 
66). A Canadian historian, born in Quebec. Ad- 
mitted in 1830 as a notary, he was appointed 
clerk to the Legislative Assembly, and from 1844 
to 1864 was clerk to the municipal council of 
Quebec. He published an Histoire du Canada, 
depuis sa decouverte (1845-48; 2d ed., revised 
and corrected, 1852; 3d ed. 1859), of which an 
unsatisfactory English translation by A. Bell 
appeared at Montreal in 1860 (2d ed. 1862). He 
also wrote Voyage en Angleterre et en France 
(printed in the Journal de Quebec in 1855), and 
contributed to periodicals numerous poems, col- 
lected in part in Huston's Recucil de littrratnre 
canadienne (Montreal, 1848). Consult Caa- 
grain, Bioqraphie de F. X. Garneau (Montreal, 
1886). 

GARNET (ME. garnet, grenat, from OF. 
grenat. It. granato, from ML. granatus, garnet, 
either on account of its crimson color, from iMIj. 
granata, cochineal insect, supposed to be a seed 
or berry, or from Lat. granatum, pomegranate, 
as resembling in shape and color pomegranate 
seeds; in either case from Lat. granum, grain). 
An orthosilicate of varying composition that 
crystallizes in the isometric system. Some va- 
rieties of garnet are not quite so hard as quartz, 
others are considerably harder, \\nion crystal- 
lized, garnets have a vitreous to resinous lustre. 
They occur in schists and slates, and in gneiss, 
granite, and limestone, and sometimes in lava and 
serpentine, being \isually of secondary origin. 
Garnets are divided by Dana into three groups; 
viz, aluminum garnets, iron garnets, and calcium- 
chromium garnets. 

The first group includes grosmlarite, or cal- 



cium-aluminum garnet; pyrope, or magnesium- 
aluminum garnet ; alm<tndite, or iron-aluminum 
garnet; and spessartite, or manganese-aluminum 
garnet. Grossularite, sometimes called essanite, 
or hessonite, or cinnamon stone, varies in color 
from white to different shades of yellow and 
brown, and from pale-green to em^ald-green. 
Gem varieties of the green grossularite are ob- 
tained in Siberia, and the brown-colored ones, or 
cinnamon stones, are found in Ceylon, where they 
are sometimes miscalled hyacinth. In the United 
States green varieties have been found at 
Brewster, N. Y., and red and yellow varieties 
in Phippsburg, Me., and Warren, N. H. ; also 
at various places along the Alleghany range. A 
rose-red variety of grossularite, called rose gar- 
net, from Xalostoc, Mexico, is used as an orna- 
mental material when cut and polished. Pyrope, 
which is called precious or Oriental garnet, is of 
a deep-red to black color. The best kno^^^l va- 
rieties are found at a number of places in Bo- 
hemia; excellent specimens are also obtained at 
the Kimberley mines in South Africa. In the 
United States, the finest pyrope garnets come 
from Arizona, southern Colorado, and New Mex- 
ico, where they are often called Arizona rubies, 
while the varieties from South Africa are known 
as Cape rubies. Almandite, which is the common 
garnet, varies in color from deep red to black. 
The transparent scarlet and crimson varieties, 
when cut, are called carbuncles ; these were high- 
ly prized by the ancients. According to the 
Talmud, the only light that Noah had in the 
Ark was furnished by carbuncles. The finest 
almandite garnets are from Siriam, India; from 
Burke, Caldwell, and Catawba counties, N. C. ; 
and from Idaho. The specimens found in the 
United States, although inferior to those from 
India, are generally of good enough quality to be 
used as watch- jewels. 

Spessartite is of a dark hyacinth-red to brown- 
ish-red color ; it is found in the Ural Mountains 
and in Amelia County, Va. 

The second group comprises the garnets which 
have the general name of andradite. They 
range in color from light-yellow through various 
shades of green to red, bro^^^^, and black, and 
according to their colors they have special names, 
among which are rfemawfoid! for the green variety 
and m'elanite for the black variety. They are 
found variously throughout the world, chiefly 
along mountain ranges. « 

The last group is formed by uvarovite, or 
calcium-chromium garnet, which is of an emerald- 
green color, and is found in Siberia, as well as at 
various localities in Canada. 

According to their transparency and richness 
of color, garnets are cut and used for gem pur- 
poses. Among the ancients, garnets — especially 
the precious varieties — were cut and polished into 
various ornaments. Pliny describes a vessel 
formed from carbuncles, having the capacity of a 
pint. A number of fine ancient specimens of 
engraving on garnets are to be found in the larger 
collections. The common garnet is frequently 
ground and used for polishing and cutting other 
stones, and also for the manufacture of sand 
paper. About 3000 tons of garnets for abrasive 
]>ur|M>ses are produced annually in the United 
States from mines in New York, Pennsylvania, 
and Massachusetts, t"he greater number of which 
are used in the shoe industrv. Gramets of the 



GARNET. 



120 



GARNIER. 



gem variety have been made artificially in Paris 
by the fusion of their constituents. 

GAR'NET, Henry Highland (1815-82). An 
Afro-American clergyman and orator, born a 
slave in New Market, Md, He was a pure-blood- 
ed negro of the Mendigo tribe. When he was ten 
years old his parents successfully escaped from 
Maryland, taking him with them, and in 1826 
settled in New York City. He was educated at 
Canaan Academy, New Hampshire, and at Oneida 
Institute, near Utica, N. Y. After graduating 
at the latter institution in 1840, he studied 
theology, and two years later became pastor 
of a Presbyterian church in Troy. He became 
actively associated with the leaders of the aboli- 
tion movement, and published for a time the 
Clarion, a weekly paper devoted to the cause. In 
1850 he went to Europe, and spent the greater 
part of the next three years lecturing on the 
slavery question in Great Britain. He was a 
delegate to the peace congress at Frankfort in 
1851, and in 1853 was sent to Jamaica as a mis- 
sionary by the United Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland. In 1855 he returned to the United 
States to take charge of the Shiloh Presbyterian 
Church in New York City. There he remained 
until 1881, with the exception of a four years' 
pastorate at Washington, D. C, in 1865-69. 
Shortly before President Garfield's assassination 
he was appointed by him Minister Resident and 
Consul-General for the United States in Liberia. 
The appointment was renewed by President Ar- 
thur and confirmed by the Senate, but Garnet 
died a few months after taking charge of his 
new post. 

GAR'NETT. A city and the county-seat of 
Anderson County, Kan., 50 miles northwest of 
Fort Scott; on the Missouri Pacific and the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa F6 railroads (Map: 
Kansas, G 3 ) . It has considerable trade in the 
products of the surrounding agricultural region, 
and manufactures furniture, flour, lumber, etc. 
Population, in 1890, 2191; in 1900, 2078. 

GARNETT, James Mercer (1840—). An 
American educator, philologist, and author, born 
at Aldie, Va. He graduated ai the University of 
Virginia in 1859, served in the Confederate Army 
during the Civil War, and rose to be captain of 
artillery, and in 1867 was appointed professor 
of Greek in the Louisiana State University (then 
at Alexandria, now at Baton Rouge). Subse- 
quently he was instructor in ancient languages 
and mathematics at the Episcopal High School 
(near Alexandria, Va.). From 1870 to 1880 
he was president of Saint John's College (An- 
napolis, Md.),and from 1882 to 1896 professor of 
English literature in the University of Virginia. 
He was elected president in 1890 of the Amer- 
ican Dialect Society, and in 1893 of the American 
Philological Association. He edited Selections in 
English Prose (1891) ; his other works include: 
Translation of Beowulf (1882, 1900) ; Elene and 
Other Anglo-Saxon Poems (1889-1900) ; and a 
History of the University of Virginia (1901). 

GARNETT, Richard (1835-). An English 
librarian and author, born in Lichfield. He en- 
tered the service of the British Museum under 
Panizzi when he was sixteen years old, became 
superintendent of the reading room in 1875; and 
from 1890 to 1899 was keeper of printed books. 
From 1881 until 1890 Dr. Garnett had charge of 



the preparation and printing of the great cata- 
logue of authors of the museum. He has been 
president of the Library Association of the 
United Kingdom and of the Bibliographical So- 
ciety. In his professional field he has edited the 
series of manuals entitled the Library Series, to 
which he contributed Essays in Librarianship and 
Bibliography (1899). He has published several 
volumes of verse, including lo in Egypt (1859) ; 
Jphigenia in Delphi (1891) ; Poems (1893) ; and 
The Queen and Other Poems (1901). To the 
"Great Writers" series he contributed lives of 
Carlyle (1887), Emerson (1888), and Milton 
(1890). Among his other works are: Relics of 
Shelley (1862); The Twilight of the Gods and 
Other Tales (1889); A^re of Dryden (1895); 
William Blake, Painter and Poet (1895); A 
History of Italian Literature ( 1898) ; and Essays 
of an Ex-Librarian ( 1901 ) . He was editor of the 
International Library of Famous Literature, and 
contributed many articles to the Dictionary of 
National Biography and the Encyclopwdia Bri- 
tannica. In collaboration with Edmund Gosse 
he published in 1902 An Illustrated History of 
English Literature. 

GARNETT, Robert Selden (1819-61). An 
American soldier, born in Essex County, Va. He 
studied at the United States Military Academy; 
was appointed brevet second lieutenant of the 
Fourth Artillery in 1841 ; in 1841-42 was on duty 
on the northern frontier during the Canadian 
border troubles; and after serving as instructor 
in infantry tactics at the Military Academy 
(1843-44), and in the military occupation of 
Texas (1845-46), fought through the Mexican 
War. From 1846 to 1849 he was aide-de-camp 
to Major-General Taylor, and in 1847 was bre- 
vetted major for gallant and meritorious conduct 
at Buena Vista. In 1852-54 he was commandant 
at the Military Academy; in 1855 was promoted 
to be major; and in 1861 resigned from the 
United States Army, and was appointed a briga- 
dier-general in the Army of the Confederate 
States. Placed in command of the forces in 
western Virginia, he was obliged to fall back 
before the superior numbers of the Federal troops 
under Major-General McClellan; was pursued 
and overtaken at Carrick's Ford (q.v.) (on the 
river Cheat), and was killed in the ensuing com- 
bat (July 13, 1861). 

GARNIER, gUr'ny^', Jean Jacques (1729- 
1805). A French historian, born at Gorron 
(Mayenne). Having arrived at Paris on foot, he 
entered the Minorite Order, and finally became 
adjunct professor of Hebrew in the College de 
France, of which in 1768 he was appointed in- 
spector. In 1761 his memoir. Traits de Vorigine 
du gouvernement franqais^^ was cro^^^led by the 
Academy of Inscriptions, to which he was elected 
as associate. He wtis successor to Claude Villa- 
ret as historiographer of France, and wrote a 
continuation (1765-85) of the Histoire de France 
of Velly and Villaret. His further publications 
include an interesting work on L*homme de lettres 
(1764), and a treatise, De Viducation civile 
(1765). 

GARNIER, Jean Louis Charles (1825-98). 
A French architect, born in Paris. He studied 
under L^veil and Lebas at the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, and won the Prix de Rome for architecture 
in 1848. Afterwards he traveled extensively in 
Greece, Turkey, and Italy. In 1860 he was 



GABNIEB. 



121 



GABNISHMENT. 



I 



architect for a section of Paris. A year later 
he won the competitive prize for plans for the 
new Opera House in Paris, which was four- 
teen years in building. Its style has been called 
'bastard Renaissance.' The main feature of the 
building is the stairway. It contains decorative 
paintings by Baudry, Pils^ and tethers, and is 
adorned with sculpture by Carpeaux, Jouffroy, 
Guillaume, and Perraud. Garnier also built the 
Conservatory at Nice, the Casino at Monte Carlo, 
designed the tombs of Offenbach, Bizet, and Vic- 
tor Masse in Paris, and, with Debacq, built the 
De Luyne Mortuary Chapel at Dampierre. He 
wrote: Kestauration des tomhcaux des rois Ange- 
vins en Italie (with 54 plates in folio) ; A 
trovers les arts (1869); Etude sur le theatre 
(1871); Le nouvel Opera de. Paris (1875-81); 
Monographie de Vobservatoire de Nice (1892); 
and Histoire de Vhahitation humaine (1894, with 
Ammann). He was a member of every archi- 
tectural society of importance in France and 
abroad, and in 1889 was made commander of the 
Legion of Honor. 

GABNIEB, Joseph Clement (1813-81). A 
French economist. He was born at Beuil (Alpes 
Maritimes), studied at the Ecole du Commerce, 
and was appointed professor of mathemat- 
ics and political economy in that institution. In 
1842 he assisted in founding the French Society 
of Political Economy, and in 1846 the French 
Free-Trade Association. From 1845 to 1855, and 
from 1866 until his death, he was editor of the 
Journal des Economistes. He wrote a number of 
works which did much to popularize economic 
science in France, and which include an Introduc- 
tion d Vetude de Veconomie politique (1843); 
liichard Cohden, les ligueurs et la ligue (1846) ; 
and Etude sur les profits et les salaires (1848). 

GABNIEB, Jules Ars^ne (1847-89). A 
French painter, born in Paris. He was a pupil 
at the Academy of Toulouse, and then of G6r6me 
in Paris. His works are genre and historical, 
and they are notable for clever composition. The 
best of thom are: "The Right of the Seigneur" 
(1872); "The Tithe" (1873); "The King is 
Amused" (1874) ; "Capital Punishment" (1876) ; 
and "The Deliverer of Territory" (1878). 

GABNIEB, :Marie Joseph Francois (1839- 
73), usually called Francis Garnier. A French 
officer and explorer, born at Saint-Etienne. He 
served under Admiral Charner in the French war 
with China, 1860-62, and remained in the new 
colony of Cochin-Cliina as a civil officer. In 
1866 Captain Doudart de LagrC»e commanded an 
exploring. expedition from the coast of Cambodia 
through Yun-nan to Shanghai with a view to 
increasing the opportunities for trade. Garnier 
accompanied him, explored the ^Mekong River, 
and on the death of tlie commander, successfully 
brought the expedition along the Y'lng-tse-kiang 
to the coast. A remarkable account of the expe- 
dition is given in his Voyage d'exploration en 
hido-Chine, pendant 1SG6'-JSGS (1873). After 
taking part in the defense of Paris in 1870-71, he 
again went to the East. Further explorations 
were followed by a commission from the Governor 
of Coch in-China to negotiate a treaty with the 
Viceroy of Tongking. The Viceroy, howevor, re- 
fused to negotiate, and Garnier, with 120 men, 
took Ha-noi, the capital, and won further suc- 
cesses; but reenforcements wpxe delayed, the 



partv fell into an ambuscade, and Gamier was 
killed. 

GABNIEB, Robert (1534-90). A French 
dramatic poet, born at La Fert6-Bernard. He 
studied law at Toulouse, and held various posi- 
tions under the State before he gave himself 
entirely to the writing of drama. His plays have 
little real action, and that little is clogged by 
the long speeches and interminable dialogues of 
the characters. Nevertheless, there is at times 
a freshness and vigor about much of his writing 
that suggests Corneille, and he is considered 
the greatest French dramatic author of his cen- 
tury. His works include: Porcie, &pouse de 
Brutus (1568); Les Juives (1583); and Bra- 
damante (1582). He also w^rote a volume of 
poems, Les plaintes amoureuses (1565). His 
collected works were published in four volumes 
at Heilbronn in 1^82-83. Consult: Bemage, 
Etude sur Robert Garnier (Paris, 1880) ; My- 
sing, Robert Gamier und die antike Tragodie 
(Leipzig, 1891) : and Komer, Der Versbau Ro- 
bert Garniers (Berlin, 1894). 

GABNIEB-PAGES, gar'nyi' pd'zh^s', Eti- 
ENXE Joseph Louis (1801-41). A French poli- 
tician, born in Marseilles. He was admitted to 
the bar, in 1831 became member for Is^re in the 
Chamber of Deputies, and in 1832 was one of 
the Liberals associated with Odilon Barrot in 
the preparation of the famous Compte rendu, 
in protest against the attitude of the Conserva- 
tive Ministry. His Republicanism, however, was 
never violent, and his reputation was made as 
a prudent and forceful orator on matters of 
public business. 

GABNIEB-PAGES, Louis Antoine (1803- 
78 ) . A French statesman, born in ^Marseilles. 
He was chosen to the Chamber of Deputies in 
1841, to succeed his step-brother, Joseph Louis, 
and took high rank as leader of the opposition 
and a promoter of reform agitation. In February, 
1848, he was made a member of the Provisional 
Government and Mayor of Paris, and in ^larch, 
Minister of Finance. Circumstances forced him to 
extreme measures, of which the most unpopular 
was the celebrated tax of '45 centimes.' In May he 
was one of the executive committee of five appoint- 
ed by the Assembly. In 1864 he was a member of 
the Corps L^gislatif, devoting himself a.s such 
especially to financial matters, and until the fall 
of the Empire had a part in the most important 
acts of the republican opposition. Having been 
reelected in 1869, he vigorously opposed war with 
Prussia, but though a member of the Government 
of National Defense, he played an unimportant 
role, and retired to private life in 1871. He 
published: Histoire de la Revolution dc 18)8 
(10 vols., 1861-72); Histoire de la commission 
executive (1869-72) ; and L*oppo8ition et Vempire 
(1872). 

GABNISHMENT (from garnish, from OF. 
garnir, guaniir, irarnir, Fr. garnir, from OHG. 
warnon, Ger. icarncn, AS. icearnian, Eng. warn). 
A prcxjess by which chattels, rights, or credits 
belonging to the defendant in an action, but 
whicli arc in the possession of a third person, arc 
seized and applied to the plaintiff's claim. The 
peculiarity of the process is indicated by th« 
etymolog;^' of the term; garnishment meaning 
a warning or notice given to the third person 
not to pay money or turn over property to the 



GARNISHMENT. 



122 



GARRARD. 



defendant. It has been called an equitable at- 
tachment of the claims or assets of a defend- 
ant in the hands of a third person. It is 
not a common-law process, and is regulated by 
statute in the States where it exists. Such 
statutes are, as a rule, strictly construed, and 
their requirements must be fully and fairly com- 
, plied with by a plaintiff who would take advan- 
tage of them. It is held that only such property 
in the hands of the third party — the garnishee — 
is liable to this process as is not incumbered with 
trusts, and such as may be handed over or paid 
by the officer executing the process, under the 
order of the court and free from incumbrances, 
which can be properly determined and adjusted 
only by equity tribunals. Garnishment proceed- 
ings reach only such debts as are owing to the 
defendant at tlie time the process is served. A 
judgment obtained in a Federal court cannot be 
garnisheed in an action in a State court. Such 
garnishment would operate to oust the Federal 
court of its proper control over its own judgments. 
Debts owing by a public corporation to the de- 
fendant are not garnishable. If they were, 
municipal authorities might be compelled to oc- 
cupy their time over contests in which the public 
had no interest. It may be laid down as a gen- 
eral rule that a person deriving his authority 
from the law to receive and hold property cannot 
be garnisheed for the same while holding it in 
that capacity. 

As soon as the process of garnishment is duly 
served, the garnishee holds the property as a 
stakeholder or trustee. Accordingly, garnish- 
ment is known in some States as 'trustee process.* 
Consult Rood, Garnishment (1896), and the au- 
thorities referred to under Attachment. 

GARO (ga'r6) or G ARROW HILLS. Moun- 
tains overhanging the valley of the Brahmaputra 
(Map: India, F 3), which give their name to a 
western district of the Hill Division of Assam 
(q.v.), 3150 square miles in area, and reach their 
highest altitude at 4650 feet. The region has 
deep and extensive valleys, well watered and very 
fertile. Dense forests containing valuable sal 
trees, cover the hills, and coal is found in large 
quantities. Population of district, in 1891, 121,- 
570; in 1901, 138,300. .See Garos. 

GAROFALO, g&-ro'fa-lo, Benventuro Tisio 
DA (1481-1559). An Italian painter, bom at 
Garofalo, near Ferrara. He studied under Pa- 
notta at Ferrara, and under Boccaccino at Cre- 
mona, and in 1499 went to Rome, where he be- 
came the pupil of Giovanni Baldini. After this 
ho painted with Lorenzo Costa at Mantua. From 
1509 to 1515 he was in Ferrara with Dosso 
Dossi, and then returned to Rome. Here he was 
an ardent admirer of Raphael. He was then 
called to Ferrara again, and executed for the 
Duke Alphonso I. some of his best paintings, 
such as "The Massacre of the Innocents"; "The 
Resurrection of Lazarus"; and "Christ on the 
Mount of Olives," now in the Church of Saint 
Francis. Until 1550 he painted at Ferrara, but 
many of the frescoes he did at that time have 
been destroyed. For the last nine years of his 
life he was blind. His other works include: 
"Virgin Enthroned," Ferrara Cathedral; "The 
Descent from the Cross," the Brera, ^Milan ; "Na- 
tivity," in the Capitol, Rome; "The Marriage 
at Cana;" the "INIultiplieation of the Loaves." 
in the Palazzo Braschi, Rome; "Virgin and 



Child," in the Hermitage, Saint Petersburg; "The 
Triumph of Bacchus," one of his few mythologi- 
cal subjects, in the Dresden ]Museum ; and "The 
Nativity," in the Doria Gallery, Rome. His 
finest works were executed in the manner of the 
Ferrarese School, to which he afterwards added 
a certain sua^ty, gained probably from his ad- 
miration of Raphael. His coloring is peculiarly 
vivid and attractive, and his pictures are most 
harmoniously composed. 

GARONNE, ga'run' (Lat. Garumna) . The 
principal river in the southwest of France, rising 
within the Spanish frontier in the Val d'Aran, 
at the base of Mount ISIaladetta, in the Pyre- 
nees (Map: France, F 7). About 26 miles from 
its source it enters France in the Department 
of Haute-Garonne, flows in a general northeast 
course to Toulovise, then bends to the north- 
west, joined by the Dordogne about twenty miles 
below Bordeaux, widens into the estuary which 
bears the name of the Gironde, and enters the 
Atlantic at Pointe de Grave, Ocean steamers 
ascend to Bordeaux, and the river is navigable 
beyond Toulouse, Avhich is connected with the 
Mediterranean by the Canal du Midi (q.v.). 
Total length, nearly 400 miles. With its 32 
tributaries, the Garonne drain's an area of about 
38,000 square miles, and forms a system of navi- 
gable waterways of over 1400 miles, which is 
greater than that of any other French river. The 
Garonne is subject to destructive overflows. Dur- 
ing the inundation of 1875 more than 7000 houses 
were destroyed. 

GARONNE, Haute. See Haute-Gabonne. 

GAROS, ga'roz. A people inhabiting the re- 
gion of the Garo Hills in western Assam, India. 
They are said to be related, physically and lin- 
guistically, to the Thai (Burmese, Siamese, etc) 
sitock, but have a considerable Aryan admixture, 
particularly in language. They have many in- 
teresting social customs, among them courtship 
by the woman, bridegroom-capture, etc. Besides 
the article by Godwin-Austen on "The Garo Hill 
Tribes," in the Journxil of the Anthropological In- 
stitute (London), for 1871, reference may be 
made to Dalton, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal 
(Calcutta, 1872). A Bengali-Garo Dictionary 
was published by Ramkhe (1887). 

GAR-PIKE. See Gar. 

GARRARD, gjir-riird', James (1749-1822). 
One of the early Governors of Kentucky. He was 
born in Stafl"ord County, Va,, served as a militia 
officer in the Revolutionary War, and was a 
member of the Virginia Legislature. In 1783 
he removed with the early settlers to Kentucky, 
settling near the present Paris ; and subsequently 
was a member of the convention which framed 
the first Constitution for Kentuckv, and from 
1796 until 1804 was Governor of tlie State. He 
was an active opponent of slavery. 

GARRARD, Kenxer (1828-79). An Ameri- 
can soldier, born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He gradu- 
ated at West Point in 1851, was on frontier 
duty and topographical duty for the most part 
until 1861, was captured in April, 1861, by Texan 
troops, and was on parole until exchanged in 
August, 1862, From September, 1861, to Septem- 
ber, 1862, he was on duty at West Point, first 
as assistant instructor of cavalry, and after- 
wards (December 5, 1861, to September 25, 1862) 
as commandant, with the ex offieio rank of lieu- 



GABEARD. 



123 



GARRETT. 



tenant-colonel. He became a colonel of volunteers 
in September, 1862 ; served in the Rappahannock 
campaign and the Pennsylvania campaign, par- 
ticipating in the battles of Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; was promoted 
to be brigadier-general of volunteers in July, 

1863, and to be major in the regular (cavalry) 
service in November; served in the Rapidan 
campaign from October to December, 1863; 
and from December, 1863, to January, 1864. 
was in charge of the Cavalry Bureau at Wash- 
ington. From February to December, 1864, he 
commanded the Second Cavalry Division of the 
Army of the Cumberland, participating in the 
various operations about Chattanooga and in 
the invasion of Georgia; and from December, 

1864, to July, 18G5, commanded the Second Di- 
vision of the Sixteenth Army Corps, and par- 
ticipated as such in the battle of Nashville, the 
capture of Blakely, and the movement upon 
Montgomeiy. In December, 1864, he was bre- 
vetted major-general of volunteers, and on March 
13, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier-general 
in the regular army, and major-general in the 
regular army. He commanded the District of 
Mobile from August to September, 1865, was 
mustered out of the volunteer service in August, 

1865, acted as assistant inspector-general of the 
Department of the Missouri from March to No- 
vember, 1866, when he resigned from the service, 
and subsequently was a member of the Platting 
Commission of Cincinnati from 1871 to 1879. 
and of the Sewage Commission of the same city 
from 1875 to 1879. 

GARRAUD, ga'ro', Gabriel Joseph (1807- 
80). A French sculptor, born at Dijon. He was 
a pupil of Rude. His works include: "Hercule 
d^livrant PromC'thC'e" (1838); "Une jeune 
vierge avec I'enfant"; "La premiere famille sur 
la terre," in the Luxembourg Gardens; the 
statue of Laplace for the Observatory of Paris; 
and many busts. 

GAR'RA WAY'S COFFEE-HOUSE. A fa- 
mous London coffee-house, in Exchange Alley, 
Cornhill, which existed for over two hundred 
years. It was originally kept by one Gar way, 
a dealer in coffee and tobacco. It is the scene 
of the first tea sales in London, also of the meet- 
ings of the shareholders of the South Sea Scheme, 
and of iiiniiinerable fashionable lotteries, sales, 
and exchanges. 

GAR'RETT, Alexander Charles (1832—). 
An American clergyman of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church, born at Ballymote, County Sligo, 
Ireland. He graduated at Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, in 1855; was curate of East Worldham, 
Hampshire (1850-59) ; and for the next ten years 
served as a missionary in British Columbia. In 
1870 he became rector of Saint James's Church, 
San Francisco, and two years later dean of 
Trinity Cathedral, Omaha. In 1874 he was ap- 
pointed Missionary Bishop of northern Texas, 
and retained the bishopric after the formation 
of the diocese of Dallas. He wrote: A Charge 
to the Clergy and Laity of North Texas (1875) ; 
Historieal Continuity (1875); and the Baldwin 
Leetures on the Philosophy of the Incarnation. 

GARRETT, George Mursell (1834—). An 

Englisli organist and musical composer, born at 

Winchester. He studied under Elvey at Oxford, 

and S. S. Wesley at Winchester; from 1854 to 

Vol. VIII.-9. 



1857 was organist of the Madras (India) Ca- 
thedral, and in the latter year was appointed 
organist of Saint John's College, Cambridge. In 
1875 he became organist to the university. His 
works include The Shunammite, a sacred cantata 
performed in 1882 at the Hereford Festival and 
by the Cambridge University Musical Society; 
church music, services, part-songs, and some com- 
positions for the organ. 

GARRETT, John Work (1820-84). An 
American railroad president, born in Bailtimore. 
After pursuing a course of study in Lafayette 
College he entered, at the age of nineteen, upon 
a business life in a firm with his father and 
brother — Robert Garrett & Sons. He became 
identified with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
as a director in 1857, and as president in 1858, 
and to the development of this system he devoted 
his energies during the remainder of his life. 
Under his administration the line became one 
of the most important means of communication 
between the seaboard and the interior. During 
the Civil War the road, which followed during 
much of its way the Potomac River, was crossed 
and recrossed by the contending armies, and was 
frequently broken by the Confederate forces. But 
the repairs were quickly made, and the road con- 
tinued to be of the greatest service to the United 
States Government in the transportation of 
troops and materials. Mr. Garrett was closely 
associated with Johns Hopkins (founder of the 
vmiversity and the hospital which bear his 
name) . He was one of the original trustees of the 
.Johns Hopkins Hospital and University, and a 
liberal contributor to the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Marjiand Institute, and the 
Association for the Improvement of the Condi- 
tion of the Poor. His son Robert succeeded to 
the presidency of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road in 1884. Consult Scharf's History of Bal- 
timore City and County (Philadelphia, 1881). 

GARRETT, Thomas (1789-1871). An 
American merchant, distinguished as a philan- 
thropist and reformer. He was born in Upper 
Darby, Pa., of Quaker parentage; learned the 
trade of a cutler and scythe-maker, and in 1820 
removed to Wilmington, Del., where he became 
an iron and hardware merchant. Here. also, he 
avowed his anti-slavery opinions without reser\'e, 
and became widely known as the friend of the 
slaves and of negroes generally. His name was 
familiar to the slaves of Delaware. Maryland, 
and Virginia ; and during a period of forty years 
there was a constant procession of fugitives seek- 
ing his protection and aid. It is said that not 
less than 3000 of them were indebted to him 
for their freedom. He was compelled to resort 
to many ingenious devices in his work, but he 
made no secret of the fact that he was engaged 
in it, and such was his reputation for success 
that few slaveholders thought it worth while to 
pursue their runaways any farther after learning 
that they had fallen into his hands. In 1848 he 
was prosecuted by James Bayard (q.v.) before 
Judge Taney (q.v.) ; was finally convicted on 
what appears to have been insufficient evidence 
of having abducted two slave children ; and was 
fined so heavily as to render him penniless. 
His business would have been utterly broken up 
at this time if his fellow-citizens of Wilming- 
ton had not volunteered to furnish him all the 
capital he needed. At the time of his death he 



GARRETT. 



124 



GARRISON. 



was universally beloved by the whites as well 
as the blacks. 

GAR'RICK, David (1717-79). A celebrated 
English actor, long manager of Drury Lane The- 
atre, and the author of numerous comedies. 
Descended on his father's side from a family of 
Huguenot refugees named De la Garrique, he 
was born at Hereford, February 19, 1717, and 
educated at Lichfield, the home of his mother's 
family. During his youth he went to live with 
an uncle, who was a wine merchant in Lisbon, 
but he soon returned to England and became a 
pupil of the famous Dr. Johnson. A few months 
later, in 1736, master and pupil left Lichfield 
together in the hope of improving their fortunes 
in London. Garrick attempted the study of law; 
then for a time he engaged in the wine business; 
but the dramatic instincts which he had shown 
even as a schoolboy proved too strong, and after 
some amateur acting and falling in love with 
the famous Peg Woffington, he made, under an 
assumed name, his dfibut on the stage at Ipswich 
( 1741 ) in a play called Oroonoko. He succeeded 
so well that on October 19th of the same year 
he appeared in London in the character of Rich- 
ard III. After being engaged for the following 
season at Drury Lane, Garrick went in the 
summer of 1742 to Dublin, where he excited the 
Hibernian enthusiasm to an extraordinary de- 
gree. His success in London, however, was not 
without unpleasant incident, for a quarrel arose 
between him and his friend Macklin, which was 
taken up by their partisans, and on one occa- 
sion Garrick's performance had to be given up. 
In 1747 he became one of the patentees of Drury 
Lane. Two years later he married Mile. Violetti, 
an excellent danseuse from Vienna. This seems 
to have alienated some of his company, especially 
of the feminine members, who went over to the 
opposition house, and in 1750 occurred the fa- 
mous rivalry, when Drury Lane and Covent Gar- 
den were each playing Romeo and Juliet, Garrick 
and Mrs. Bellamy at the former and Spranger 
Barry (q.v.) and Mrs. Gibber at the latter, till 
after a dozen nights the town was tired and 
Covent Garden gave up the field. In 17 03 Garrick 
visited the Continent, and made 'the acquaintance 
of Diderot and other noted people. He con- 
ducted in 1769 the memorable jubilee at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon in honor of Shakespeare. To Gar- 
rick seems to belong much of the credit of bring- 
ing back to the stage Shakespeare's plays in their 
original form, in place of the altered versions 
which had commonly been in use since the 
Restoration. During his management also at 
Drury Lane he made an end of the old custom 
of admitting spectators upon the stage, and in- 
troduced other improvements. His own last ap- 
pearance was on June 10, 1776, in The Wonder, 
when at the close of the play he made an affect- 
ing speech of farewell. His health was failing, 
and he died less than three years later, in Lon- 
don, January 20, 1779. He was buried beneath 
the Shakespeare monument in Westminster Ab- 
bey. 

Garrick is regarded as the greatest of English 
actors. He exhibited a Shakespearean universal- 
ity in the representation of character, and was 
equally at home in the highest flights of tragedy 
and the lowest depths of farce. But the natural- 
ness which so distinguished him upon the stage 



often forsook him in real life. He was extremely 
sensitive to ridicule, and had a curious fashion 
of forestalling the malice of the critics by bringing 
out, on occasion, pamphlets of bantering attack 
upon himself. In his financial affairs he was 
considered close, though his generosities were 
many. He left a fortune of about £100,000. He 
was on terms of intimate friendship with John- 
son, Goldsmith, Burke, and other men of letters, 
and was a member with them of the famous "Lit- 
erary Club." As an author he does not rank very 
high, though some of his farces, like The Lying 
Valet and Bon Ton, or High Life Above Stairs, 
have been repeatedly published, and his prologues 
were often extremely ingenious. A collected (par- 
tial) edition of his dramatic works was brought 
out in London in 1768 and again in 1798. Many of 
his letters are preserved in the Forster Collection 
at the South Kensington Museum. On his life 
consult: Knight (London, 1894) ; Fitzgerald 
(ib., 1868); Murphy (Dublin, 1801); Davies 
(London, 1780) ; "Memoires de Garrick," in Bih- 
liotheque de memoires relaiifs a Vhistoire de 
France pendamt le XT II I. siecle, vol. vi. Paris, 
1878); and Boaden (ed.). The Private Corre- 
spondence of David Garrick, with a biographical 
memoir (London, 1832). 

GARRICK CliUB. A famous club in London, 
named in honor of the great actor David Gar- 
rick, It was founded in 1831 for the promotion 
of letters, and especially of the drama, and in 
1864 took up its present headquarters in Gar- 
rick Street. It possesses an important and valu- 
able collection of portraits of celebrated English 
actors, which are shown to members' visitors on 
every Wednesday. Here occurred the controversy 
between Thackeray and Edmund Yates, which 
brought about the estrangement between the for- 
mer and Dickens. 

GARRISON, Wendell Piiilltps (1840—). 
An American editor and author, born at Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass. He graduated at Harvard in 
1861, and was appointed literary editor of the 
Nation, of New York, in 1865. In addition to 
contributions to periodicals, he has published: 
What Mr. Darwin Saw on His Voyage Around the 
World (1879); with F. J. Garrison, a Life of 
William Lloyd Garrison (4 vols., 1885) ; Para- 
hles for School and Home (1897); The Neiv 
Gulliver (1898) ; and other works. 

GAR'RISON, William Lloyd (1805-79). The 
leader of the radical Abolitionists in the anti- 
slavery struggle in the United States. He was 
born at Newburyport, Mass., December 10, 1805. 
As an apprentice in the Newbur^^port Herald 
office (1818-25) he became an expert printer, 
and, while yet a boy, foreman, and contributor 
to that and other newspapers; and in 1826 was 
editor of the Newburyport Free Press. Soon 
afterwards, as a journeyman in Boston, he met 
and was deeply influenced by Benjamin Lundy 
(q.v.), a pioneer Abolitionist. After a year spent 
in editing the National Philanthropist, a Boston 
temperance paper, and the Journal of the Times, 
at Bennington, Vt., lie joined Lundy at Balti- 
more, in Septemlier, 1829, in conducting the 
Genius of Universal Emancipation. The views of 
the two associates differed widely, for Lundy 
favored gradual abolition and colonization, which 
Garrison opposed. This phase of activity was 
short-lived, for editorials urging immediate eman- 
cipation presently repelled subscribers. The pub- 



GARRISON. 



125 



GARROTE. 



lie mind, however, long indifferent to the evils of 
slavery, began to be aroused, though the agitation 
found foes more readily than friends. In April, 
1830, Garrison was convicted of libel. After 
seven weeks in jail his fine was paid by Arthur 
Tappan, of New York, and the reformer turned 
to lecturing in Northern cities with a vehemence 
and fire not previously brought to this task. 
From this time dates the birth of a public senti- 
ment which was to make slow headway against 
difficulties and opposition, and finally to triumph 
through a civil war. 

In January, 1831, appeared in Boston the 
Liberator, a small sheets soon to be enlarged and 
conducted weekly by Garrison till the end of 
1865. The first number gave its keynote: "I 
will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising 
as justice. On this subject I do not wish to 
think, or speak, or write with moderation." Such 
a tone compelled attention, and the editor was 
widely denounced as a 'wild enthusiast,' as a 
'fanatic,' and as a 'public enemy.' Apathy gave 
place to excitement, in the North as well as 
in the South. Hundreds of letters threatened 
Garrison's life; in December, 1831, Georgia of- 
fered $5000 for his arrest and prosecution, and 
on October 21, 1835, a mob, led or incited hj 
reputable Bostonians, broke up one of his meet- 
ings, and dragged him through the streets un- 
til he was rescued with difficulty by the police, 
who placed him in jail to insure his safety. In 
January, 1832, Garrison, with eleven associates, 
founded the New England Anti-Slavery Society, 
the parent of similar organizations. In this 
year he published Thoughts on African Coloni- 
zation, denouncing that futile scheme of the mod- 
erate opponents of slavery. In 1833 he went to 
England to confer with the British emancipators, 
and on his return supplied a platform for the 
American Anti- Slavery Society, founded in De- 
cember of that year in Philadelphia. Of this he 
was president from 1843 to 18G5. He was again 
in England in 1840 and 1846. Meanwhile the 
American Abolitionists divided. The moderate 
wing, which favored political action and objected 
to participation of women in their meetings, 
parted from their former comrades in 1840, and 
contributed to form the Liberty and Free-Soil 
parties. The extremists, who obtained or soon 
gained control of the societies, were more logical 
in disregarding the distinction of sex no less than 
that of color, and more 'thorough' in disowning 
a Government which acknowledged and protected 
'the sin' of human bondage. In 1840 Garrison 
denounced the United States Constitution, to the 
liorror of most, as "a covenant with death and 
nn agreement with hell." He hailed the seces- 
Mon of South Carolina and the gims fired on 
I'^ort Sumter as the end of 'the pro-slavery Union.* 
Many wrought with him in urging the Pres- 
ident to recognize the situation as it was. 
With the Proclamation of Emancipation their 
triumph came, and with the end of the war 
their leader's occupation was gone. With other 
eminent guests of the Government he saw the 
fiag replaced over Sumter. No longer a lone- 
ly protagonist, his age was provided for in 1868 
by a 'national teBtimonial,' through admirers 
of his altruistic labors, and his last years 
were spent in less arduous journalistic and re- 
forming services, with honor at home and abroad. 
He died in New York, May 24, 1879. Of his 
Sonnets and Other Poems (1843), some had 



been penciled on the walls of his Baltimore cell 
in 1830. Selections from his writings and 
speeches appeared in 1852. Consult: The ex- 
haustive biography by his sons, \S\ P. and F. J. 
Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-79: 
the Story of His Life Told by His Children (4 
vols.. New York, 1885-89), and an essay by Gold- 
win Smith, The Moral Crusader, William Lloyd 
Garrison (New York, 1892). 

GARRISON COURTS MARTIAL. See 
Courts, Military. 

GARROD, gar'rod, Sir Alfred Baring (1819 
— ) . An English physician, born at Ipswich. He 
studied at University College and the University 
of London; was appointed assistant physician 
at University College Hospital in 1847, and in 
1851 physician, and professor of therapeutics and 
clinical medicine. In 1863 he was appointed 
physician, in 1874 consulting physician to King's 
College Hospital, and in the former year also 
became a professor in the college. He was. 
elected in 1856 a fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians, and its vice-president in 1888. In 
1858 he became a fellow of the Royal Society 
of Great Britain, and in 1896 physician extraor- 
dinary to Queen Victoria. His researches have 
been connected principally with the pathology 
of gout and rheumatic gout, or rheumatoid ar- 
thritis, on whose nature and treatment he pub- 
lished in 1860 a valuable work. He introduced 
lithia as a remedy for gout. He wrote also The 
Essentials of Materia Medica- mid Therapeutics 
(1885; many subsequent editions), which became 
authoritative on the subject, and has been much 
used for text-book purposes. 

GARROD, Alfred Henry (1846-79). An 
English zoologist. He was born in London, stud- 
ied there at University and King's Colleges, in 
1871 was elected prosector to the Zoological So- 
ciety of London, and in 1873 a fellow of Saint 
John's, Cambridge. From 1874 until his death 
he was professor of comparative anatomy at 
King's College, London, in 1875 was appointed 
professor of physiology- at the Royal Institution 
of Groat Britain, and in 1876 was elected a fel- 
low of the Roj'al Society. His zoological studies 
wore of high value, in particular those connected 
with the anatomy of birds, in which department 
he was a recognized authority. His publications 
include an edition (1879) of a monograph by 
Johannes Mtiller (q.v.), the physiologist of Ber- 
lin, on the vocal organs of passerine birds, and 
numerous papers collected and edited by W^. H. 
Forbes (1881). 

GARROT. The golden-eye duck (see Golden- 
eye) ; a French name used in English books. 
Consult Ne\\'ton, Dictionary of Birds (London, 
1893). 

GARROTE, gftr-rot' (Sp., stick). A mode of 
execution practiced in Spain. Originally it con- 
sisted in simply placing a cord round the neck 
of a criminal, who was seated on a chair fixed 
to a post, and then twisting the cord by means 
of a stick inserted between the rope and the 
back of the neck till strangulation was pro- 
duced. Later a brass collar was used, worked by 
a screw. To such condemned persons as recanted 
the Inquisitors granted as a favor this mode of 
strangulation before they were burned. If the 
executioner was unskillful, however, the pain 
was sonu'tinies very great. Garroting is also the 



GARROTE. 



126 



GARTER-SNAKE. 



name given to a species of robbery in which the 
highwaymen suddenly come behind their victim, 
and throwing a cord, or handkerchief, or some- 
thing of the sort round his neck, produce tem- 
porary strangulation till their purpose is eflfected. 

GAR'ROW H3XLS. See Gaeo Hills. 

GARRUCCI, gar-roo'che, Raffaele (1812- 
85). A Roman Catholic archaeologist. He was 
born January 23, 1812, became a Jesuit 1826, 
and after de Rossi was the greatest explorer of 
the catacombs of Rome. He died at Rome May 5, 
1885. Of his numerous writings the masterpiece 
13 Storia delV arte Christiana nei primi otto secoli 
della chiesa (1872-81). 

GARRU'PA. A fish. See Grouper. 

GARSHIN", gar'sh^n, Vsyevolod Mikhailo- 
VITCH (1855-88). A Russian author, born in the 
Government of Yekaterinoslav. On graduating 
from a Saint Petersburg gymnasium in 1874 he 
entered the School for Mining Engineers, but left 
it to enroll as a volunteer in the army sent to 
Turkey in 1877. He based his powerful story 
Four Days on an incident that occurred after 
the first skirmish. The story itself, and the 
Turgenieff-like mastery of detail and story-tell- 
ing, all combined to produce a sensation. A series 
of stories of about twenty-five to fifty pages fol- 
lowed, each increasing his popularity and fame; 
but in 1880 the mental malady which had al- 
ready attacked him broke out anew, and nearly 
two years was spent in sanitariums and out-of- 
the-way villages to recuperate. In 1883 Garshin 
again resumed his literary work, was appointed 
secretary to the Railroad Congress, and married 
a physician. His frail constitution needed all 
the care she bestowed on him, and his health 
improved, but in 1888, in a fit of insanity, he 
killed himself. In all his sketches there is a 
noticeable lack of the epic element ; the outward 
description of his personages is utterly neglected 
in the exposition of the labyrinth of conflicting 
emotions and feelings. But as psychological stud- 
ies, his sketches, mostly dealing with moral and 
social questions in the manner of Tolstoy, are 
the nearest approach to the latter's mastery. His 
works, in three volumes, were in the ninth edition 
in 1899. Most of them have been translated into 
German, French, and English. 

GAR'STON". A town and port of Lancashire, 
England, on the Mersey estuary, five and a half 
miles southeast of Liverpool (Map: England, 
D 3 ) . It has a large coal-shipping trade, its two 
docks belonging to the port of Liverpool. The 
town maintains parks, recreation grounds, isola- 
tion hospital, and has planned a series of modem 
improvements in electric lighting, public offices, 
technical schools, and free library. Population, 
in 1891, 13,400; in 1901, 17,300. 

GARTER, Order of the. The highest Order 
of chivalry in Great Britain, The Order of the 
Garter was instituted by King Edward III., and 
though not the most ancient is one of the most 
famous of the chivalrous Orders of Europe. The 
original number of the knights of the Garter 
was twenty-five, the Sovereign himself making 
the twenty-sixth. The story goes that the Coun- 
tess of Salisbury let fall her garter while dancing 
with the King, and that the King stooped quick- 
ly to pick it up. This occasioned some indelicate 
jokes which caused the Countess to withdraw. 
The King exclaimed angrily, Honi soit qui mal 



y pense, "Shame to him who evil thinks," and 
added that he would make this blue ribbon so 
glorious that all the courtiers would desire it. 
This story has absolutely no foundation in fact. 
Edward had formed the plan for the Order in 
1344 and instituted it on April 23, 1349. It 
was founded in honor of the Holy Trinity, the 
Virgin Mary, Saint Edward the Confessor, and 
Saint George; but the last, who had become the 
tutelary saint of England, was considered its 
special patron, and for this reason it has borne 
the title of 'The Order of Saint George' as well 
as of 'The Garter.' A list of the original knights 
or knights founders is given by Sir Harris Nico- 
las. The Order was reorganized in 1831, when 
the number of knight companions was left at 
twenty-five, but the membership extended to in- 
clude the Prince of Wales, and such descendants 
of George I. and foreign sovereigns as might 
be chosen. The emblem of the Order is a dark 
blue ribbon edged with gold, bearing the motto, 
Honi soit qui mal y pense, in gold letters. It 
is worn on the left leg below the knee. The 
Grand Master is always the monarch of England. 
The number in the Order is at present about fifty. 
The officers are the prelate (the Bishop of Win- 
chester), the chancellor (the Bishop of Oxford), 
the registrar (the Dean of Windsor), the Garter 
King-of-Arms (q.v.), and the Gentleman Usher 
of the Black Rod. Consult Nicolas, History of 
British Orders of Knighthood (London, 1841-42). 
See Orders. 

GARTER KING-OF-ARMS. An officer of 
the Order of the Garter and the chief heraldic 
authority in England. The office was instituted 
by Henry V., with the advice and consent of the 
knight companions. The duties of the Garter are 
to attend upon the knights at their solemnities; 
to inform those chosen to the Order of their elec- 
tion, and to summon them to the installation; 
to marshal funeral processions; to assign lords 
to their places in Parliament; and to be the 
executive officer of the King for the Order. The 
Garter is also the principal king-of-arms, taking 
precedence over the other three kings-of-arms in 
England. He is a member of the 'Heralds' Col- 
lege,' or 'College of Arms,' of which the Earl 
Marshal is the head. The Garter grants and 
confirms arms under the authority of the Earl 
Marshal, but as Garter King-of-Arms he is inde- 
pendent of him. See Heralds' College. 

GARTER-SNAKE (so-called from its color- 
stripes ) . An elastic name given in North America 
to any of various small snakes, but properly ap- 
plied to striped species of the genus Eut«nia, 
which includes those most often seen of all our 
serpents. The genus is widespread, and contains, 
according to Cope, twenty-four species north of 
the Isthmus of Panama. Several of these are 
very slender, mainly green with lighter stripes, 
and are popularly distinguished as ribbon- 
snakes (q.v.). One Oregon species is black, and 
some semi-tropical species have the stripes broken 
so as to form series of spots or cross-bars. The 
best-known species is the ordinary garter-snake 
(Eutcenia sirtalis) , which is distributed over the 
whole United States, Southern Canada, and the 
lowlands of Mexico and Guatemala. Throughout 
this large area it presents a wide series of 
variations which have been distinguished by 
Cope, Annual Report of the United States Na- 



QAHTER-SNAKE. 



127 



GARTNER. 



tional Museum (Washington, 1898), as eleven 
sub-species, but his distinctions are difficult to 
follow. 

The length of the garter-snake when fairly 
grown is about three feet, of which from one- 
fourth to one-fifth belongs to the tail. As a 
species it is the most widely distributed and 
most numerous in individuals of any of our ser- 
pents, except in the Western arid regions. This 
is due to its extreme fecundity, to its agility and 
ingenuity in pursuit of food or in escape from 
danger, and to its willingness to fight off assail- 
ants. It is to be found in all sorts of situations, 
but is partial to grassy meadows and to the bor- 
ders of streams, where the frogs, toads, fish, mice, 
and shrews upon which it mainly feeds are nu- 
merous; and it takes to water willingly and 
swims well. Some other species of the genus 
are almost habitually water-snakes. All garter- 
snakes are able to climb well, wriggling easily 
up a rough tree-trunk, a wall of brick, or of 
rough boards, and they search the bushes for eggs 
and young birds in the spring, but rarely climb 
high.* They are bold in coming about gardens 
and village streets, but enter cellars, dairies, and 
chicken-houses less often than do some larger 
serpents, such as the milk-snake. All garter- 
snakes retain the eggs in the oviduct of the 
mother until they hatch and the embryos have 
reached a length of 5% to 7 inches, when they are 
extruded, from 25 to 75 being produced (late in 
summer) by a single female; but when so many 
are born some will be small or even confined with- 
in the egg-covering when pressed from the vent. 
These young are able at once to take care of them- 
selves, and will struggle vigorously for earth- 
worms, etc. They remain together, and are watched 
and protected by the mother, who will brave for- 
midable perils in her anxiety for their welfare. 
It has been asserted rei)eatedly by credible wit- 
nesses that she receives them into her mouth and 
throat for temporary refuge from danger, whence 
they emerge as soon as possible. The Courage 
and pugnacity of this snake are familiar facts; 
it is the only one of our common snakes that will 
ever come toward a man with threatening de- 
meanor when attacked. Its bite is quite harm- 
less so far as poison is concerned, but its strength 
and weasel-like courage make it a successful 
antagonist of many animals whose size would 
seem to give them immunity. It is itself, how- 
ever, the favorite prey of the blacksnake, copper- 
head, and of many reptile-hunting birds and 
mammals. On the approach of cold weather 
these snakes seek some opening in the ground, 
creep as far in as practicable, and become dor- 
mant, emerging, however, rather earlier in the 
spring than most other serpents. In the West 
the burrows of ground-squirrels, badgers, etc., are 
favorite hibernacula ; and in these retreats great 
numbers of the snakes often gather and entangle 
themselves into a ball of sleeping serpents — a 
practice induced, probably, by sexual impulses, as 
well as by a desire for mutual comfort. 

In addition to the common and variable gar- 
ter-snake (Eutccnia sirtalis) there occurs nu- 
merously in the Eastern United States the rib- 
bon-snake (q.v.). Florida has a local species 
(EutcF)iia Sackcuii) ; and the Mississippi Valley 
and plains region possess a local species (Euf(B- 
uia rcdix), wliich is peculiar in its fondness for 
water and a fish diet. In the central region and 



on the Pacific Coast is found another species 
{Eutwnia elegans) , which exhibits many varia- 
tions of color, and has habits similar to the 
Eastern form. Finally, many species belong to 
Mexico and Central America. See Snake. 

GARTH, Caleb. A character in George 
Eliot's novel Middlemarch, a man of great physi- 
cal strength and distinguished for his integrity 
and shrewdness, probably dra\vn from Robert 
Evans, the author's father. 

GARTH, Sir Samuel (1661-1719). An Eng- 
lish physician and poet. He was born at Bow- 
land Forest, Yorkshire, in 1661, was educated at 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, and studied medicine at 
Leyden. Obtaining the degree of M.D. from 
Cambridge in 1691, he settled in London, where 
he was elected a fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians (1693), and was soon recognized as a wit 
and conversationalist. He was knighted in 1714, 
and appointed physician-in-ordinary to George I. 
and physician-general to the army. He died Jan- 
uary 18, 1719. Garth gained deserved fame in his 
own time for a satirical poem entitled "The Dis- 
pensary" ( 1699) , in which he ridiculed those phy- 
sicians, who opposed his plan for establishing a free 
dispensary for poor people. He also published 
"Claremont" (1715), a descriptive poem in im- 
itation of Denham's "Cooper's Hill," and two 
years later contributed to a translation of Ovid's 
Metamorphoses. He was much admired by Pope 
and others. His verse is smooth but monotonous. 
Consult the sketch of Garth in Johnson's Lives 
of the Poets (London, 1854), and Chalmers, 
Works of the English PoetSy vol. ix. (London, 
1810). 

GXRTNER, gert'n5r, Feiedrich ( 1824- ) . A 
German architectural painter, bom in Munich, 
the son of the architect Friedrich von Giirtner, 
with whom he went to Athens in 1840. After 
his return he studied at the Academy and under 
Simonsen, of Copenhagen, then in Paris (1846) 
under Claude Jacquand ; visited Spain and Mo- 
rocco in 1848, lived again in Paris, in 1851-57, 
and settled in Munich, where two of his paint- 
ings, "Interior of a Moorish House" and "Court 
of a Monastery by Moonlight" (1846), are in the 
New Pinakotliek. 

GXRTNER, g^rt'ner, Friedrich von (1792- 
1847). A distinguished German architect, bom 
at Coblenz. His father, also an architect, re- 
moved in 1804 to Munich, where young Giirtner 
received his first education in architecture. To 
complete that education, he went in 1812 to 
Paris, where he studied under Percior, and in 
1814 to Italy, where he spent four .years in the 
earnest study of antiquities. The fruits of this 
labor appeared in 1819 in some views accom- 
panied by descriptions of the principal monu- 
ments of Sicily {Ansichten dcr am meifitcn er- 
haltenen Monumcnte Sicilicns). After a visit 
to England he was called, in 1820, to the chair 
of architecture in the Academy of Munich. With 
this appointment began his work as a practical 
architect. Many of the architectural master- 
pieces of ^Munich, and various other buildings 
throughout Germany, as well as the new royal 
palace at Athens (1836). are built after his 
plans. Among his Munich buildings are the Lud- 
wigskirche, the Feldherrn-Halle. the Library. I'ni- 
versity. and the Wittelsbacher Palace (1831-44). 
In the style of his works, which have all a com- 
mon impress, Giirtner represents the Renaissance 



GARTNER. 



128 



GAS. 



of mediaeval architecture in its Romanesque form. 
It was thus peculiarly appropriate that he should 
have charge of the restoration of the mediaeval 
cathedrals of Speier, Regensburg, and Bamberg. 
Gartner became head Government surveyor of 
buildings and director of the Academy of Arts 
in Munich, 

GXrTNER, Heinrich (1828— ). A German 
landscape painter, born at Neustrelitz. He was a 
pupil of F. W. Schirmer in Berlin, and of Lud- 
wig Richter in Dresden, whence he went to Rome 
to study the old masters, and there was also 
much influenced by Cornelius, He became favor- 
ably known after his return to Germany, through 
several decorative cycles, executed in private 
houses and villas, and was commissioned to paint 
some of the mural decorations in the new Court 
Theatre at Dresden, and after that the encaustic 
paintings in the Hall of Sculptures in the Leip- 
2ig Museum (1879), Three great landscape com- 
positions by him (1883-85) adorn the staircase of 
the Agricultural Museum in Berlin. Of his oil 
paintings there is a "Landscape with the Return 
of the Prodigal Son" in the Leipzig Museum, and 
one with "Adam, Eve, Cain, and Abel" in the 
Dresden Gallery. 

GARTNER, Joseph (1732-91). A German 
botanist. He was born at Kalw ( Wtirttemberg) , 
studied at Tubingen and Gottingen, and after 
extensive travel was, in 1761, appointed profes- 
sor of anatomy at the former university. From 
1768 to 1770 he was professor of natural history 
and director of the botanical garden and the 
natural history collection at the University of 
Saint Petersburg, His most important work is 
De Fructihus et Seminihus Plantarum ( 1 788- 
91), which, by its minutely accurate descrip- 
tions, comprising a thousand and more species, 
introduced a new era in plant morphology. The 
scientific value of the book was much increased 
by the addition of 180 copper-plate engravings. 

GARTSHER'RIE. A former village in La- 
narkshire, Scotland, on the Caledonian Rail- 
way, two and one-half miles west-northwest 
of Airdrie (Map: Scotland, D 4). In 1871 it 
had 2000 inhabitants. The establishment of 
extensive iron-works, noted for the quality of 
their product, developed a prosperous town, 
which was incorporated with Coatbridge (q.v,) 
in 1885. 

GARVE, gar've. Christian (1742-98), A 
German philosopher. He was born at Breslau, 
studied at the universities of Frankfort-on-the- 
Oder and Halle, in 1769 succeeded Gellort as 
professor of philosophy at Leipzig, but in 1772 
was obliged by ill health to retire. His writings 
did much toward the popularization of philos- 
ophy in Germany. His work was highly valued 
by Kant, and by Frederick II, , who bestowed 
upon him a pension of 200 thalers and re- 
quested him to prepare a translation (1783; 
6th ed, 1819) )f Ciceit)'s De Officiis. Garve eu- 
logized the King in the Fragmente zur fichilde- 
rung des Oeistefi, Chnrakters und der Regierung 
Friedrichs II. (1798), Among his further pub- 
lications are a collection of essays. Ueher ver- 
schiedene GegensMndc aus der Moral, der I.ittera- 
tur nnd dem gesellschaftlichen Ijehen ( 1792- 
1802), and translations (1798-1801, 1799-1802) 
of the ''UdiKd and XToXtrt/cd of Aristotle. 

GAS. See IVIatter, Properties of. 



GAS (popularly supposed to have been invent- 
ed by the Belgian chemist Helmont, influenced 
by Dutch gest, spirit, but according to his own 
statement derived by him from Gk, x<^oSj chaos, 
chaos, the Dutch g being pronounced much like 
the Gk. X' c/i) , Illuminating, A term applied to 
any mixture of combustible gases that may be 
used as an illuminant. The raw materials which 
have been employed for making such gas include a 
variety of substances rich in carbon and hydro- 
gen, such as bituminous coal, wood, resin, oils 
and fats, and petroleum. When subjected to 
destructive distillation these substances yield 
water, tar, gas, and a residue of coke or char- 
coal. The principal sources of illuminating gas 
are, however, bituminous coal and petroleum. 
Cannel coal is used to a certain extent as an 
enricher or means of increasing the illuminating 
value, but has been largely superseded for this 
purpose by petroleum. As commercially sup- 
plied, illuminating gas is of two kinds, coal-gas 
and carbureted water-^as. 

COAL-GAS. 

Coal-gas is the gas produced by the destructive 
distillation of bituminous coal. 

History. The existence of inflammable gases 
issuing from the earth has been known from very 
early times. In 1659 Thomas Shirley communi- 
cated to the Royal Society a paper describing 
experiments on a gas issuing from a well near 
Wigan in Lancashire, and resulting in his opinion 
from the decomposition of coal, Dr, John Clay- 
ton, in a. paper presented to the same society, 
in 1739, described the production of a similar 
gas from coal heated in a closed vessel. It 
was not, however, until 1792 that the practical 
value of coal-gas as an illuminant was demon- 
strated by William Murdoch, a Scotchman, who 
constructed apparatus by which he lighted his 
home and office in Redruth, Cornwall. In 1798 
he moved to Soho, and introduced the illuminant 
in the Soho foundry. The experiment proved 
highly ' successful, and the plant was soon en- 
larged so as to give light to the principal shops 
in the vicinity. In 1805 Murdoch introduced 
gas in the cotton-mills in Manchester, Mean- 
while, Lebon had used coal-gas in his home in 
Paris in 1799, and his experiments attracted the 
attention of Winsor, the 'father of modern gas 
lighting,' who, on his return to England soon 
after, urged the use of coal-gas for general 
illumination. In consequence of his agitation, 
various buildings in London were lighted by this 
means, but it Avas not until 1810 that he secured 
the incorporation of the Gas Light and Coke 
Company, and even then the Royal charter was 
not granted until 1812, Westminster Bridge in 
London was first lighted by gas in 1813, and in 
1815 Guildhall was similarly illuminated. As 
a street illuminant, gas was first introduced in 
Saint Margaret's parish in London. Paris was 
lighted in 1820, and thereafter the use of gaa 
for street illumination was gradually extended 
throughout the Continent. In the United States 
the use of illuminating gas was agitated as 
early as 1812; it was successfully introduced in 
Baltimore in 1821, in Boston in 1822, in New 
York gradually between 1823 and 1827. 

The Coal. A good gas-coal should contain 
only a small percentage of ash and sulphur, and 
should yield, upon distillation, a comparatively 
large percentage of volatile matter of good illu- 



GAS. 



129 



GAS. 



ininating value^ and a good coke amounting to are of varying dimensions, a very common size 
from 55 per cent, to 65 per cent, of the original for the United States being 16" 'x 26" X 9' in- 
weight of the coal. A gas-coal showing the fol- side, and are set in groups of from three to 
lowing analysis by weight may be considered as nine, there being usually six in a group. The 
the standard for the United States: Volatile 
matter, 33 per cent, to 35 per cent. ; fixed carbon, 
55 per cent, to 60 per cent.; ash, 4 per cent. 





frim. 



FlO. 1. COAL-OA8 RETORT, WITH DIRECT-FIRE FURNACE. 



FlO. 2. CR088-8ECTIOX OP HYDRAULIC MAIN. 

furnaces by which these groups are heated are 
of two kinds — direct fire and generator. In the 
former the carbon of the fuel is burned directl\' 
to carbonic acid., while in the latter the com- 
bustion of the carbon is performed in two stages, 
the first taking place in the furnace proper and 
forming carbonic oxide, which is burned in the 
second stage to carbonic acid, this secondary com- 
bustion taking place between the retorts. The 
use of generator furnaces results in greater 



to 6 per cent.; sulphur, 0.4 per cent, to 0.6 per 
cent. A pound of such coal will yield, upon 
distillation, about five cubic feet of gas, possess- 
ing an illuminating value of from 15 to 17 candle economy of fuel and the attaining of a higher 
power when burned in an Argand burner. temperature in the retorts than is possible with 

Under proper conditions, a 
falling off in any direction may Wafer K/ 

compensate for a proportionate a c t lo^ '-'-j— 

betterment in another. Thus ;'^as mier 

an extra amount of sulphur 
may be offset by an increased 
yield of gas, or a harder, better 
coke. Comparative cheapness 
of price may also turn the scale 
in favor of an otherwise in- 
ferior local coal. Good gas- 
coals of practically the above 
composition are found in Penn- 
sylvania, in the Pittsburg 
fields; in West Virginia, in the 
West Virginia and Kanawha 
fields; and also in Tennessee, 
Indian Territory, and Colorado; 
while others not so good are 
found in Alabama, Kansas, and 
Washington. In Eurojw the 

coal-fields of England furnisli ^ ^ 

the best gas-coals, these English ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ W/MmWM 
coals be^ng of very nearly the p,„ 3 HErrioN and elkvatiom op rotary oas schubbkr. 

composition given above, e.\ce])t 




that they contain less ash, but more sulphur. 

Apparatus. The distillation of the coal is 
carried on in closed retorts, heated by suitable 
furnaces. Originally made of cast-iron and cir- 
cular in cross-section, these retorts are now made 
of fire-clay and are oval or D-shaped. They 



direct- fire furnaces, both of which advantages 
are secured to a still greater degree by the use 
of recuperators, in which the heat of the out- 
going products of combustion is transferred to 
the incoming air. The retorts are either set 
horizontally, or, as has l>een done to a great 



GAS. 



130 



GAS. 



extent in Europe during the last few years, at 
an angle of from 29° to 32° to the horizontal. 
The object of this inclination is to permit the 
charging of the coal into^ and the discharging 
of the coke from, the retorts to be performed 
by gravity instead of by manual labor or by ma- 
chinery, as is necessary when they are set horizon- 
tally. The comparative merits and economy of 
inclined retorts and horizontal retorts charged 
and drawn by machinery is a matter that is 
being actively discussed by gas engineers in all 
countries. In large gas-works coal and coke 
handling machinery is employed, sometimes to 
such an extent that the coal is unloaded from 
the cars or vessels in which it is brought to 
the gas-works, transported to the retort-house, 
and charged into the retorts, and the coke drawn, 
carried to the yard, and stacked or loaded for 
sale without being touched by hand. Retorts 
of the size mentioned will take charges of from 
250 to 350 pounds of coal, according to the 
degree to which they are heated. 

To the open end of each of the retorts is 
bolted a cast-iron mouthpiece, of the same cross- 
section as the retort, and from 14 to 16 inches 
long. On the outer end of the mouthpiece is 
hinged, so that it can be readily opened and 
closed, a cast-iron or steel lid, which, Avhen 
closed, makes a gas-tight joint with the face 
of the mouthpiece. On the side of the mouth- 
piece a bell is provided, into which is inserted 
the lower end of the standpipe, or pipe through 
which the gas passes away from the retort. On 
the top of the standpipe is a bridge or arch 
pipe, from which hangs a dip-pipe, which is 
bolted to the hydraulic main (a large pipe gen- 
erally U-shaped;, and made of steel ) , and passing 
down into this main dips below the surface of 
the ammoniacal liquor, with which the hydraulic 
main is partly filled, and by being thus sealed 
prevents the return of any gas to the retort 
when it is open for drawing and charging. 

From the hydraulic main the gas passes to the 
exhauster, a rotary pump driven by a steam- 
engine, employed to relieve the retorts of the 
pressure thrown by the weight of the gas-holders 
and the friction encountered b.y the gas as it 
passes through the apparatus. It then goes into 
a tar-extractor, in which the gas is subjected 
to friction and impact for the removal of such 
of the heavy tar as has not been condensed out 
in the hydraulic main. After the removal of the 
tar, which should be effected at a temperature 
not lower than 100° F., the gas is cooled in 
the condensers to a temperature of about 50° 
to 60° F. These condensers may be either at- 
mospheric condensers or water-condensers, the 
atmospheric condensers employing air, and the 
concentric steel shells, forming an annular gas 
space exposed to air on both the inner and outer 
circumferences, and are used to perform the first 
part of the cooling, which is completed by the 
water-condensers, these being somewhat similar 
in construction to a tubular boiler, the water 
passing through the tubes in one direction, while 
the gas passes outside of them in the opposite 
direction. 

Having been cooled, the gas passes to the 
washers and scrubbers for the removal of the 
ammonia gas which it still contains. In" the 
washer the gas is caused to bubble through 
water, while in the- scrubber it is caused to 



pass in thin streams over wetted surfaces, the 
object in each case being to expose the gas 
to intimate contact with water. Scrubbers are 
of two general types — tower scrubbers, vertical 
steel cylinders filled with bundles of thin boards 
which are wet by water caused to flow over them 
by the force of gravity, and rotary scrubbers, 
fitted with bundles of wooden rods mounted on 
a horizontal shaft and kept wet by being rotated 
through the water or ammoniacal liquor, with 
which the lower part of the scrubber is kept 
filled. 

From the scrubber the gas passes to the puri- 
fiers. These are usually four in number, and 
the gas passes through three of them consecu- 
tively, while the fourth is cut out for cleaning 
and refilling. They are cast-iron boxes with open 
tops, which are closed by means of removable 
covers made of light steel plates. When in 
place over the boxes the sides of these covers 
are sealed in water contained in 'cups' cast on 
the sides of the boxes, and the escape of gas 
is thus prevented. The purifiers are filled with 
one or more layers of slaked lime or oxide of 
iron, the latter being the most commonly used 
in the United States. 

From the purifiers the gas passes to the 
station meter, where it is measured by means of 
a drum divided into either three or four com- 
partments. The meter is partly filled with 
water and the inlets and outlets to the diff'erent 
compartments are so arranged in connection with 
this water that gas cannot simultaneously enter 
and leave a compartment. The pressure of the 
gas causes the drum, which is mounted on a 
sliaft, to revolve so that each compartment is 
alternately filled and emptied; and since each is 
filled with a definite volume of gas, the volume 
of gas passing through the meter is accurately 
measured, and is recorded by suitable mecha- 
nism. 

After passing through the station meter the 
gas is conveyed to the gas-holder, a cylindrical 
vessel open at the bottom, but closed on top, 
made of steel sheets. The lower edge of the 
gas-holder is always kept sealed in water con- 
tained in a masonry or steel tank, in which 
the holder is free to rise and fall, being so 
guided in the tank and along columns rising 
above the tank as to move freely up and down 
while being prevented from tilting. The guiding 
is performed by rollers or wheels attached at 
equal distances around the top and bottom of 
the cylinder, and in the case of telescopic 
holders at the top and bottom of each of the 
sections, working against rails or channel irons 
fastened to tlie inside of the tank wall and of the 
columns. All large gas-holders are telescopic, 
that is, are made with one or more outer sections, 
which are merely rings, in addition to the inner 
section closed on top. At the bottom of each of 
the sections, except the outermost, is a *cup,' an 
annular trough having its inner side formed by 
the bottom course of the section, its bottom by 
a channel iron, and its outer side by a course 
of slieets riveted to the outer edge of the channel 
iron. At the top of each of the outer sections 
is fastened a *grip,' which is a cup turned upside 
down. Gas is admitted to and draAMi from the 
holder by pipes passing do^n on the outside of 
the tank imdcr and through its foundation, and 
up on the inside to a point above the water- 



GAS. 



131 



GAS. 



level. When gas is admitted it enters the space 
between the closed top, or crown, and the water 
in the tank. As it continues to enter, the pres- 
sure increases until it is sufficient to overcome 
the weight of the holder, which then begins to 
rise and continues to do so as long as gas is 
entering faster than it is passing out. When 
the inner section is completely filled with gas 
the cup filled with water engages the grip of 
the next section, and as gas continues to flow 
into the holder, raises this section, the water in 
the cup forming a seal which prevents the escape 
of any gas. When the holder descends the outer 
section lands on the bottom of the tank, and, 
the inner section continuing to go down, the 
cup and grip separate. The columns, by which 
the holder is guided and prevented from tilting 
as it rises above the tank, are built up of 
structural steel and are connected together at 
the top and intermediate points by girders, and 
also by diagonal ties, so that the whole of the 
guide framing is bound together into what is 
practically a rigid cylinder. Originally built in 
very small sizes, and with only a single lift, 
gas-holders have been made larger and with more 
lifts, until the largest holder yet built, one at 
the East Greenwich W^orks in London, consists 
of six lifts, and contains, when full, 12,000,000 
cubic feet of gas. The largest holders built in 
the United States have five lifts and a capacity 
of 5,000,000 cubic feet. In the case of one of 
these holders, the upper lift, and in the case 
of the 12,000,000 cubic feet holder, mentioned 
above, the two upper lifts are allowed to 



the ends of each rope being attached to the 
holder at two points diametrically opposite each 
other, one at the top and the other at the 
bottom of the same section, passing over pulleys 
in such a way that as the holder rises and falls 
the rope is taken up at one end and paid out at 
the other at an equal rate, so that the two points 
to which it is attached are forced to travel along 
vertical lines. 

Process of Manufacture. When the coal is 
placed in the retort the volatile matter is driven 
off by the exposure to heat, rapidly at first and 
then more and more slowly. The reactions taking 
place in the retorts are complex and not per- 
fectly understood; but in general they consist of 
the decomposition of the coal into coke and heavy 
hj'drocarbons, and the breaking down of the 
latter into lighter hydrocarbons, with the set- 
ting free of hydrogen and marsh gas; and when 
the breaking down is carried too far, of solid 
carbon, which is deposited on the interior of the 
retort. Reactions also occur between some of 
the nitrogen and hydrogen, the hydrogen and 
sulphur, and the carbon and nitrogen by which 
comparatively small amounts of ammonia, sul- 
phureted hydrogen, and cyanogen are formed. 
The coke which is left in the retort is com- 
posed almost entirely of uncombined carbon, 
with a percentage of ash dependent upon the 
amount of ash in the coal. The extent to which 
the hydrocarbons are broken down increases with 
the temperature at which the retorts are main- 
tained, and therefore the volume of the gas pro- 
duced increases, and its illuminating value de- 



6uide Frcrme 



In let s:z"SSJ^zJk 




"E^sF:^"' 



FlO. 4. RBOTION THBGUGH OA8-ROLDBR. 



rise above the guide framing, their stability 
being maintained by the weight of the lower lifts 
which they carry. In some cases, usually those 
of comparatively small holders, the guide fram- 
ing lias been completely done away with, the 
guiding being ])erf<)rnu'(l either by means of 
spiral guides fastened to the inside of the 
tank wall, and to the inner surfaces of the 
sections of the holder, or by means of wire ropes, 



creases, with each increase in the temperature of 
the retort^^. The product of illuminating value 
and quantity is, however, up to a certain point, 
greater with liigh than with low heats, and the 
retorts are usually heated to a temperature of 
from 2000'' to 2.'J00'' F. The gjis produced is 
deteriorated in illuminating value if exposed to 
prolonged contact with the hot walls of the re- 
tort, and to reduce the extent of this contact to 



GAS. 



132 



GAS. 



a minimum the volume of the charge of coal 
should be as large as possible in proportion to 
the size of the retort. The existence of a pres- 
sure in the retort also increases the contact be- 
tween the gas and the walls, and it is to avoid 
this, as well as leakage of gas through minute 
cracks in the . clay, that the pressure is taken 
off the retort by means of the exhauster. In 
the United States the length of charge or time 
the coal is left in the retorts is usually four 
hours^ the heat and the weight of charge being 
so proportioned that the gas is all driven off in 
this time. In England the length of charge is 
usually five to six hours. 

The gas leaving the retort is a mixture of 
permanent gases, principally hydrogen, marsh 
gas, and carbonic oxide, with some carbonic acid, 
nitrogen, sulphureted hydrogen, ammonia and 
cyanogen, hydrocarbon vapors that can be re- 
tained in the gas by proper treatment and are 
the most important light-giving constituents, and 
hydrocarbon vapors that cannot be retained in 
the gas when it is reduced to ordinary tem- 
peratures. The problem to be solved in the 
cooling of the gas, which begins as soon as it 
enters the standpipe, is the removal of these 
heavy vapors in such a manner as to leave in 
the gas a sufficient quantity of the lighter vapors 
to fully saturate it at the minimum temperature 
and maximum pressure to which it is to be sub- 
jected in the future. After the gas has been 
cooled it is necessary to remove the ammonia and 
sulphureted hydrogen, and in some cases the 
carbonic acid and cyanogen are also taken out. 

The heaviest of the vapors condense in the 
hydraulic main, forming tar, which must not be 
allowed to rise to the level of the lower edges 
of the dip-pipes, since if brought into intimate 
contact with the gas it will absorb the lighter 
hydrocarbon vapors. For this reason it is also 
necessary that the heavy tar, that is not de- 
posited in the hydraulic main, should be re- 
moved from the gas before it is cooled, and this 
is done by the friction tar-extractor. The lighter 
tar is then condensed out by the cooling effected 
in the condensers. This cooling should be done 
very gradually to avoid the 'condensation of 
vapors that should be retained in the gas. As 
the gas cools, some of the water-vapor, with 
which it is saturated, condenses and absorbs 
a portion of the ammonia, forming ammoniacal 
liquor. The tar and ammoniacal liquor thus 
formed in the hydraulic main and the condensers 
are run off through suitable drains into wells. 
The portion of the ammonia that still remains 
in the gas when it leaves the condensers is 
removed in the washer and scrubber. By using 
weak ammoniacal liquor as the washing liquid 
in the first stages of the scrubbing, the ammonia 
is made to combine with carbonic acid and sul- 
phureted hydrogen, the resulting liquor being 
an aqueous solution of carbonate, sulphide, and 
various other salts of ammonia. 

The gas leaving the scrubbers contains as 
impurities carbonic acid and sulphureted hydro- 
gen, as well as small quantities of other sulphur 
compounds and cyanogen. It is necessary to 
remove the sulphureted hydrogen and reduce the 
sulphur compounds to an amount not to exceed 
25 grains per 100 cubic feet of gas, since these 
substances produce sulphurous oxide when 
burned, and thus give rise to disagreeable fumes 



if present in any quantity. The carbonic acid 
is sometimes removed also, although, being harm- 
less except as it affects the illuminating value, 
it is usual in the United States to allow it to 
remain in the gas. For its removal it is neces- 
sary to employ, in the purifiers, hydrate of lime, 
which combines with it, forming carbonate of 
lime. Lime will also combine with sulphureted 
hydrogen, and was formerly the sole substance 
employed for its removal, which can, however, 
be effected much more economically by the use of 
hydrated sesquioxide of iron, either prepared 
artificially, or in the shape of a natural bog ore; 
and this has largely superseded lime. The reac- 
tion between the oxide of iron and the sulphu- 
reted hydrogen results in the formation of sul- 
phide of iron, which is again changed to oxide 
when the fouled material is exposed to the air. 
The material can thus be used over and over 
again until it becomes so charged with the sul- 
phur, deposited at each revivification, as to be 
rendered inactive. The oxide of iron also ab- 
sorbs some of the cyanogen, and when spent is 
of value for the manufacture of cyanides and 
of sulphuric acid. After passing the purifiers 
the gas is ready for distribution, being measured 
solely for the convenience of the manufacturer; 
but as the demand is not uniform from hour to 
hour, and it is necessary that the rate of pro- 
duction should be practically so, the gas-holders 
are provided to store the excess quantity made 
during the time of small demand for use at the 
time of large demand. 

The scheme of condensation and purification 
outlined is that usually employed in the United 
States. In Europe it is becoming customary 
to scrub the gas with a solution of an iron salt 
to remove the cyanogen more completely and in 
a more merchantable form than is done in the 
purifiers, and also with tar oils to remove 
naphthalene, a hydrocarbon vapor, which, when 
the gas is chilled, condenses at once to the solid 
form in light flakes, and at times causes much 
trouble by stopping the small pipes of the dis- 
tribution system. When the naphthalene is not 
removed it is necessary to add to the gas, if 
trouble is experienced, a hydrocarbon vapor that 
will condense, at the same time that the naphtha- 
lene crystallizes, to a liquid capable of dissolving 
the crystals, and so prevent them from forming 
obstructions in the pipes. 

It will be seen that in addition to the gas there 
are produced in the manufacture of coal-gas, 
coke, tar, and ammoniacal liquor, all of which 
are valuable, the coke as a fuel, the tar as a 
raw material for the manufacture of paving and 
roofing pitch, artificial dye-stuffs, various drugs, 
etc. (see Coal-Tar), and the ammoniacal liquor 
as a raw material for the manufacture of am- 
monia in various forms. The products from 
100 pounds of gas coal will be, about, 65 pounds 
of coke, 500 cubic feet of gas, .6 gallon of tar, 
and 1.3 to 1.5 gallons of ammoniacal liquor con- 
taining .23 to .32 pound of pure ammonia. 

CARBURETED WATER-GAS. 

Carbureted water-gas is the gas produced by 
mixing with non-luminous water-gas, made by de 
composing steam by contact with incandescent 
carbon, and composed principally of hydrogen and 
carbonic oxide, with small quantities of marsh 
gas to give the sulphureted hydrogen sufficient 
oil-gas to give the mixture the desired illuminat- 



GAS. 



133 



GAS. 



ing value. The water-gas and oil-gas may be 
made in entirely separate operations, and then 
mixed, or, as is more common, the oil-gas may 
be made in the presence of the water-gas, the 
mixture being formed as the oil-gas is made. 

History. Although it was shown by Fontana, 
in 1780, that a combustible gas could be formed 
by the reaction between steam and incandescent 
carbon at high temperatures^ which is the basi.s 
of all water-gas manufacture, and between 
1823 and 1858 many patents were taken out aim- 
ing to" take advantage of this reaction, the 
commercial development of the manufacture of 
water-gas and carbureted water-gas is of com- 
paratively recent date. This development was 
made almost entirely in the United States, where 
both anthracite coal, a desirable source of carbon, 
and petroleum, for the manufacture of oil-gas, 
were plentiful and cheap. In the earlier forms 
of apparatus the water-gas was made from coal 
raised to incandescence in externally heated re- 
torts, similar to coal-gas retorts, and the amount 
of fuel required proved too great for the success 
of the process. In 1871 Tessie du Motay erected 
in New York an apparatus for the manufacture 
of 'oxygen' gas, which, although it proved un- 
successful, was later developed into the genera- 
tor-retort form of carbureted water-gas appa- 
ratus, and in 1873 Lowe erected, in Phenixville, 
Pa., the first apparatus of the generator-super- 
heater tj'pe, covered by his patent taken out in 
1872. In 1875 Mr. Lowe took out, as a result 
of his experience in the construction of apparatus, 
another pJatent, which proved to be the baaic 
patent for apparatus of this class. 



When the proper temperature is reached, the 
blast is shut off, the outlet for the escape of the 
products of combustion closed, and steam is ad- 
mitted to the fire, forming water-gas. The water- 
gas is led from the generator into a small gas- 
holder, called a relief holder. This is necessary, 
as the action of the generator is intermittent, 
because the production of water-gas rapidly cools 
the fire below the gas-making temperature, to 
which it must be brought back by again putting 
on the blast, while the gas must pass through the 
rest of the apparatus continuously and at a 
uniform rate. From the holder it is led above 
a series of steam-heated shelves, on which naph- 
tha is vaporized, and the mixture of gas and 
vapor then passes through externally heated re- 
torts, the vapor being converted by the heat into 




Fig. fi. DOUBLE SUPBRnSATBR LOWE CARBUBBTBU-GAS APPARATUS. 



Apparatus and Process op Manufacjture. 
In the generator-retort type of apparatus the 
wat(M'-gas is made in a generator, a steel shell 
lined with fire-brick, which after n fire has been 
kindled in it is filled with coal that is brought 
to incandescence by means of a forced blast of air. 



a permanent gas. The crude carbureted water- 
gas so formed is drawn from the retorts by an 
exhauster and condensed and purified, without 
being scrubbed, in the manner described under 
Coal-Gas. 

In the generator-superheater type of appa- 



GAS. 



134 



GAS. 



ratus the water-gas is made and carbureted in 
one operation. In its most common form it 
consists of three brick-lined steel cylindrical ves- 
sels connected together and called the generator, 
the carbureter, and the superheater. The genera- 
tor contains the coal, and the carbureter and su- 
perheater are filled with fire-brick piled in a 
checker-work. This checker brick is heated by 
the combustion of the producer gas formed in 
the generator while the coal is being brought 
to incandescence by a forced blast. When the 
proper temperature has been reached in all the 
vessels the blast is shut off, the stack-valve on 
top of the superheater, through which the prod- 
ucts of combustion escape during the heating- 
up period, or 'blow/ is closed, and steam is 
turned into the generator. As soon as the pro- 
duction of water-gas is begun, oil is admitted 
at the top of the carbureter, is vaporized by 
the heat of the checker brick, and is taken up 
by the water-gas and carried through the checker- 
work in the carbureter and superheater, being 
converted into a permanent gas by the exposure 
to heat to which it is thus subjected. After leav- 
ing the superheater the gas passes through a 
water seal, and is then condensed and run into 
a relief holder, the use of which is necessary for 
the reason given above. An exhauster draws the 
gas from this holder and forces it through the 
purifiers and station meter into the storage 
holder. The generator-superheater type is the 
one that is generally employed at present, having 
replaced almost all the earlier installations of 
the generator-retort type. 

Carbureted water-gas is a mixture of essen- 
tially the same gases as are found in coal-gas, 
though in different proportions, the following 
being representative analyses of each gas after 
purification by oxide of iron : 



Carbonic acid 

Oxygen 

Heavy hydrocarbons, 

Carbonic oxide 

Hydrogen 

Marsh gas 

Higher paraffins 

Benzene vapor 

Nitrogen 




In the case of carbureted water-gas, however, 
the crude gas contains no ammonia nor cyanogen, 
and a smaller amount of sulphureted hydrogen 
and sulphur compounds than are found in crude 
coal-gas. It is estimated that from 70 per cent. 
to 75 per cent, of the total amount of illuminat- 
ing gas sold in the United States is carbureted 
water-gas, while English gas-works, in the year 
1900, sent out only 8 per cent, of carbureted 
water-gas. 

DISTRIBUTION OF GAS. 

From the gas-holder the gas is conveyed to 
the consumers by means of main pipes, laid under 
the surface of the streets, from which branch or 
service pipes are led to the houses. The pressure 
on the mains, which varies in ordinary practice 
from 1% to 4 inches of water (y^ pound to | 
pound per square inch), is furnished by the 
weight of the gas-holder, and is regulated to meet 



the variation in the demand for gas by a governor 
on the holder outlet. This governor consists of a 
valve fastened to an inverted bell sealed in water, 
the weight of the valve and bell being supported 
by the pressure of the gas in the mains. If this 
falls, the bell falls, opening the valve, and so, 
by allowing more gas to pass, brings the pressure 
back to the proper point. The amount of pres- 
sure can be varied by the use of removable 
weights to vary the total weight to be supported. 

The main pipes vary in internal diameter from 
3 to 48 inches. They are usually cast-iron 
bell and spigot pipes, made in lengths 12 feet 
long, which are connected together with lead 
or cement joints, but wrought-iron pipe with 
screwed joints is sometimes used for the smaller 
gizes. The services are always made of wrought- 
iron pipe. (See Pipes.) The mains must be 
laid so as to drain to certain points, at 
which provision is made for removing the water 
and such hydrocarbon vapors as condense from 
the gas, and the services should drain into the 
mains. 

During the past two or three years the use 
of high pressure ( 10 pounds to 20 pounds per 
square inch) has been advocated for the distri- 
bution of gas in localities having a scattered 
population, and several distribution systems 
using this pressure have been installed, and are 
now being operated. In such systems wrought- 
iron pipe is used exclusively. 

The amount of gas supplied to each consumer 
is measured by means of consumers' meters, 
which are of two kinds, wet meters and dry 
meters. The wet meters are similar to the 
station meter, and were the first ones employed; 
but on account of various difficulties connected 
with their use, the chief of which in cold climates 
is the danger of freezing, they have, in the United 
States, been almost entirely replaced by dry 
meters. A dry meter consists of a rectangular 
box, made of tin plate, divided into two main 
compartments by a horizontal partition. The 
lower of these compartments is also divided into 
two equal parts by a vertical partition. The 
measuring apparatus consists of two bellows, 
one in each of the divisions of the lower com- 
partment, each formed by a circular metal disk, 
to the circumference of which is fastened one 
edge of a leather diaphragm having its other 
edge fastened to the central partition, the whole 
forming a gas-tight space. The alternate opening 
and closing of these bellows by the pressure of the 
gas as it is admitted, first into the spaces inside 
and then into the spaces outside of them, furnish- 
es motion which, by suitable mechanism, is made 
to operate valves controlling the flow of ga*! 
into and out of the bellows and outer spaces in 
such a way that gas cannot pass simultaneously 
into and out of any given space, and also to 
work the train of gears which records the amount 
of gas passed through the meter. The mechanism 
also controls the extent to which the bellows can 
open and close, so that a fixed and definite vol- 
ume of gas passes into and out of the meter 
each time one is filled and emptied. The house 
pipes, which are asually wrought iron, should 
drain to the meter, where any condensation can 
be run off if necessary. 

Burners. The principal forms of gas-burners 
used for the development of light from the gas 
ore the flat flame, the Argand, and the incandes- 



GAS. 



135 



GAS. 



cent. The tiat-flarae burners are either 'batswing/ 
in which the gas issues from a narrow slit cut 
through the rounded top of the tip, or 'fishtail,' 
in which the gas issues from two circular holes 
in a flat tip, inclined in such a way that the jets 
of gas strike against each other and are spread 
out in a sheet of flame. The tips are usu- 
ally made either of steatite or of a species of 
enamel. Although in their early forms these 
two types produced flames of different shapes, 
whence their names, as now made they pro- 
duce flames that are practically identical. 
The Argand burner is circular in form, and 
consists of a hollow steatite or metal ring, 
the top of which is pierced with small holes, 
through which the gas issues. Air, drawn in by 
the draught produced by a glass chimney, is 
supplied to both the inner and outer circum- 
ferences of the flame. In the incandescent burner 
the gas is burned in an atmospheric burner giv- 
ing a non-luminous flame, the heat of which is 
used to raise to incandescence a hood or mantle 
composed of oxides of rare earths, which are 
very refractory. The mantles most commonly 
employed are composed of approximately 99 per 
cent, of thoria and 1 per cent, of ceria. This 
combination has been found to yield the greatest 
amount of light, and the use of such mantles 
increases the amount of light obtainable from 
a foot of gas to four or five times what it can 
be made to yield in flat-flame or Argand burners. 
As the amount of light that may be obtained 
from gas when burned in incandescent burners 
depends largely upon the calorific value, and but 
slightly upon the illuminating value, as shown 
by the legal method of testing ( for which see 
Photometry), the increasing use of these burn- 
ers has given rise to a discussion of the advisa- 
bility of changing from the old illuminating- 
value standards by which the quality has been 
judged to a calorific-value standard. In some 
cities in Europe, where it is possible to make a 
gas of good calorific but low illuminating value, 
much more cheaply than a gas with a higher il- 
luminating value, the legal illuminating value 
has been reduced to ten candles. In London the 
legal standard for two of the three gas companies 
has been in the last two years reduced from 16 
to 14 candles, and the London County Council 
gave notice, in 1002, of its intention to promote 
a bill in Parliament making the change compul- 
sory upon the third company. 

Use of Illuminating Gas for ¥\jel, Pur- 
poses. During recent years there has been a 
large development of the use of gas for cooking; 
for such heating as is not required to be con- 
tinuous; and for industrial purposes where it is 
important to have a high and easily controllable 
temperature. A great number of gas companies 
have been very active in seeking for business 
along these lines, until in some cases the output 
of gas for fuel purposes is greater than that for 
illuminating purposes. This development of the 
sale of gas for fuel also afTords an argument in 
favor of the adoption of a calorific-value stand- 
ard, as mentioned above. 

The total quantity of gas reported as sold in 
the United States for lighting and heating dur- 
ing the year 1900, according to the Twelfth Cen- 
sus, was 68.205.496,108 cubic feet, as compared 
with 36.619,511,510 reported for 1890, an in- 
crease of 87 per cent. Of the amount sold in 



1900, about 1,712,000,000 was a by-product from 
the manufacture of coke, and was sold to dis- 
tributing companies for resale to consumers; the 
balance of the output was made by 877 gas- 
works, which number may be compared with 
742 reported in 1890, and only 30 in 1850. The 
capital invested in the gas industry, according to 
the reports, increased from $6,674,000 in 1850 
to $258,771,745 in 1890 and $567,000,506 in 
1900. The total receipts for gas sold in 1900 
were $69,432,582, or $1,035 per thousand cubic 
feet, which latter figure may be compared with 
$1.42 per thousand in 1890. By-products sold 
in 1900, including tar, coke, and ammoniacal 
liquor (not separately reported), amounted to 
about $4,283,204, which, with $2,000,907 from 
rents and sales of appliances, brought the total 
revenues of the gas-works up to $75,716,693. 
The total output of English gas-works in 1900 
was about 150,000,000,000 cubic feet. 

Sanitary Aspects. Toward the close of the 
nineteenth century the attention both of sani- 
tarians and of those interested in gas manufac- 
ture was directed to the sanitary aspects of the 
use of illuminating gas. The importance of this 
phase of the subject had recently been increased 
by the frequent substitution of water-gas for 
ccal-gas. In w^ater-gas the most poisonous agent 
— carbonic acid — is increased, as compared with 
coal-gas, from 6 or 7 per cent, to about 30 per 
cent. This change, however, was not necessary 
to make illuminating gas an active poison to 
breathe. The danger in the use of illuminating 
gas arises from two sources : ( 1 ) From unburned 
gas which escapes into the atmosphere through 
defective pipes or fixtures, or through burners 
accidentally open, and (2) from vitiation of the 
atmosphere through the products of burning gas. 

The National Board of Fire Underwriters has 
published a table of gas losses compiled from 
data furnished by fifteen companies, which shows 
that over 14 per cent, of the total product of 
gas plants leaks into the streets and houses of 
the cities supplied. The danger to houses from 
escaping gas is much greater in the winter time, 
when the street surface is frozen, and when 
houses, on account of their higher temperature, 
act as chimneys to draw in the ground air, and 
with it the gas which has leaked into the soil. 
Gas thus escaping may follow water or sewer 
pipes, and enter even those houses which have 
no gas connections. 

In order to remove the constant menace to life 
and property, through explosion and asphyxia- 
tion, which is afforded by leaky gas-mains, the 
whole matter should be imder the strictest sur- 
veillance and control by the public. The intro- 
duction in our large cities of subways for under- 
ground pipes and wires would remedy the evil 
by rendering gas-mains easily accessible for con- 
stant insiwction. In this way the slightest leak 
would be detected. The danger of deterioration 
of the mains through rust, and of their breaking 
through settlement of the soil, would also be 
removed. 

While the consumption of gas does vitiate 
the atmosphere of a room to a certain extent, 
an ideal system of ventilation is possible, in 
which burning gas is not a hindrance, but an 
essential part. An example of such a system 
is the British Houses of Parliament, in which, 



GAS. 



136 



QAS. 



by means of flues placed over the jets, the heat 
or surplus energy of the gas-llame assists in 
producing a pure atmosphere. A similar system 
of ventilation could be carried on in an ordinary 
room with a thirteen- foot ceiling, in conjunction 
with the chimney in the room, and the combus- 
tion of one cubic foot of gas could be made, by 
a suitable flue, to change the atmosphere of a 
room 15 X 15 X H feet once per hour. In this 
event, the three feet per hour consumed by an 
incandescent burner could be made abundantly to 
light and ventilate that space. 

Bibliography. Journals devoted to the sub- 
ject of the manufacture and distribution of gas 
appear in all the leading languages, and of these 
the Journal of Gas Lighting (London) was first 
issued in 1849. For a full description of the 
.subject of gas-lighting, see: Articles on "Gas" 
in Encyclopcedia of Chemistry (Philadelphia, 
1877) ; Spon's Encyclopcedia of Industrial Arts 
(London and New York, 1879) ; Thorp, Diction- 
ary of Applied Chemistry (London, 1891) ; .Wag- 
ner, Handhook of Chemical Technology (New 
York, 1895) ; Richards, A Practical Treatise on 
the Manufacture and Distribution of Coal Gas 
(London, 1877) ; King's Treatise on the Science 
and Practice of the Manufacture and Distribu- 
tion of Coal Gas, edited by Newbigging and Few- 
trell (London, 1878) ; Colyer, Gas Works: Their 
Arrangement, Construction, Plant, and Ma- 
chinery (London, 1884) ; Chester, Bibliography 
of Coal Gas (Nottingham, 1892) ; Atkinson 
Butterfield, The Chemistry of Gas Manufacture 
(Philadelphia, 1896) ; O'Connor, The Gas Engi- 
neer's Pocket-Book (New York, 1898) ; Wank- 
lyn. The Gas Engineer's Chemical Manual (Lon- 
don, 1888) ; Dent and others, "Lighting," in 
Chemical Technology, vol. ii. (Philadelphia, 
1895) ; Hunt, "Gas Lighting," in Chemical Tech- 
nology, vol. iii. (Philadelphia, 1900). 

GAS, Natural. A gaseous member of the 
paraffin series (see Hydrocarbons), petroleum 
being a liquid member and asphalt a solid one. 
It is formed by the decomposition of animal 
matter, as in the case of the Ohio and Indiana 
gas, and from vegetable matter,^ as in the Penn- 
sylvania gas, this decay having occurred within 
the rocks and probably at moderate temperatures. 
When once formed it accumulates in the pores 
of the rocks in which it originated, or in overly- 
ing layers, but is usualh'^ kept from escaping 
to the surface by the presence of some layer of 
impervious rock. It is then obtained by the 
piercing of these strata by wells, or where the 
beds have been fissured by folding or faulting 
it may issue from natural channels. 

Composition. Natural gas is made up chiefly 
of marsh gas or methane (CH4), which may form 
90 or 95 per cent, of the entire volume of the 
gas; but other gaseous paraffins, such as ethane 
( CjHo) and propane ( CnHg) , are not uncommonly 
present. Since the liquefying pressure of the 
last two gases is lower than the pressure found 
to exist in many natural-gas resen^oirs, it is 
probable that they exist in liquid form within 
the pores of the rock, and vaporize when they 
pass out into the well-tube. Besides the gaseous 
paraffins natural gas often contains small but 
varying amounts of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, car- 
bon monoxide, olefiant gas, oxygen, hydrogen, 
ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide. The following 



analyses give the composition of natural gas- 
from different American localities: 





1 


2 


3 


4 


^ i 




93.35 
.35 
.41 
.25 
.39 
3.41 

.20 
1.64 


94.16 
.30 
.55 
.29 
.30 
2.80 

.20 
1.42 


89.65 

.26 
.36 


90.05 

.41 
trace 
2.64 


97.70 

.20 
trace 
2.02 


Ethylene 


Carbonic oxide 
Carbon dioxide 


Nitrogen 




Sulphureted 

hydrogen 

Hydrogen 

Ethane 




.56 
4.39 









90.09 



trace 
trace 
9.91 



1. Findlay, Ohio. 2. Kokomo, Ind. 3. Leechburg. Pa. 
4. Fredonia, N. Y. 5. Murraysville, Pa. 6. Raccoon 

Creek. 

Mode of Occurrence. Natural gas is found 
most often in sandstone and shale, but may also 
occur in limestone. Two types of accumulation 
may be recognized, viz.: in impervious rocks,, 
such as shales and limestones, and in porous 
rocks, such as sandstone. The former type or 
shale gas usually forms small wells of varying 
pressure, and is not necessarily associated with 
petroleum; the deposits have staying qualities, 
and do not depend on the structural arrangement 
of the containing strata. Sandstone or reservoir 
gas, on the other hand, is found in great wells, 
often accompanied by oil, and while the rock 
pressure in any one area is fairly constant, at 
the same time- these wells usually give out sud- 
denly. The structure of limestone and sandstone 
formations containing natural gas, and, indeed, 
also petroleum, is often that of a low^ anticlinal, 
the gas and oil being found at and near the 
crest, respectively, while on either flank there is 
often an abundance of water. This theory of 
gas accumulation is kno^^^l as the 'anticlinal 
theory,' and was developed by Profs. E. Orton 
and I. C. White. It has been noticed in all gas- 
fields that when the reservoir is tapped the gas 
usually rushes out as though under great pres- 
sure, this being spoken of as rock pressure. Prof. 
E. Orton believed that this pressure was hydro- 
static, and due to the head of water in the rocks 
overlying the gas, the amount of pressure in the 
Ohio field being equal to a column of water 
whose height was equal to the elevation of Lake 
Erie above the gas-bearing stratum. While this 
theory may hold in some cases, still I. C. White 
has pointed out that in others the rock pressure 
is much greater than the artesian pressure in 
the same region, and furthermore that the ex- 
haustion of the gas is not always followed by a 
flow^ of water. In such cases the rock pressure 
must be due to the expansive force of the gas. 
The original rock pressure varies in different 
fields, and is not infrequently as high as ."^OO or 
400 pounds per square inch at the mouth of the 
well, and in some wells may exceed 1000 pounds 
per square inch. Several of the newer wells in 
West Virginia having a depth of from 2700 to 
3200 feet showed a rock pressure ranging from 
1000 pounds to 1300 pounds per square inch. A 
decrease in pressure is always likely to follow 
with time, as in the case of the first well opened 
at Findlav, Ohio, where the pressure fell from 
450 pounds in 1886 to 170 pounds in 1890. In 
the early days of gas-well drilling the supply ap- 
peared so inexhaustible that the newly drilled 
wells were often allowed to blow off gas for 
several days or weeks before attempts were made 
to cap them. 



GAS. 



137 



GAS. 



Distribution. The productive horizons of nat- 
ural gas cover the entire series of Paleozoic 
rocks, and reservoirs are found even in Tertiary 
strata. The main supply for the United States 
conies from the Appalachian field, and the Ohio- 
Indiana field. The former extends from New 
York into Tennessee, and contains specially pro- 
ductive districts in Pennsylvania and West Vir- 
ginia. The gas is obtained from several sand- 
stone beds within the Devonian, and is closely 
associated with oil, the two owing their accumu- 
lation to the presence of a series of low anticlinal 
folds. The sandstone beds or 'sands' are sepa- 
rated by varying vertical distances, and are 
known by different names. The Ohio-Indiana 
field is unique in that the gas which is associat- 
ed with oil occurs in Trenton limestone, along 
a dome-shaped uplift of rock known as the Cin- 
cinnati Arch, and especially where the rock has 
been rendered somewhat porous by dolomitiza- 
tion. This anticline (Extends in a northeast-south- 
west direction from Indiana into Ohio. In addi- 
tion gas has also been obtained in Ohio from 
the Sub-Carboniferous. Both of these areas in 
Ohio are now nearly exhausted, and the supply 
obtained within the State comes from new and 
small fields. In southeastern Kansas gas is ob- 
tained from the Carboniferous shales, the area 
which is known as the lola gas-field having 
come into prominence during the last few years. 
Its product is important because of the fact 
that the field lies not far from the Ozark zinc 
region, and the gas is employed for smelting the 
ores. The gas is found at depths ranging from 
500 to 1000 feet. Some natural gas is also ob- 
tained from Kentucky, Illinois, Texas, South 
Dakota, Colorado, California, Missouri, and 
Texas, but the amount produced in most cases 
is small. 

Mining and Uses. The methods used for drill- 
ing gas-wells are the same as those employed 
for sinking oil-wells (q.v.). When the gas is 
first struck the pressure has in rare cases been 
sufficiently great to blow out the string of drill- 
ing tools weighing over 1000 pounds. As soon 
as practicable the well is capped, and the supply 
is piped to the site of consumption or to storage 
tanks. As the gas is often required for use at 
some distance from the well, tlie construction of 
pi])e-lines has become an important feature of 
the natural-gas industry. With high rock pres- 
sure tl^ gas may reach the market unaided, but 
with low pressure it is necessary to locate pump- 
ing stations at different points along the pipe. 
The pipes used vary in diameter from two inches 
to three feet, and are made of wrought iron or 
steel. One of the first lines was that laid in 1882 
from Wilcox to Cologrove, Pa., a distance of 20 
miles. Later, with the depletion of the gas-fields 
aroimd Pittsburg, it l)ecaine necessary to pipe the 
gas for that city from greater distances, and at 
the present time some of it is being piped from 
Doddridge County, W. Va., a distance of over 100 
miles. Tlie ])ipe-lines from Wetzel County, W. 
Va., to Akron and Canton. Ohio, are over 150 
miles long. So extensive has Ix'cn the construc- 
tion of pipe-lines that at the close of 1001 there 
were 22,000 miles of them in operation. 

When first used the price of natural gas was 
low nnd no attempt was made to nieasure it, as 
it appeared to be widely distributed and to exist 
in inexlmustible quantities, but tlie giving out of 
some of the districts and the rapid fall in rock 



pressure led to the use of meters and a rise 
in the value of the gas. On account of its clean- 
liness and excellent calorific power, natural gas 
has become an important source of light, heat, 
and power in many States, so that in 1901 it 
was used in thirteen States, by 1545 companies, 
representing a total of 5742 manufacturing estab- 
lishments, including iron-mills, steel- works, glass- 
factories, brick-factories, and lead and zinc smelt- 
ers. In addition to this it was used in many 
hundred private houses for heating or illumina- 
tion. 

Natural gas has a high calorific power, 1000 
cubic feet having the power to evaporate 1000 
pounds of water at 212° F. About 50 candle- 
power can be obtained by the consumption of 2^^ 
cubic feet per hour. In fuel value, 12 cubic feet 
of natural gas is equal to about one pound of 
coal. Its illuminating power is low, unless used 
with some patent burner, such as the Welsbach 
light. The production of the United States in 
1901 was valued at $27,007,500, exclusive of the 
amount piped in from Canada. 

History. The use of natural gas in China 
and Persia is said to date back to a very remote 
period. In the United States General Washing- 
ton is said to have visited a burning spring on 
the Great Kanawha River, near the present site 
of Charleston, W. Va. ; but the first recorded use 
of natural gas in this country w^as in 1824 at 
Fredonia, where it was piped from a well for 
illuminating purposes. In 1841 it was used in 
the Great Kanawha Valley for heating salt-fur- 
naces, but its extensive use did not begin until 
1872, at Fairview, Pa. In 1875 it was first used 
for iron-smelting at Etna Borough, near Pitts- 
burg, and in 1886 was brought to Pittsburg from 
the Haymaker well near Murraysville, 19 miles 
distant. Since then its use has steadily in- 
creased. 

Bibliography. For statistics of production, 
see volumes of Mineral Resources issued by the 
United States Geological Survey (Washington, 
annually ), ; Orton, "The Trenton Limestone as a 
Source of Petroleum and Inflammable Gas in 
Ohio and Indiana," Eighth Annual Report 
United States Geological Survey (Washington, 
1888) ; Orton, "Geological Structure of the lola 
Gas Field, Kansas," Bulletin Geological Society 
of America, vol. x. (Rochester, 1899) ; Orton, 
"Origin of the Rock Pressure of Natural Gas in 
the Trenton Limestones of Ohio and Indiana," 
Atinual Report Smithsonian Institution (Wash- 
ington, 1891); Ashburner, "Geological Distribu- 
tion of Natural Gas in the L^nited States," 
Transactions American Institute Mining Engi- 
neers, vol. XV. (New York, 1887) ; Watts, "The 
Gas and Petroleum Yielding Formations of the 
Central Valley of California," California Mining 
Bureau, Bulletin No. 3 (San Francisco) : Bishop, 
"Oil and Ga.s in Southwestern New York," Vote 
York State Museum 53d Annual Report (Albanv, 
1901) ; Haworth, "Oil and Gas in Kansas," Mitt- 
ei'al Resources of Kansas, Kansas Geological Sur- 
vey (Lawrence. 1898) ; Adams, "Oil and Gas 
Fields of the Western Interior and Northern 
Texas Coal Measures, and of the Upper Creta- 
ceous and Tertiary of the Western Gulf Coast." 
United States Geological Surveif, Bulletin 184 
(Washington, 1901)- Orton, "Oil and Gas in 
New York." New York State Museum, Bulletin 
No. 30 (Albany). 



GASCOIGNE. 



138 



GAS-ENGINES. 



GASCOIGNE, gas-koin', Geobge (c.1535-77). 
An English poet. He was born about 1535, the 
son of Sir John Gascoigne, of Cardington, Bed- 
fordshire, and was educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, but left without a degree, entering, 
it is said, the Middle Temple before 1548. In 
1555 he became a student of Gray's Inn; in 
1557-59 he was member of Parliament; about 
15G6 he married and settled at Walthamstow. 
To escape his numerous creditors he went to 
Holland in 1572, where he served with distinction 
under William, Prince of Orange; but was cap- 
tured by the Spaniards under the walls of Ley- 
den and sent back to England after an impris- 
onment of four months. He accompanied Queen 
Elizabeth on her memorable visit to Kenilworth 
in 1575, and was commissioned by Leicester to 
write verses and masques for her entertainment. 
These appeared in The Princely Pleasures 
(1576). He died October 7, 1577, while on a 
visit to his friend George Whetstone, at Stam- 
ford, Lincolnshire. Gascoigne is best known by 
his lyrics, such as "The Arraignment of a 
Lover" and "A Strange Passion of a Lover." 
But much of his other work is of very great his- 
torical interest. The Supposes, an adaptation 
of Ariosto's Gli Suppositi, is the earliest extant 
comedy in English prose. It was produced at 
Gray's Inn in 1566. Aided by Francis Kinwel- 
mcrsh, he wrote Jocasta, a free rendering of 
Euripides's Phoenissw. This is the second ear- 
liest English tragedy in blank verse. The Steel 
Glass (1576), written in blank verse, is our 
earliest regular verse satire'. Certain Notes of 
Instruction Concerning the Making of Blank 
Verse (1575) is the earliest English critical 
essay. An edition of Gascoigne's Works was pub- 
lished by Jeffes (London, 1587). His Complete 
Poems were edited by W. C. Hazlitt, Poxburghe 
Library (London, 1868-69). For his principal 
poems, consult the excellent edition, with full 
biographical notes, edited by Arber (London, 
1868). Consult Lee, Dictionary of Nationul 
Biography. 

GASCOIGNE, Sir William (e.1350-1419) . 
An English judge during the reign of Henry 
IV. He was made a sergeant-at-law in 1397, 
and in 1400 became Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench. In this high office he distinguished him- 
self both by his integrity and ability, and the 
older English law reports contain many abstracts 
of his opinions, arguments, and decisions. In 
July, 1403, he was joined with the Earl of West- 
moreland in a commission for levying forces 
against the insurrection of Henry ('Hotspur') 
Percy. In popular, though unauthenticated, 
story he is chiefly celebrated for the fearlessness 
with which he defended the immunities of his 
judicial office from interference by the Court. 
On one occasion, the legend runs, when one of 
the dissolute companions of young Prince Henry, 
afterwards Henry V., was arraigned before Gas- 
coigne for felony, the Prince demanded his re- 
lease, and, on being ordered out of the courtroom, 
rushed upon the judge and struck him. Gas- 
coigne immediately committed the Prince to 
prison, and Henry, so the story goes, conscience- 
stricken, submitted. The King, on being in- 
formed of the occurrence, is said to have thanked 
God for having given him "both a judge who knew 
how to administer the laws and a son who re- 
spected their authority." Shakespeare, in Henry 



IV., Part II., represents the young Henry V. as 
bidding Gascoigne retain, under a new king, the 
office whose honor he knew so well how to defend. 
Historically, this is untrue, as Gascoigne seems to 
have resigned immediately after Henry V.'s ac- 
cession. He died December 17, 1419. 

GASCON. A fish. See Saurel. 

GASCONADE, gas'k6n-ad^ A right tributary 
of the Missouri, rising in Wright County, Mo. 
( ]\Iap : Missouri, E 3 ) . It flows north-northeast, 
and empties into the. Missouri at Gasconade after 
a course of about 250 miles. It is partly navi- 
gable for light steamboats at high water. 

GASCON, ga'skoN^ GASCONNADE, ga'skd'- 
nad'. A term employed to denote a boaster or 
braggart, and any extravagant or absurd vaunt- 
ing, the inhabitants of the district once known 
as Gascony having long been notorious in this 
respect. 

GAS^CONY (Fr. Gascogne, Lat. Vasconia, 
from Vascones, the Basques ) . An ancient duchy 
in the southwest of France. Its boundaries were 
the Bay of Biscay, the River Garonne, and the 
Western Pyrenees. The modern departments of 
Landes, Gers, Hautes-Pyrenees, and the southern 
portions of Haute-Garonne, Tarn-et-Garonne, 
and Lot-et-Garonne are embraced within its 
ancient boundaries. It derived its name from the 
Basques or Vasques, who, driven by the Visigoths 
from their own territories on the southern slope 
Of the Western Pyrenees, crossed to the northern 
side of that mountain range in the middle of the 
sixth century, and settled in the former Roman 
district of Aquitania Tertia or Novempopulana. 
In 602, after an obstinate resistance, the Basques 
were forced to submit to the Franks. They 
passed under the sovereignty of the dukes of 
Aquitania, who for a time were independent of 
the Crown, but w^ere afterwards conquered by 
Pepin and later by Charles the Great. Sub- 
sequently the district became incorporated with 
Aquitania (q.v.). Consult: Monlezun, Histoire 
de la Gascoigne (6 vols., Auch, 1846-50) ; Blade, 
Contes populaircs de la Gascogne (Paris, 1886). 
Blade' is also the author of six other works ou 
the subject. 

GAS-ENGINES. A name given to certain 
prime movers in which the expansive energj' de- 
A eloped by an explosive or inflammable gas upon 
ignition communicates reciprocating motion to a 
piston within a cylinder. From the fact that 
the ignition and consequent development of heat 
take place within the engine cylinder itself, these 
motors are often called internal-combustion 
engines. The combustible mixture used may 
be any hydrocarbon gas or vapor mixed with a 
suitable proportion of atmospheric air. 

Historical Development. In 1678 the Abb6 
d'Hautefeuille invented an engine in which the 
explosive power of gimpowder was employed to 
drive! a piston in a cylinder. This was the pro- 
totype of the modern gas-engine. Two years 
later the eminent Dutch physicist Christian 
Huygens devised a similar gunpowder engine. 
No further development of the internal-combus- 
tion engine occurred until 1791, when John Bar- 
ber, an Englishman, specified in a patent the use 
of a mixture of a hydrocarbon gas and air and 
its explosion in a vessel which he called an ex- 
ploder. Some years later a fellow cou»tryman 
of Barber's, John Street, took out a patent for 



GAS-ENGINES. 



139 



GAS-ENGINES. 



the production of an explosive vapor by means 
of a liquid and air, ignited by a flame, in a suit- 
able cylinder so as to drive machinery. In 1799 
Philip Tebon, a Frenchman, took out a patent 
in which was described the construction and prin- 
ciple of operation of an engine using coal-gas as 
the explosive, and two years later he secured a 
second patent on an improved form of the same 
engine. Several inventors followed Tebon with 
designs for gas-engines, some of which were 
highly ingenious machines, but none of which 
attained any practical utility. Indeed, up to 
1860 no internal-combustion engine had appeared 
which was capable of regular and comparatively 
efficient work. 

In 1860 Lenoir, a Frenchman, invented the 
first practical gas-engine. This engine re- 
sembled in external appearance a simple-cyl- 
inder horizontal steam-engine, and was double- 
acting. Gas was drawn into the engine during 
the first half of the forward stroke, and ex- 
ploded by an electric spark from a Ruhmkorf coil 
when the piston was commencing the second half 
of the forward stroke. The exploding gases, 
after having done their work, were drawn out 
through the exhaust on the return stroke, during 
which work was being done by a similar explo- 
sion on the other side of the piston. A water- 
jacket prevented the cylinder walls from becom- 
ing overheated. The engine ran smoothly and 
regularly, and its development raised high hopes 
that the successful substitute for the steam- 
engine had appeared. The machine, however, was 
enormously expensive in its consumption of gas, 
and had so many other defects that it soon dis- 
appeared. The principal good accomplished by 
I^noir's work was to direct attention again to 
the gas-engine, which had been lost sight of in 




LONOITrUINAL. SECTION OK 0TT0-CR08SLEY QA8-KNGI.NE. 



the labors of developing the steam-engine. Not 
much importance came of this rencAved study 
until 1862, when M. Beau de Rochas took out 
a patent for the working principles of an inter- 
nal-combustion motor. Tliese principles were 
set forth as follows: During tlie forward stroke 
of the piston the explosive nnxture was to be 
drawn into the cylinder, and during the return 
stroke this volume of gas was to l>e compressed ; at some of them have succeeded, by improvements 



operations for each impulse. No engine was 
built by Beau de Rochas, and for sixteen years 
the existence of his invention remained practical- 
ly unnoticed. Meanwhile, in 1867, two Germans, 
Otto and Langen, patented an engine in which 
the explosion of gases in the cylinder served 
only to obtain a partial vacuum underneath the 
piston, which was, therefore, forced down by the 
excess of atmospheric pressure above it. This 
•engine was very crude mechanically, but it con- 
sumed about one-half the gas consumed by the 
Lenoir engine, and large numbers were sold. 
This was the first atmospheric engine to attain 
commercial importance. 

In 1878 Dr. Otto, encouraged by his previous 
success, brought out his gas-engine. In this 
engine the German engineer reinvented the Beau 
de Rochas cycle, and applied it in the construc- 
tion of an actual engine. In the Otto engine the 
cylinder was continued back beyond the stroke 
of the piston to form a compression chamber into 
which the mixture of air and gas was drawn dur- 
ing the forward stroke of the piston. The mix- 
ture was compressed in this chamber during the 
return stroke, the pressure rising at the end of 
the stroke to from 45 to 60 pounds per square 
inch. At this point in the cycle of movements a 
flame was brought into contact with the com- 
pressed gases, and they were ignited. This ig- 
nition or explosion raised the temperature of 
the gases to 1500° Centigrade, and drove for- 
ward the piston under a pressure of about 150 
pounds per square inch. During the second 
return stroke the piston drove out the products 
of combustion. The heating of the cylinder was 
prevented by a water-jacket. Special attention 
was paid by the inventor to the efficiency of his 
engine, and in order to increase it he diluted 
the air and gas 
drawn into the cyl- 
inder with a portion 
of the gases already 
burnt in the pre- 
vious stroke. This 
caused a less violent 
explosion, the gases 
continuing to burn 
during the entire 
stroke of the piston. 
As the piston re- 
ceived a driving im- 
pulse only once in 
every four strokes, 
or two revolutions, 
regularity of motion 
had to be secured 
by heavy fly-wheels. 
Otto's engine was a 
marked improvement over any previous in- 
ternal-combustion engine. It consumed only 
915 liters of gas |x»r horse-power per hour, 
as compared with a consumption of 1380 liters 
by the Otto and Langen engine, and 2700 liters 
of the Lenoir engine. After the expiration of 
Otto's patents various other inventors began 
turning out four-stroke cycle engines, and 



^^^^^^^^^^^5^^^ 



the beginning of the second forward stroke the ex- 
plosion was to take place, driving the piston for- 
ward, the gases being expelled during the second 
return stroke. As will he observed, the invention 
called for an engine with a cycle of four distinct 
Vol. VIII.— 10. 



in mechanical details, and by using gas at higher 
initial temperatures, in reducing the consump- 
tion of fuel and increasing the efficiency of the 
motor generally. Another set of inventors de- 
voted themselves to the devising of difl'erent 



GAS-ENGINES. 



140 



GASES. 



cycles. Of these only Dugald-Clerk and Griffin 
will be referred to at present. 

In the ideal internal-combustion motor we 
should have at least one explosion or impulse for 
every revolution, instead of one every two revo- 
lutions, as in the Otto engine. For this reason 
inventors have tried to construct gas-engines 
with a two-stroke cycle. One of the most notable 
of these Avill be described, but it may be re- 
marked at the beginning that no motor of this 
type has been able to compete with those of the 
(kto type. The two-stroke cycle engine was 
invented by Dugald-Clerk. There were tw'o 
cylinders of equal diameter placed side by side; 
the first of these was the power-cylinder, in 
which the explosion took place; the other was 
used for compressing the explosion mixture, and 
also for supplying at each revolution a volume 
of fresh air for blowing out the products of com- 
bustion in the power-cylinder. The Clerk engine 
had the advantage of giving an impulse every 
revolution, and thus permitted the use of a 
lighter fly-wheel ; its great disadvantage was 
that, owing to the sudden combustion, it was less 
efficient than the Otto engine. Clerk's two- 
stroke cycle engine was followed by several 
others of the same type, but of different con- 
struction. Griffin's engine had two explosions 
for every three revolutions, or six strokes of the 
piston, and was double-acting. The cycle of 
operation was as follows : ( 1 ) Gases drawn into 
the cylinder ; ( 2 ) compression of gases ; ( 3 ) 
ignition and expansion ; ( 4 ) products of combus- 
tion expelled; (5) volume of fresh air drawn 
into cylinder to expel products of combustion; 
(6) this volume of fresh air expelled. 

Working Principles. Some notion of the 
working principles of the gas-engine has been con- 
veyed in the descriptions of the preceding sec- 
tion. Broadly speaking, gas-engines may be di- 
vided into the following classes : ( 1 ) Engines 
igniting at constant volume without previous 
compression ; ( 2 ) engines igniting at constant 
volume with previous compression; and (3) en- 
gines igniting at constant pressure with pre- 
vious compression. In the first class a specified 
amount of gas is drawn into the cylinder at or- 
dinary atmospheric pressure, the inlet valves are 
then closed, and the charge is ignited, that is, 
a constant volume of gas at atmospheric pres- 
sure, or without compression, is ignited to give 
the impulse. To this class belongs the Lenoir 
engine and also, as a subclass, the Otto and 
Langen engine previously described. In the 
second class., as in the first class, the volume 
of gas is constant, but it is compressed before 
explosion. To this class belong the Otto engine 
and by far the greater number of other gas- 
engines now in use. In the third class the gas 
is compressed outside of the engine cylinder, and 
enters the cylinder under pressure, ignition tak- 
ing place as soon as it emerges at the inlet. To 
this class belongs the Brayton engine. 

Explosives Used. The explosives used in 
gas-engines are coal-gas. water-gas. vapors, pro- 
duced by a mixture of air and petroleum or its 
volatile distillates. Engines using oil vapors 
are often called oil-engines, gasoline-engines, etc., 
and they comprise the necessary apparatus for 
providing the vapor, in addition to the parts 
usual to the gas-engine. These vapor-producing 
apparatus are of numerous forms. Besides the 



kinds of gases and vapors mentioned, any carbo- 
hydrogen gas may be employed. Thus, in recent, 
years, there has been quite an extensive use of 
the waste gases from the blast-furnaces (see Iron 
AND Steel) for operating gas-engines. 

Ignition. The ignition of the explosive mix- 
ture is usually performed by one of the following 
methods: A flame may be introduced into the 
cylinder or uncovered to the gases in the cylinder 
by the opening of a suitable port in the cylinder 
walls; an electric spark may be made to pass 
through the gases between two electrodes enter- 
ing the cylinder, or a tube of porcelain or iron 
heated to incandescence by an external flame is 
uncovered to the gases by a port in the cylinder 
walls. 

Capacity and Efficiency. Gas-engines are 
frequently built up to 400 and 500 horse-power. 
In vVmerica even larger gas-engines have been 
constructed, and the Westinghouse Works now 
build these machines as large as 650 horse-power, 
one of the latter capacity being shown in Fig. 3^ 
of the accompanying plate. By the efficiency of 
a gas-engine is meant the percentage of the total 
heat units in the coal or oil used which the engine 
converts into work. This percentage is from 17 
to 19 per cent, for engines using gas from coal, 
and from 14 to 16 per cent, for oil-engines. The 
efficiency of the steam-engine is about 12 per 
cent, of the coal. 

Uses. Gas-engines may be used for any pur- 
pose that a steam-engine is used for within the 
limits of their capacity. As compared with the 
steam-engine its qualities are as follows : It 
requires no boiler and only small storage space 
for oil or gas; it is ready for operation at a 
moment's notice, since no time is lost in getting 
up steam, as in a steam boiler; there being no 
fire or furnace, there are no ashes; it does not 
require a skilled operator to run it. These qual- 
ities, as will readily be seen, give the gas-engine 
a peculiar field of usefulness of its own. A few 
of its familiar uses will illustrate this point. 
These are automobile propulsion, launch and 
yacht engines, submarine boat engines, and small 
industrial works where small amounts of power 
are required only occasionally. In each of these 
cases the fact that a boiler, furnace, and store 
of fuel are obviated by its use makes the gas- 
engine a particularly suitable motor. 

Bibliography. Among the many books dealing- 
with gas-engines, the following will be found 
useful: Hutton, Heat and Heat Engines (Xew 
York, 1899) ; Dugald-Clerk, Theory of the Gas 
Engine (New York, 1891) ; id.. The Gas and Oil 
Engine (New York, 1899) ; Donkin, A Tcxi-Book 
on Gas, Oil, and Air Engines (London, 1900) ; 
Hiscox, Gas, Gasoline, and Oil Vapor Engines 
(New York, 1900) ; Parsell and Weed, Gas En- 
gine Construction (New York, 1900). 

GASES, Analysis OF. See Analysis, Chem- 
ical. 

GASES, General Properties of. The study 
of the nature and properties of gases has yielded 
many of the most important results of modern 
science. Practically the entire structure of 
modern chemistry rests on our knowledge of 
gases. The birth of the science, as already ex- 
plained in the article Chemistry, followed al- 
most immediately the discovery of the common 
gases. The fruitful theories of modern organic 
chemistry are based entirely on the general prop- 



GAS-ENGINES 




1. WESTINGHOUSE SINGLE CRANK HORIZONTAL DOUBLE-ACTING GAS-ENGINE. 

2. OTTO GAS-ENGINE. 

3. WESTINGHOUSE 3-CYLINDER VERTICAL GAS-ENGINE Operating Direct Current Engine Type Generator. 



GASES. 



141 



GASES. 



erties of gases; and in the latter part of the 
nineteenth century general theoretical chemistry 
received a powerful impulse by the extension of 
the laws of gases to dilute solutions. ( See Solu- 
tion. ) On the other hand, the . physicist has 
been led, by the study of gases, to a clear and 
simple explanation of the phenomena of heat and 
of many other general plienomena forming im- 
portant chapters in modern physics. And, of 
course, through chemistry and physics tlie ap- 
plied and natural sciences, too, owe a great deal 
to our knowledge of gases. All this importance 
of gases is due to the comparative simplicity of 
the laws followed by them. The simplicity of the 
laws is, in turn, readily explained from the 
standpoint of the molecular conception. Mole- 
cules are minute particles of matter. When they 
are very near to one another there must natu- 
rally come into play, between them, forces whose 
effects are practically nothing when the mole- 
cules are widely separated. Under ordinary 
pressures a substance occupies a much greater 
volume in the gaseous than in the liquid or solid 
state. Thus, an amount of water occupying, at 
0° C, one cubic centimeter if liquid, would, if 
vaporized at the same temperature and imder 
ordinary atmospheric pressure, occupy over 773 
cubic centimeters. Evidently the molecules of a 
gaseous substance must be very far apart, and 
their mutual influence very slight. In other 
words, the number of causes determining the 
properties of gases must be smaller, and hence 
the properties themselves must be less complex 
than those of liquids or solids. Of course, as 
the volume within which a gas is compressed is 
made smaller and smaller, the relative simplicity 
of properties gradually disappears. (See Mole- 
cules — Molecular Weights.) Under certain 
conditions of pressure and temperature, the prop- 
erties of a substance in the gaseous and liquid 
states even become identical. (See Critical 
Point.) This shows that simplicity of prop- 
erties, while generally found in the gaseous state, 
is not strictly characteristic of it. Other char- 
acteristics may be found mentioned under Ag- 
gregation, States of. 

It is explained in the articles on Hydrostatics 
and Hydrodynamics how liquids and gases have 
certain properties in common, viz. all those 
which depend upon fluid pressure, which is de- 
fined as the force per unit area. It is shown 
in those articles: 

( 1 ) The pressure at any point in a gas is the 
same in all directions, and its value is fygh -\- P, 
where p is the average density of the gas above 
the point, (j is the acceleration due to gravity of 
a freely falling body, h is the vertical distance 
from the point to the top of the gas (if it is 
inclosed in a reservoir), and P is a ])ressure \mi- 
form throughout the gas, due to the reaction of 
the walls oif the reservoir against the outward 
expansive force of the gas. In all ordinary cases 
of gases h is not large, and so />r/// may be neg- 
lected, becnuse 8 is extremely small : and P is 
the principal term. In the case of the atmos- 
phere, however, P is zero and h large. 

(2) The pressure of the gas against the con- 
taining walls or against any solid immersed in 
it is perpendicular to the solid, if the gas is 
not flowing. 

(3) Archimedes's principle applies to gases, 
viz. if a solid or a drop of liquid is immersed 



in the gas it is buoyed up with a force equal to 
the weight of the displaced gas. 

(4) If a gas escapes from a reservoir through 
a small opening in a thin wall, its velocity of 

'eflBux' is given by the formula v = jzE, where p 

is the difference in pressure of the gas inside the 
reservoir and outside. (This is not the total 
pressure, but the partial pressure due to this 
particular gas. See Dalton's Laic, below.) 

(5) If a gas is flowing steadily but slowly 
through a tube or irregular cross-section, the 
pressure is greatest where the velocity is least, 
and vice versa. This is the principle of the 
'atomizer,' the 'injector' for steam boilers, etc. 

The densities of gases at 0° C. and standard 
pressure are as follows: 

Air, 0.001293; carbon dioxide, 0.01974; hydro- 
gen, 0.0000896; oxygen, 0.001430. The special 
properties of gases have been stated in the form 
of laws: 

Dalton's Law. If several gases are contained 
in the same reservoir they are distributed uni- 
formly through it, so that the mixture is every- 
where the same, and the total pressure on the 
walls is the sum of the partial pressures ; by 
'partial' pressure is meant that pressure which 
each gas by itself would exert on the walls if 
the other gases were removed. This law of 
pressures has been shown recently to be not per- 
fectly exact. 

Boyle's Law. If the temperature of a gas is 
kept constant, and its volume changes, the re- 
sulting pressure and density are such that one 
is proportional to the other. In symbols, 

p = Ap; or writing — for p, pv = km, where 

m is the mass and v is the volume. This law, 
too, is only approximate; for as the pressure on 
the gas is increased, the product pv does not 
remain a constant quantity, but first decreases 
and then increases. (For hydrogen gas the 
product pv increases without any preliminary 
decrease.) This means that at high pressures 
gases are less compressible than they would be 
if Boyle's law were obeyed exactly. This law, 
pv =■ constant at constant temperatures, was first 
stated by Robert Boyle in 10(i2 as the result of 
careful experiments on air; fourteen years after- 
wards it was published by ^iariotte. 

It is a consequence of Boyle's law that the 
elasticity of a gas at constant temperature nu- 
merically equals the pressure. If a gas is com- 
pressed rapidly its tem|>erature rises, and so the 
pressure is increased: the elasticity for a sudden 
compression or rarefaction equals yp, where y is 
the ratio of the two si>ecific heats for the gas and 
for ordinary gases has the value 1.4. (See Elas- 
ticity.) An instrument for measuring high pres- 
sures in a fluid is made, called a closed 'manom- 
eter,* the principle of which depends upon Boyle's 
law. It consists of a device to trap a definite 
mass of gas in a closed tube by means of some 
liquid, such as mercury, and to have the column 
of niercury compress the gas as the pressure to 
be measured is increased ; the volume of the gas 
varies inversely as the pressure on it. 

If a gas is allowed to expand freely, doing no 
external work — e.g. take two reservoirs connected 
by a tube with a stop-cock, conipress the gas in 



GASES. 



142 



GASKELL. 



one and rarefy it in the other, then let the stop- 
cock be opened — it is observed that there is prac- 
tically no energy required to produce the expan- 
sion. This shows that any forces of attraction be- 
tween the molecules must be extremely small. 
(See Heat.) It is found by experiment that if 
the pressure on a gas is kept constant, but the 
temperature changed, the volume changes at the 
rate given by the formula 

V = Voil -{- ^t) , 

w^here v is the volume a,tt° C. ; Vq, that at 0° ; /3 is 
a constant, the same for all gases approximately. 
Similarly, if the volume is kept constant, and the 
temperature changed, the pressure will change 
according to the law 

pz=zPo{l+ pi), 
where p is the pressure at *° C. ; 2hi that at 0° ; 
is a constant the same for all gases and the same 
as in the above formula for the change of volume. 
The value of this 'coefficient of expansion' is al- 
most exactly 37^ or 0.003662. This law for 
the change in pressure or volume of a gas as the 
temperature is altered, viz. that /S is the same 
for all gases, was discovered almost simulta- 
neously by Charles, Dalton, and Gay-Lussac. 

Another law, known as the 'law of combining 
volumes,' may be found explained under Chem- 
istry. 

The experimental laws for gases may be de- 
duced theoretically for a mechanical system of 
perfectly elastic spheres thrown at random into 
a space bounded by rigid w^alls. If the number 
of spheres is great enough to allow the applica- 
tion of the principle of statistics, it can be shown 
that the pressure on the walls owing to the 
impact of the spheres is /) = i mnu^, where m 
is the mass of each sphere, n is the number of 
spheres per cubic centimeter, u^ is the mean 
value of the squared velocities of the spheres. 
The density is then wn; and the formula may 
be written p = l/ntg. 

It may also be shown that the miean kinetic 
energy of translation of the spheres — 5 mu^ — 
has properties identical with those of the tem- 
perature of a gas ; consequently the above value 
of the pressure satisfies Boyle's law. The law 
for the expansion with temperature may also be 
derived, viz. that ^ is the same for all gases. 

Again, if there are several sets of spheres in- 
closed in the same space 

p = 1 ( wtiWiMi^ -f- mMM2 + etc. ) , 
which is Dalton's law. And if there is equi- 
librium 

^ miWi^ = \ m-iU^ + etc., 
and therefore 

p =^-miMt^ (mi -f* no + etc.) , 
which states that for a given value of ^wi,i^i*(i.e. 
temperature) the pressure depends simply on 
the numher of the spheres per cubic centimeter, 
not on their masses. This is equivalent to 
Avogadro's rule (q.v.), another of the general 
principles concerning gases. Looked at in a dif- 
ferent way: If there are two sets of spheres in 
different reservoirs at the same pressure, m^n^u^^ 
= WaW^Wa^ ; if further their values of mu^ are the 
same (i.e. their temperatures) . WaWi^ = jHsMs^ 
Hence rii = nj, or they have the same number of 
spheres per cubic centimeter. The densities of the 
two are /a, = mj^j, p, = ninn^: so if the pressures 
and 'temperatures' are the same 



which is the formula used in determining the 
'molecular A\'eights' of gases. See Molecules — 
Molecular Weights. 

It can be shown, further, that the greatest 
possible value of 7, the ratio of the specific heats, 
is 1.67; but if the molecules are complex, so that 
there is internal energj^ in them, 7 must be less. 
It is interesting to note that for helium, argon, 
and mercury vapor 7 =1.67, as found by direct 
experiment. 

The properties of the pressure due to the at- 
mosphere around the earth are discussed in the 
article Atmosphere. Only a few points need be 
mentioned here. The pressure is measured by a 
barometer (q.v.) and is fovmd to nearly equal 
that of 76 centimeters of mercury at sea-level and 
at 45° latitude, i.e. 76 X 13.6 X 980 or 1,013,300 
dynes per square centimeter. The barometer was 
invented by Torricelli, a pupil of Galileo ; and the 
first instrument was made and used by Viviani in 
1643. Pascal in 1648 showed that the height of 
the barometer varied with different heights above 
the earth, and proved that the pressure of the 
atmosphere obeyed the laws of liquid pressure. 
Von Guericke invented the air-pump (q.v.) in 
1650, and without knowing of Torricelli's work 
discovered the properties of atmospheric pres- 
sure. He did not publish an account of his 
work, however, until 1672. Boyle published in 
1660 an account of his experiments with an air- 
pump illustrating the properties of the pressure 
due to the air. 

The action of lift-pumps, siphons, etc., depends 
upon atmospheric pressure. Air-pumps are in- 
struments designed to exhaust the gas from a 
closed space such as a glass bulb. 

Consult : Kimball, Physical Properties of Gases 
(Boston, 1890) ; Barus, Laws of Gases, "Scientific 
Memoir Series," vol. v. (New York, 1899) ; Ran- 
dall, Expansion of Gases, "Scientific Memoir 
Series," vol. xv. (New York, 1901) ; Tait, Proper- 
ties of Matter (Edinburgh, 1885); Meyer, The 
Kinetic Theory of Gases (London, 1899). See 
Diffusion; Effusion; Matter, Theories of; 
Avogadro's Rule; Chemistry; Solution. See 
also Vapor. 

GASES; Liquefaction of. See Critical 
Point; Liquefaction of Gases; Refrigerating 
Machines, 

GAS'KELL,. Mrs. Elizabeth Cleghorn (1810- 
65 ) . An English novelist, born in Chelsea, 
September 29, 1810, the daughter of William 
Stevenson. When she was only a few weeks old 
her mother died, and she was brought up by her 
aunt at Knutsford, in Cheshire — the village af- 
terwards described in Cranford. She was sent to 
school at Stratford-on-Avon, where she learned 
Latin, French, and Italian, In 1832 she married 
Rev, William Gaskell, a L^nitarian minister of 
Manchester. Her first novel, Mary Barton, ap- 
peared anonvmously in 1848. It was followed by 
Ruth (1853)*; Cranford (ISr^S) ; Xorth and South 
(1855); Lizzie Leigh (1855): Sylvia's Lovers 
(1863); Cousin Phillis (1865); iVives atid 
Daughters (1866) ; and many short tales. Mrs. 
Gaskell's usual aim was to combine instruction 
with pleasure. Her first novel and several others 
depict the habits, thoughts, privations, and 
struggles of the industrial poor, as she herself 
had observed them in Alanchester. Her classic, 
however, is Cranford, which describes with de- 



GASKELL. 



143 



GASPAE.Y. 



lightful humor a town given over wholly to 
spinsters. Mrs. Gaskell also wrote one of the 
very best biographies — Life of Charlotte Brante 
(1857). She died November 12, 1865. Consult 
the article on Mrs. Gaskell in Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography, vol. xxi. (London, 1890). 

GASKELL, Walter Holbrook ( 1847— ) . An 
English physiologist. He was born at Naples, 
Italy, was educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, studied medicine at University Hospital 
and Leipzig University, and in 1883 was ap- 
pointed university lecturer in physiology at Cam- 
bridge, In 1889 he became fellow of Trinity Hall, 
and in the same year received the gold medal of 
the Royal Society for his investigations regard- 
ing the sympathetic nervous system. Several im- 
portant articles from his pen on this subject 
have appeared in the Journal of Physiology. His 
name is identified with the theory that the cen- 
tral nervous system in vertebrates has resulted 
from the coalescence of the alimentary canal and 
the central nervous system of some crustacean- 
like ancestral form. In 1896 he was elected presi- 
dent of the physiological section of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 

GAS'OLINE. See Petroleum. 

GASOM'ETEB. See Gas, Illuminating. 

GASPARI, ga-spa'r^, Gaetano ( 1807-81 ) . An 
Italian musician, composer, and musical his- 
toriographer, born at Bologna. He studied com- 
position under B. Donelli, at the Liceo Musicale, 
which institution he entered in 1820 and was 
more or less connected with throughout his life. 
As a student, he won the first prize in composi- 
tion (1827), and one year later was made hon- 
orary maestro. In 1840 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of solfeggio. The interval between 1828 and 
1839 had been spent at Cento and Imola, where 
he resided as maestro di cappella. A tardy 
recognition of his talents secured for him in 1855 
the appointment of librarian to the Liceo, as well 
as the chair of aesthetics. From 1857 to 1866 he 
held the important appointment of maestro di 
cappella at the Church of Saint Petronio. In 
1866 he became a member of the royal deputa- 
tion for historical research in tlie Romagnu, and 
personally prepared the report on the musicians 
of Bok)gna, Already famous for his scholarly at- 
tainments, his work with the royal deputjition 
increased his prestige, and led him to devote him- 
self entirely to historical research. His com- 
positions are comparatively unimportant, and 
were almost entirely written for the services of 
the Church, Of his many writings, the essay 
Richerche, documcnti e memoric risguardanti la 
sioria delV arte musicale in Bologna (1867) is 
among the most important. He died at Bologna. 

GASPARIN^ gi\'spA'rrjN', Ag6nor Etienne, 
Count de (1810-71). A P'rench statesman and 
author, son of Count Adrien Etienne Pierre de 
Gasparin (1783-1862), born at Orange. In 1836 
he entered the Cabinet of his father, then ^lin- 
ister of the Interior, as chief of a department, 
became master of requests in the Council of 
State in 1837, and in 1842 was elected to the 
Chamber of Deputies from Bastia in Corsica; 
but ho failed of reelection in 1846. and put 
all of his enthusiasm into his written work. 
He wrote on the sei)aration of Church and State, 
Lcfi int(^rHs g&n^rnnx du prolestantistf^e fran- 
Qais (1843), and Christianisme et pagnnismc 
(1846); on the abolition of slavery, Esclavage 



et traite (1838) ; Un grand petiple qui se reUve 
(1861) ; and L'Amerique devant V Europe (1862) ; 
on the reform of home life. La famille (1865) ; 
La liberie morale (1863) ; La conscience (1872) ; 
and L'ennemi de la famille (1874) ; and in con- 
nection with the Franco-Prussian War, La decla- 
ration de guerre, un protet ( 1870) ; La republique 
neutre d' Alsace (1870); and Appel au patriot- 
isme et au hon sens (1871). From 1849 until f 
his death he lived at Geneva. Consult: Na- 
ville, Le Comte Agenor de Gasparin (Geneva, 
1871) ; Borel under the same title (2d ed., Paris, 
1879) ; Bar Fey-Boisier. La Comtesse Agnes 
de Gasparin et sa famille; correspondance et 
souvenirs, 1813-1804 (2 vols., Paris, 1902). 

GASPARIN, Valerie Boissier, Countess de 
(1813-94). A French woman of letters, bom at 
Geneva. She was the wife of Agenor, Count de 
Gasparin (1810-71) (q.v.). She lived a great part 
of her life in the Canton Vaud, Switzerland, and 
was a prolific writer, mostly on religious and 
social topics. In addition to a number of trans- 
lations of English and American authors, she 
published Le mariage au point de vue Chretien 
(1842), a work which won the Montyon prize 
from the French Academy; Allons faire fortune 
d, Paris (1844); Vn livre pour les femmes 
mariees (1845) ; II y a dcs pauvres a Paris et 
ailleurs (1846), which won the Montyon prize 
of the Academy; Quelques defauts des Chretiens 
d'aujourd'hui (1853); Des corporations monas- 
iiques au sein du protestantisme (1855); Les 
horizons prochains (1859) ; Les horizons celestes 
(1859) ; Vesper (1861) ; Les tristesses humaines 
(1863); and La lepre sociale (1870). 

GASPARINO DA BARZIZZA, ^i'spA-re'nd 
da bar-tse'tsA (?-I431). An Italian humanist, 
bom at Barzizza (Province of Bergamo). He 
taught successively at Venice and Padua, and in 
1418 was called by Filippo Maria Visconti to 
Milan to establish a school there. Following the 
initiative of Petrarch, he placed great emphasis 
on the art of Latin epistolography, causing his 
scholars to imitate as nearly as might be the 
style of the letters of Cicero. This matter of 
polite letter-Avriting occupied an important place 
among the studies of Renaissance scholars, and 
Epistolaria, or 'guides to correspondence,' were 
prepared for the instruction of beginners. It is 
said that Gasparino intended to fill with conjec- 
tural material the numerous lacunte existing in 
all manuscripts of the Dc Oratore then known. 
but was prevented by the discovery at Lodi 
(1419) of a complete manuscript. kno\>-n as the 
Codex Laudensis, from which he tlien supplied the 
gaps. His complete works appeared at Rome in 
1723. 

GASPARY, gjts'pft-i^. Adolf (1849-92). A 
German Romance philologist, born in Berlin. He 
studied there and at Munich and Freiburg, in 
1879 was appointed lecturer in Romance lan- 
guages at the University of Berlin, and in 1880 
a professor at Breslau. In 1891 he accepted the 
appointment to a professorship at Gr>ttingen. but 
owing to illness, never entered U|>on his duties 
there. He ranks among the foremost of recent 
Italian scholars in Germany. His most important 
worK is his Geschichte dor italienischen Littera- 
tur (vols, i. and ii,. 1885-88; incomplete) ; Die 
sizilianischc Diohterschule des dreizchntru Jahr- 
hundvrts (1878). Both of these have apjieared 



GASPARY. 



144 



GASSER VON VALHORN. 



in Italian translations, the former at Turin in 
1887-91, the latter at Leghorn in 1882. 

GASPE^ gas'pa''. The most easterly district in 
the Province of Quebec, Can., consisting of the 
counties of Gaspe and Bonaventure, chiefly a 
peninsula projecting into the Gulf of Saint Law- 
rence, between the estuary of the same name on 
the north and the Bay of Chaleur on the south 
( Map : Quebec, H 5 ) . It consists of an elevated 
plateau traversed by the Schikshock or Notre 
Dame Mountains, ranging from 3500 to 3800 feet 
in height, and which terminate in Cape Gaspe, a 
bold headland of sandstone 690 feet high. Area, 
7500 square miles. Population, in 1891, 47,700; 
in 1901, 52,200, the greater number of the in- 
habitants being of French descent. Lumbering 
and fishing are the chief occupations of the 
country. 

GASPE. A village in the Province of Quebec, 
Can., which gives its name to the district (q.v.) 
and the bay on which it stands (Map: Quebec, 
H 5 ) . It is the commercial centre of the extensive 
fishing industries of the region, and is a favorite 
summer resort for sportsmen attracted thither 
by fine angling and the varied scenery. The 
United States is represented by a consul and a 
vice-consul. It was here that Jacques Cartier 
landed in 1534, and took formal possession of 
the country for the King of France. It was the 
scene of the destruction of a French fleet in 
1627; in 1760 it was captured by the English. 
Population, in 1891, 307; in 1901, 454. 

GASPE, Philip Ignatius (1714-87). A 
French-Canadian soldier. He accompanied De 
Longueil on the expedition against the Chicacha 
iind Natchez Indians (1739), and subsequently 
led troops from Michilimackinac in attacks on 
the English colonists. In 1750-52 he was in com- 
mand of a fort on the Saint John River, and in 
1758 led the Canadian militia in the defense of 
Fort Carillon (better known under its English 
name of Ticonderoga ) , when 3600 troops under 
Montcalm repulsed an English army about four 
times as numerous under Abercromby. After the 
surrender of Quebec in 1759, he commanded the 
grenadiers of De Levis. 

GASPERE Air, gas'per-o ( Fr. ) . The alewife ; 
so called in Eastern Canada. 

GASS, gas, WiLHELM (1813-89). A German 
Protestant theologian, born in Breslau. He stud- 
ied at Breslau, Halle, and Berlin, became a lec- 
turer in theology at Breslau in 1839, and in 
1846 was appointed professor. Subsequently he 
was professor at Greifswald from 1847 to 1861, at 
Giessen in 1861-68, and from 1868 at Heidelberg. 
His chief work is Geschiohte der protestanti- 
schen Dogmotik (4 vols., 1854-67) . His other pub- 
lications include: Gennadius und Pletho, Aristo- 
telismus und Platonis'mus in der griechischen 
Kirche (1844) ; Die Mystik des Nikolaus Kaha- 
.silas vom Lehen in Christo (1849); and Ge- 
fchichte der chrifiitUchen Ethik (2 vols., 1881-87). 
He was an associate editor of the Zeitschrift 
fiir Kirchengeschichte, and of the Theologischer 
Jahrcshcricht. 

GASSENDI, ga'sJiN'd<^', or GASSEND, gSs'- 
shN', Pierre (1592-1655). An eminent French 
philosopher and mathematician. He was born at 
Ohamptercier, a little village of Provence, in the 
Department of the Lower Alps. His unusual 
powers of mind showed themselves at an early 



age; and at the age of sixteen he became in- 
structor of rhetoric, then professor of theology, 
at Aix, and in 1616 professor of philosophy. He 
meanwhile applied himself with zeal to the study 
of the natural sciences that were taught in his 
day, and was especially interested in astronomy 
and anatomy. In philosophy he became dis- 
gusted with scholasticism and undertook to main- 
tain certain theses against the Aristotelians. His 
polemic appeared at Grenoble in 1624, and was 
entitled Exercitationes Paradoxicce adversus Aris- 
toteleos. He drew a distinction between the 
Church and the scholastic philosophy, denying 
that the former must stand or fall by the latter. 
In 1623 he was appointed provost of the cathe- 
dral at Digne, an office which enabled him to 
pursue without distraction his astronomical and 
philosophical studies. At the recommendation 
of the Archbishop of Lyons, a brother of Cardinal 
Richelieu, Gassendi was appointed in 1645 pro- 
fessor of mathematics in the College Royal de 
France, at Paris, where he died, October 14, 
1655. As a philosopher, Gassendi revived and 
maintained, with great learning and ingenuity, 
the doctrines of Epicurus, as he found the 
atomistic philosophy most easily brought into 
harmony with his own scientific acquirements 
and modes of thought. His Epicureanism, how- 
ever, was not allowed to interfere with his loy- 
alty to the Catholic faith. He reconciled the two 
views by holding that God is the First Cause, who 
created matter in the form of atoms, and en- 
dowed these with motion, which thus becomes 
their indefeasible characteristic. His great philo- 
sophical opponent was Descartes (q.v.). His 
philosophy was in such repute that the savants of 
that time were divided into Cartesians and Gas- 
sendists. The two chiefs themselves always enter- 
tained the highest respect for each other, and were 
at one time on the friendliest terms. Gassendi 
ranked Kepler and Galileo among his friends, 
and was himself the instructor of.Moli^re. His 
principal work is entitled De Vita, Moribus, et 
Placitis Epicuri (1641), to which the Syntagma 
Philosophice Epicuri (1649) properly belongs. It 
contains a complete view of the system of Epi- 
curus. His Institutio Astronomica (1645) is a 
clear and connected representation of the state 
of the science in his own day; in a later work he 
gave the biography of Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, 
and other astronomers, and a history of astron- 
omy down to his own time. His works were col- 
lected and published in six volumes, at Leyden 
( 1658 ) , and at Florence ( 1728 ) . Consult : Thomas, 
La philosophie de Gassendi (Paris, 1889) ; Mar- 
tin, Hisioire de la vie et des ccrits de Gassendi 
(Paris, 1853) ; Kiefl, Gassendi's Erkenntnis- 
theorie und seine Stellung zum Materialismun 
(Fulda, 1893). 

GASSER, gjis'er, Hans (1817-68). An Aus- 
trian sculptor, born at Eisentratten, Carinthia. 
He studied in Vienna under Amerling. Blieber, 
and Kjihsmann, and afterwards in Munich witli 
Schwanthaler. His works include the statue of 
Adam Smith at Oxford, allegorical statues for 
the arsenal and other public buildings of Vienna, 
and the monuments to Wieland at Weimar, and 
Maria Theresa at Klagenfurt and Wiener-Neu- 
stadt. One of his best works is the "Donauweib- 
chen" imthe Vienna Stadtpark. 

GASSER VON VALHORN, gSs'ser f6n ffiF- 
horn, Joseph (1816-1900). An Austrian sculp- 



GASSER VON VALHORN. 



145 



GASTINEAU. 



iior, brother of Hans Gasser, born at Pragraten, 
Tyrol. First instructed by his father, a joiner 
and wood-carver, he studied afterwards at the 
Vienna Academy under Schaller, Klieber, and 
Kahssmann, and from 1845 to 1849 in Rome, 
-whither he had gone with a Government stipend. 
After his return he executed for the portal of 
the Cathedral of Speier five statues of heroic 
size, representing "The Holy Virgin;" "Archangel 
Michael;" "John the Baptist;" "Saint Stephen;" 
and "Bernard of Clairvaux." Among the numer- 
ous works intrusted to him subsequently in 
Vienna, where he had settled in 1852, are to be 
noted the statues of Emperor Maximilian I., 
Frederick the Warlike, and Leopold of Hapsburg, 
in the Arsenal ; the marble statues of the "Seven 
Liberal Arts," in the staircase of the opera house ; 
twenty-four statues in Saint Stephen's Cathedral ; 
and especially the sculptures for the Votivkirche, 
including the "Coronation of Mary," "Group 
of the Trinity," "Statue of the Redeemer," and 
the large bas-reliefs on the three main portals. 
He was professor at the Academy from 1865 to 
1873, and a title of nobility was conferred on him 
in 1870. 

GASSION, g&'syflN^ Jean de (1609-47). A 
French general, born at Pan. He fought under 
the Prince of Piedmont in 1625, and under the 
Duke de Rohan in 1628. In 1629 he joined a troop 
of French volunteers and entered the service of 
Oustavus Adolphus. With him he fought at 
l^eipzig (1631), and saved his life afterwards 
at the siege of Ingoldstadt. As a reward the 
King gave him command of a regiment. He fur- 
ther distinguished himself at Nuremberg and 
Liitzen. After the King's death he returned to 
France and fought bravely in the battles of 
Cliarmes and NeuchAtel, and at the sieges of 
Dole. Hesdin, and Landrecies. In 1638 he was 
made mar(''chal-de-camp and materially assisted 
in the French victory of Rocroi (1643). He re- 
ceived the baton of a marshal of France in 1643. 
Four years afterwards he died from the effects of 
a wound received under the walls of Lens. 

GASSNEB, gfts'ner, Joiiann Joseph (1727- 
79). A priest who gained renown as an exorcist. 
He was born at Bratz, near Bludenz, in the Tyrol, 
and became a Catholic priest at KKisterle, in the 
diocese of Chur (1758). The accounts of demo- 
niacs in the New Testament, with the writings of 
eelcbrated magicians, brought him to the convic- 
tion that most diseases are attributable to evil 
spirits, whose ])ower can be destroyed only by 
-conjuration and ])rayer. He began to practice on 
some of his parishioners, and succeeded in at 
least attracting notice. The Bishop of Constance 
called him to his residence, but having come to 
the convicti(m that he was a charlatan, advised 
him to return to his parsonage. Gassner betook 
himself, however, to pther prelates of the Empire, 
some of whom believed that his cures were mi- 
raculous, and he gained influential supporters, 
although innumerable attacks wore made upon his 
methods and the genuineness of his cures. Con- 
sult his life by Zimmerman (Kempten, 1787). 

GAST, gilst. Frederick Aunrsxus (1835—). 
An American clergyman of the Reformed Church 
in the Ignited States, born at Lancaster. Pa. He 
graduated in 1856 at Franklin and Marshall Col- 
lege (Lancaster), studied at the Mercersburg 
Theological Seminary (now at I^ancaster), and 
in 1859-65 was pastor at New Holland, Pa. In 



1865 he was chaplain of the Forty-fifth Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, in 1865-67 pastor at Loudon 
and Saint Thomas, Pa., and in 1867-71 principal 
of the academy connected with Franklin and 
Marshall College. From 1871 to 1872 he was 
assistant professor in the college, from 1871 to 
1873 a tutor in the Lancaster Theological Semi- 
nar}, and in 1873 was appointed professor of 
Hebrew and Old Testament theology in the lat- 
ter institution. His articles upon the Old Testa- 
ment and allied subjects have been published in 
theological periodicals. 

GASTEIN, ga'stin. A valley in the Austrian 
Duchy of Salzburg, celebrated for its mineral 
springs. It is a side valley of the upper Salzach 
Valley, and is about 25 miles long and one and 
one-quarter miles broad, with an elevation of 
between 3000 and 3500 feet. It is traversed by 
the River Ache, which forms near Wildbad-Gas- 
tein two magnificent waterfalls, the upper, the 
Kesselfall, 200 feet, and the lower, the Blirenfall, 
280 feet in height. The principal villages are 
Bockstein, Hof-Gastein, and Wildbad-Gastein. 
Hof-Gastein, with a number of old gold and silver 
mines in the vicinity, contains a military hospi- 
tal, and in the open platz there is a bust of the 
Emperor Francis I., who in 1828 caused a con- 
duit of upward of five miles in length to be con- 
structed for the purpose of conveying the mineral 
waters thither from Wildbad. Wildbad, the 
principal watering-place, is a fashionable health 
resort, and contains a number of hotels and 
villas. The water of the springs is considered 
efficacious in the case of nervous and skin dis- 
eases. 

GASTEIN, CoNN'ENTiox OF. A treaty con- 
cluded at Wildbad-Gastein, August 14, 1865, be- 
tween Austria and Prussia, regulating the rela- 
tions of these two powers with respect to the 
duchies of Schleswig-Holstein (q.v.) and Lauen- 
burg, which they had taken from Denmark, and 
occupied in common. Schleswig was placed under 
Prussian administration, and Holstein under 
Austrian, while Lauenburg was annexed to Prus- 
sia, Austria ceding its share for 2,500,000 rix 
thalers. See Germany. 

GASTEROMYCETES (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., 
from Gk. -yacr-fip, (faster, stomach -f- fJ^KTtt, mykCs, 
mushroom). The group of fungi that includes 
tiie pufn)alls. See Basidiomycetes. 

GASTINE, gft'st^n', CiviQUE (1793-1822). A 
West Indian reformer and author, born at Fort 
de France in the island of Martinique. In 1800 
he began the study of law at Philadelphia, Pa., 
but, owing to views expressed in a public address 
regarding equality between whites and blacks, 
was obliged, in 1813, to make his escape to Paris. 
There he began, in 1815, to publish a journal 
called L'Ami du .Voir, whoso utterances frequently 
subjected him to imprisonment or fines. Finally 
upon the publication of his De la u^ccsftit^ </" 
fnirc un trait/' de commerce arec Haiti (1821). 
he was banished. He proceeded to Hayti. where 
he was granted an annual pension of 5000 francs, 
and appointed Secretary of Foreign Relations. 
His further publications include an Hifitoire de la 
rcpuhliqtte de Haiti (1819), and an Histoire de 
Vesclavafjc dan a la FjOtiiffiaua (1820). 

GASTINEAU, gj\'st^'nA', Renjamix (1823 
— ). A French author, born at Montreuil-Bellay. 
He was at first a printer, but afterwards became 



GASTINEAU. 



146 



GASTR^A THEORY. 



a writer, and first attracted attention by a series 
of articles in L'Ami du Feuple in 1851, which 
led to his arrest and deportation to Algeria. He 
returned to France in 1854, but his connection 
with the Guelteur de Saint-Quentin, which he 
edited in 1856-58, brought upon him the dis- 
pleasure of the Government, and he was again 
deported. After several years' absence he was 
again in France, and after the insurrection of 
March, 1871, was placed in charge of the Mazarin 
Library by the Communists. For this he was in 
the following year again sentenced to deportation 
(in his absence), but returned to France after the 
general amnesty. In addition to frequent contri- 
butions to the reviews, he published a large num- 
ber of books, mostly of a political or historical 
nature, of which the most important are: Lutte 
du ca'tholicisme et de la philosophie (1844) ; Le 
honheur sur terre (1844) ; La guerre des Jesuites 
(1845); L'orpheline de Waterloo (1847); Le 
regime de Satan, ou les riches et les-. pauvres 
(1848); Les femmes et les moeurs de VAlgerie 
(1852); Histoire de la folie humaine (1862); 
Les femmes des Cesar s (1863) ; Les genies de la 
Uherte (1865); Les socialistes (1865); Les 
drames du mariage (1865) ; Les victimes d'lsa- 
helle II. (1868); L'imperatrice du Bas-Empire 
(1870) ; Le centenaire de Voltaire (1878) ; Les 
femmes et les pretres (1888) ; and Les crimes des 
pretres de Veglise. 

GASTINEL, ga'ste'neF, LfioN (1823-). A 
French composer, bom at Dijon. He was a pupil 
of Halevy, and won the Prix de Rome for his 
cantata Velasquez (1846). His operas include: 
Le miroir (1853) ; L'opera aux fenetres (1857) ; 
Titus et Berenice (1860) ; and Le huisson vert 
( 1861 ) ; and the oratorios, Le dernier jour 
(1853) ; Les sept paroles; Saul; La fee des eaux. 
He also wrote a cantata Mexico (1863), and 
several masses, symphonies, and overtures, be- 
sides chamber music and songs. 

GASTON, ga'st^N', Marie. The nom-de-plume 
with which Alphonse Daudet signed the Lettres 
de mon Moulin (1866). 

GAS^TON, William (1778-1844). An Ameri- 
can orator and jurist, born in Newbern, N. C, of 
French Huguenot descent. He. graduated at 
Princeton in 1796, was admitted to the bar in 
1798, and in the following year was elected to the 
State Senate. He Avas a Presidential elector in 
1808, and from 1813 to 1817 was a Federalist 
member of Congress, where he achieved a repu- 
tation as an orator by an able speech in opposi- 
tion to the Loan Bill in 1815. After his retire- 
ment from Congress he engaged actively in law 
practice, and added to his reputation as one of 
the most eloquent orators in the South. He was 
elected frequently to the State Legislature, where 
he was the framer of the act establishing the 
present Supreme Court of the State. After the 
disappearance of the Federal Party he became 
a Whig, and zealously opposed the South Caro- 
lina nullification doctrine. He served as a judge 
of the Supreme Court of North Carolina from 
1834 until his death. 

GASTON III., CoMTE DE Foix. See Foix. 

GASTON DE FOIX, de fw'A, Due de Ne- 
mours. See Foix. 

GASTOR'NIS (from Gast-on Plants, the dis- 
coverer of the bird + Gk. 6pvis, ornis, bird). A 
genus, or perhaps a family (Gastornithidse), of 



extinct gigantic birds, larger than and related to 
the ostriches, whose bones are found in the Lower 
Eocene of France and England, and which is 
represented in coeval formations in the United 
States by the genus Diatryma. "In the Euro- 
pean gastornis the component bones of the skull 
remained separate throughout life, and . . . 
there may have been a tooth on each side of the 
upper jaw." See Brontornis. 

GASTR^'A THEORY (Neo-Lat., from Gk. 
yaffTT^p, gaster, stomach). A theory propounded 
by E. Haeckel, according to which the gastrula 
stage in the development of animals (see Em- 
bryology) is a recapitulation of a hypothetical 
common ancestor — the gastrsea; for just as the 
two-layered gastrula stage, although sometimes 
disguised by the presence of much yolk, is com- 
mon in the embryological development of the 
Metazoa, so in their phylogenetic development 
there was a primitive type that was the starting- 
point from which all the various metazoan types 
have developed along diverging lines. The gas- 
trula is the type which seems to be the common 
one in the embryological development of the 
Metazoa. The hypothetical phylogenetic type, 
the starting-point of the Metazoa, Haeckel named 
'gastrsea.' The Gastraeidse were supposed to be of 
world-wide distribution, and of many families 
and genera. The outer and inner layers of the 
gastrula and the gastrsea Haeckel homologized 
with the ectoderm and entoderm of the Metazoa. 
This theory, however^ should not be wholly 
ascribed to Haeckel, for the homologies of the 
germ-layers had already been pointed out by 
Kowalewsky, Von Baer, Remak, and others. Ko- 
walewsky concluded from his embryological re- 
searches that the nervous layers and the ectoderm 
of insects and vertebrates are homologous, and 
that the germinal layers of Amphioxus and 
vertebrates correspond with those of ascidians 
and worms. Kowalewsky, indeed, believed "that 
the homologies of the general layers in the dif- 
ferent types afford a scientific basis for compara- 
tive anatomy and embryology, and must be recog- 
nized as the starting-point for the proper under- 
standing of the relationships of the types." The 
generalizations of Haeckel, although based large- 
ly on such w^ork as Kowalewsky's, are much 
bolder than those just quoted. 

The simplest and probably the most primitive 
gastrula seen in vertebrate development is that of 
Amphioxus. The blastula, or stage that is ante- 
cedent to the gastrula in Amphioxus, is composed 
of a single layer of cylindrical cells closely joined 
in the shape of a hollow sphere. At one place 
in this sphere, called the vegetative pole, the 
cells are larger and contain more yolk-granules 
than the cells of the rest of the circumference. 
The vegetative surface begins to flatten and then 
to push toward the inside of the sphere. This 
inpushing is termed 'invagination.' As the cav- 
ity formed by invagination grows larger, the 
original cleavage cavity in the sphere grows 
smaller, until finally it is wholly obliterated. The 
resulting individual is two-layered and cup- 
shaped with one large opening to the exterior, 
the primitive mouth or blastopore. This double- 
layered, cup-shaped individual is the gastrula, 
and its inner cavity is the primitive intestine. 
Neither this mouth nor the intestine is homol- 
ogous with the mouth or the intestine of the 
adult animal. The two primary germ-layers of 



GASTR-ffiA THEORY. 



147 



GASTROCHJENA. 



I 



the gastrula are known as ectoderm and ento- 
derm. The outer or ectoderm is the sensitive 
layer, and the inner is the nutritive layer. C. E. 
von Baer calls them^ in view of their function, 
the two primitive organs of the animal body. By 
the separation and differentiation of cells from 
one or the other, or both of these layers, all 
subsequent development and differentiation of 
the body is brought about. Embryonic stages 
quite like this of the Amphioxus are known to 
exist in the Ccelenterata, some Scolecida, Echino- 
derniata, and some Annelida, in addition to those 
of the higher vertebrates. 

As Huxley has pointed out, the Porifera and 
Coelenterata ,very nearly approach the conditions 
of the gastra?a. The fresh-water hydra and the 
microhydra, for example, are two-layered animals 
with a central digestive cavity surrounded by 
both layers and opening to the exterior at a 
point about the margins of which the two layers 
are continuous. This permanent mouth is the 
terminal aperture of the gastriea and serves 
both for the ingestion and extrusion of materials, 
while in the Porifera it serves as the permanent 
egestive opening only. Consult: Haeckel, "Die 
Gastraeatheorie, die phylogenetische Classification 
des Thierreichs und die Homologie der Keim- 
bliitter" (Jena, 1874) ; "Die Ga«trula und die 
Eifurchung der Thiere" (Jena, 1875) ; "Ursprung 
und Entwicklung der thierischen Gewebe: Ein 
histogenetischer Beitrag zur Gastraeatheorie," 
(Jena, 1885), all published in Zeitschrift fiir 
Thiermedicin ; Kowalewsky, "Weitere Studien 
iiber die Entwicklungs-geschiclite des Amphioxus 
lanceolatus, nebst einem Beitrage zur Homologie 
des Nervensystems der Wurmer und Wirbel- 
thiere," in Archiv fiir Mikroscopische Anatomie, 
vol. xiii. (Bonn, 1877) ; Biitschli, "Bemerkungen 
zur Gastraeatheorie ;" in MorpJiologisches Jahr- 
huch, vol. ix. (Leipzig, 1884). 

GASTRAL^'GIA, or Gas'trodyn'ia. See Cab- 

DIALGIA. 

GASTRIC FEVER. See Typhoid Feveb. 
GASTRIC JUICE. See Digestion; Food; 

Gastritis. 

GASTRI'TIS ( Neo-Lat., from Gk. 7curTiJp, gass- 
tCr, stomach). A disease in which the mucous 
membrane of the stomach is the seat of disordered 
action accompanied by inflammation. Acute gas- 
tritis may be of three forms: (1) Acute ca- 
tarrhal gastritis, in which there is a feeling of 
fullness, production of gas in the stomach, nau- 
sea, slight pain, severe headache, often rise of 
temperature, possibly vomiting, diarrhoea or con- 
stipation, with furred tongue. It is caused by 
errors in diet, such as excessive quantities of 
food, ice-cold drinks, spiced or fermented food, 
or alcoholic beverages. It is very oommon, and, 
except in the aged, has a favorable prognosis. 
Emptying the stomach by washing with a tube or 
pump is good treatment in some instance's. 
Some aperient is generally very desirable, and 
the stomach should be rested for about three 
days. (2) Toxic gastritis is caused by alcohol, 
phosphorus, arsenic, corrosive sublimate, chlorate 
of potash, mineral acids, caustic alkalies, etc. 
The symptoms are as given for acute catarrhal 
gastritis with vomiting of bhiod, torturing thirst, 
Bmall pulse, cyanosis, cold i)orspiration, and even 
coma and death in grave cases. The treatment 
consists in antidoting the poison taken, and in 



seme cases washing the stomach. (3) Purulent 
or phlegmonous gastritis, in which variety small 
abscesses form in the submucous or muscular layer 
of the stomach walls. After dyspeptic symptoms 
for several days, burning pain, thirst, revulsion 
against food, fever reaching 103° to 105° F., 
small, irregular pulse, vomiting of mucus and 
bile, and generally diarrhoea follow. Death gen- 
erally supervenes in from four days to two weeks. 

In chronic gastritis the symptoms are as in the 
acute catarrhal form, persisting permanently, 
with constipation alternating with diarrhoea, 
pyrosis, scanty urine, cold hands and feet, coated 
tongue. There is generally a decrease in the 
secretion of gastric juice, and low acidity, as 
learned from a test meal. Diet and hygiene, oc- 
casional lavage, intragastric electrization, certain 
mineral waters, and very little drugging, help 
many cases to enjoy life for years. 

Pathology. In acute catarrhal gastritis, the 
mucous membrane of the stomach is swollen and 
red, and coated with an increased amount of 
mucus, although the secretion of gastric juice 
is less than normal. The cells of the mucous 
membrane, both mucous and peptic, are swollen 
and granular, and there may be considerable infil- 
tration of the intertubular tissue with serum and 
leucocytes. In the acute gastritis due to the 
taking of irritant poisons such as strong acids, 
caustic alkalies, corrosive sublimate, etc., the 
changes in the stomach are directly proportioned 
to the quantity and strength of the poison taken. 
Thus, strong acid in large quantities may not 
only destroy the entire mucous membrane of the 
stomach, but may cause extensive destruction of 
the deeper coats, even causing perforation. 
Smaller quantities destroy portions of the nui- 
cous membrane and underlying tissue, with con- 
sequent sloughing and cicatrization. In chronic 
gastritis the stomach may be of normal size, 
small, or enlarged. The mucous membrane may 
be thickened, or thinner than normal, and is 
usually coated with thick tenacious mucus. It 
may be red and congested, or of a dull gray color. 
There are atrophy of the gastric tubules and an 
increase in the tubular connective, tissue. The 
stomach walls are sometimes greatly thickened 
from the formation of new fibrous tissue, and the 
capacity of the organ is thus greatly diminished. 
A form of gastritis characterized by the forma- 
tion of a false membrane is known as croupous, 
membranous, or diphtheritic gastritis. In con- 
nection with suppurative processes in other parts 
of the body, there may be suppuration with ab- 
scess formation in the'walls of the stomach, this 
condition constituting what is known as suppura- 
tive or purulent gastritis. 

GASTROCHiENA, gfts'trd-ke'ni (Neo-Lat., 
from Gk. ya<rT-^p, gastcr, stomach -f x^^^^^'t chat- 
nein, to gape). A genus of lamellibranchiate 
mollusks, having a delicate shell of two equal 
valves, gaping very much in front. The animal 
sometimes takes possession of an already exist- 
ing cavity, which it often coats with a calcareous 
lining, so as to form a tube, to which the valves of 
its shell are cemented; sometimes burrows for 
itself in sand, coral, or calcareous rocks, and lines 
its hole with a shelly layer. One species {Gastro- 
chfDin modiolitia) , common in the Afediterranean, 
perforates shells and limestone, making holes 
about two inches deep and half an inch in diam- 
eter. The tubes of some of the tropical species 



GASTROCH-ffiNA. 



148 



GASTROPODA. 



which live in sand are very curious. See Watee- 
iNG-PoT Shell. 

GASTROCNEMIUS ( gas'trok-ne'mi-us ) 
MUSCLE (Neo-Lat. from Gk. yaa-TpoKinjfjUa, gas- 
troknemia, calf of the leg, from yaor-fip, gaster, 
stomach -j- kvi^jut), kneme, knee ) . The muscle 
which forms the greater part of the calf of the 
leg. It arises by two heads from the two con- 
dyles of the femur or thigh-bone, and is inserted 
through the tendo Achillis into the posterior 
part of the heel-bone. In man this muscle pos- 
sesses great power, and is constantly called into 
use in standing, walking, leaping, etc. In walk- 
ing it raises the heel, and with it the entire body 
from the ground; and, the body being tttus sup- 
ported on the raised foot, the other leg is carried 
forward. From its close association with the 
erect position, it is much less developed in other 
mammals than in the human subject. 

GAS'TRO-EN'TERFTIS (Xeo-Lat., f rom Gk. 
yaari^Py gaster, stomach + cj'xepoy, enteron, in- 
testine ) . An inflammatory disease of the stomach 
and small intestine resulting in disordered func- 
tion, vomiting, and diarrhoea. In children the 
disease is called cholera infantum (q.v. ). It is 
the 'summer diarrhoea' which proves fatal to so 
many infants fed on cow's milk from unclean 
hottles. In children it is ushered in by slight 
fever, fretfulness, diarrhoea, coated tongue, and 
loss of appetite. In a few days the diarrhoea be- 
comes worse, the stools are thin, green, yellow, or 
hrown, and contain undigested food and mucus, 
and their odor is very offensive. The infant be- 
comes pale, and rapidly emaciates. It may im- 
prove from this point and recover in a week; or 
it may suddenly suffer from a rise of tempera- 
ture to 103° or 105° F., cry much, evince great 
thirst, and exhibit a weak pulse. Stupor, sunken 
eyes, general relaxation, and even convulsions 
may follow. Vomiting supervenes on taking any 
food or water, and death results from exhaustion. 
The treatment includes : change of air to a 
cooler climate, or an excursion into the country, 
or on the salt water three times a week; out-of- 
door life, in Jiammock or carriage, sponge bath- 
ing to allay restlessness and fever, scrupulous 
cleanliness, withholding all food for twelve to 
twenty- four hours, allaying thirst with small 
quantities of barley water, followed by nursing 
every four hours, for two or three minutes at a 
time, washing out the stomach once, in the worst 
cases, and irrigation of the large intestine by 
means of a tube, after giving a laxative, repeat- 
ing the irrigation two or three times a day. A 
saline 'solution of one ounce to the gallon, at 80° 
F., is preferable. Subgallate or subnitrate of 
bismuth, calomel, salicylate of sodium, salol, 
hj^drochloric acid, opium with great care in se- 
lected cases, and stimulants, all have their value. 

Gastro-enteritis of adults is discussed under 
Cholera. See also Enteritis. 

GASTRO-ENTERITIS ( in cattle ) . The chief 
symptoms of this disease in cattle are dullness, 
dry skin, fullness of the left flank, and staring 
coat — the hair standing on end. The pulse is 
weak, the gait staggering, and the bowels con- 
stipated. The animal grunts with each breath, 
especially when lying down, and dies in convul- 
sions. The more common causes of the trouble 
are too long intervals between feeding, sudden 



changes of diet, sudden checking of perspiration, 
and violent exercise immediately after eating. 

When the disease is supposed to originate from 
imperfectly digested food, one pint of castor-oil 
should be given, followed by liberal doses of lin- 
seed tea, to which carbonate of magnesia has been 
added. This may be administered three or four 
times daily along with ten drops of tincture 
of aconite. 

GAS'TROMANCY. See Superstition. 

GASTROP'ODA (Neo-Lat. nom. pi., from Gk. 
yaa-T-^p, ^ras^er, stomach -f vovs, pons, foot) . A 
class of mollusks characterized by having a dis- 
tinct head, usually bearing eyes and tentacles, 
and moving by a large creeping disk or 'foot.' 
The head and foot are bilateral, but the rest of 
the body (except in Patella, etc.) is unsymmetri- 
cal. The animal is usually protected by a single 
or univalve shell, which is more or less spirally 
coiled, inclosing the visceral mass, i.e. heart, 
stomach, liver, and reproductive glands. More- 
over, these mollusks have, besides two pharyngeal 
horny teeth, a rasp-like lingual ribbon (radula) 
forming a part of the odontophore situated in the 
mouth or buccal cavity. There are, in the 
typical forms, two plume-like gills (ctenidia) in- 
closed in a mantle-cavity, but there may be only 
one, while in the air-breathing forms (Pulmonata, 
or land-snails) the animal breathes the air 
through the wall of the mantle-cavity itself, 
which forms the pulmonary sac or lung. The 
'foot' is a broad creeping disk, situated behind 
the head, and it is usually seen from beneath 
to be broad and flat. See illustration under Fig- 
Shell. 

Structure. A heart contained in its peri- 
cardial sac is always present, except in the para- 
sitic Entoconcha, while in some genera, as 
Neritina (periwinkle) and Haliotis (abalone), 
it, as in the clam, is perforated by the intestine. 
In a few genera there are two auricles to the 
heart, but as a rule only one is present. A 
ventricle is always present. There is but a 
single kidney ( nephridium ) . The digestive canal 
is doubled on itself, the vent opening on one side 
of the mouth. In certain opisthobranchs the 
stomach is lined with series of teeth, sometimes 
sharp and chitinous. In some nudibranch gas- 
tropods (see NuDiBRANCHiA) the intestine has 
numerous lateral offshoots, or gastro-hepatic 
branches, which resemble similar structures in 
the planarian and nematode worms. 

The nervous system varies in the number of 
ganglia, but is usually represented by the 'brain.' 
a pair of supraoesophageal ganglia, with con- 
necting threads (commissures) passing around 
the gullet to the infraoesophageal or pedal gan- 
glia, thus forming the oesophageal nerve-ring; 
there are also a pair of buccal ganglia, while the 
visceral and abdominal ganglia, all connected 
by commissures, are situated at a varying dis- 
tance from the head. The ears, or 'otocysts,' are 
usually near the pedal ganglia, but are always 
innervated from the cerebral ganglion, or 'brain.' 

The animal in certain forms is bisexual or 
hermaphroditic, in others the sexual glands exist 
in separate individuals. The eggs are laid in cap- 
sules of various sizes and shapes, usually attached 
to seaweeds or rocks, or deposited freely in the 
sand. Land-snails lay their eggs loose under stones 
or leaves in damp places. The embryo on hatch- 
ing passes through a well-marked metamorphosis. 



GASTROPODA. 



149 



GASTROPODA. 



-the two more important stages being the troeho- 
sphere and veliger, the latter differing from the 
trochosphere or top-shaped primitive stage in 
swimming about by means of a pair of sail-like 
flaps. 

Soon after the shell of a gastropod begins 
to form, the foot grows larger, the eyes and ten- 
tacles appear, when the young sinks by gravity 
to the bottom and gradually assumes the snail 
condition of maturity. The eyes may be absent 




A YOUNG OA8TKOPOD. 



-Veliger' stage: r, velum: f, foot; o, operculum; br, gill- 
chamber; 8b, primitive shell. 

in those marine forms which actively burrow in 
the sand, though the single pair of tentacles per- 
sists. In the land-snails there are two pairs of 
tentacles, the upper and longer pair containing 
both the eyes and the optic nerve with the olfac- 
tory nerve, which ends in groups of cells. 

A distinctive feature in gastropods is the 
^odontophore,' an apparatus of muscles bearing 
the radula or 'lingual ribbon,' a solid flattened 
ribbon-like or rasp-like plate armed with trans- 
verse rows of sharp siliceous teeth. This rasp 
is drawn back and forth over a tendon like a 
pulley. By means of this rasp the land or pond 
snail cuts slits into leaves, swallowing the 
pieces, or the marine forms, such as the Sycotypus 
(see Conch) or the 'drill,' files a hole into the 
clam or oyster, so as to get at the flesh within 
the tightly closed shell of its victim. 

Certain forms, as the Murex (q.v.) of the 
iMediterranean, secrete the Tyrian dye of the an- 
cients, and a similar fluid is secreted by the com- 




8TUIJCTUKK OF A OASTItOPOD. 

1. Diagram of tlie structure of a gastropjid (the common 
Avlielk). f, muscular 'foot' ; oj), operculum ; t, one of the 
tt'iitacles or feelers ; e. eye-stalk, at the base of the ten- 
tiu'le; J), proboscis, retrac^ted. with the mouth at Its ex- 
tn'Uilty ; oe, gullet; ff, stomach ; i, intestine, terminating 
ill tilt' anus; n, n. salivary glands; I liver and ovary; ov. 
DvUiuct; /i, heart; he, gill, contained in a hood of the 
mantle; s, breathing-tube or siphon; r, c, main nerve- 
niuiglla. 2. Shell, witli animal removed ; «, spin^ whorls, 
separated by sutures; h, body whorl; m. outer lip of 
* month ' ; n, notch for the siphon at the base of columella. 
;i. Egg-capsules of the whelk. 

iium Purpura of our coast. This fluid is fonned 
ill a peculiar 'adrectal gland' situated at the side 
of the rectum. It is colorless, but turns purple 
on exposure to the air. 



The shell of different gastropods varies greatly 
in shape. In the limpets (Patella) it is low and 
conical; in most of the species it is spiral, made 
up of whorls. The greater number of shells are 
'dextral,' i.e. the spire turns to the right; in a 
few cases they are sinistral or turn to the left. 

Over 22,000 species are known, of which about 
7000 species are fossil; there are about 6500 
species of land-snails alone. 

Classification. Gastropods are divided into 
two subclasses : ( 1 ) Streptoneura, "in which the 
visceral commissures are twisted into a figure 
of 8, and in which the sexes are distinct;" and 
(2) Euthyneura, in which the visceral com- 
missures are not so twisted, and in which the 
sexes are united. The former contains the order 
Aspidob ranch ia, which includes the limpets, ear- 
shells, top-shells, turban-shells, etc. ; and the 
order Pectinibranchia, which contains the bulk 
of the other marine shell-bearing forms. The 
latter subclass also has two orders: Opistho- 
branchia, containing the sea-hares (Aplysia), 
pelagic pteropods, etc.; and Pulmonata. contain- 
ing the land and fresh-water air-breathing snails 
and slugs. 

Fossil Gastropods. Gastropod shells are 
found in all the geological formations from those 
of lowest Cambrian age to those of recent time, 
and they occur usually in abundance in those 
formations above the Cambrian. The earliest 
forms are limpet-like shells (Scenella) and a 
capulid (Stenotheca) in the Olenellus zone of 
the Lower Cambrian system. Very soon, in the 
Upper Cambrian a few turreted gastropods ap- 
pear (Raphistoma and Straparollina). These 
true gastropods are in the Cambrian associated 
with a host of slender conical shells, the hyoli- 
thids, often classed with the pteropods, but which 
should more properly be placed with the tubic- 
olar worms. 

In the Ordovician the gastropods are widely 
difi'erentiated and are represented by numerous 
genera and abundant individuals, with such well- 
known forms as Pleurotomaria, Bellerophon, 
Raphistoma, Murchisonia, Maclurea, Euompha- 
lus, and others. In the Silurian a further evo- 
lution has taken place, manifested principally 
in the increased ornamentation of genera that 
come up from the Ordovician, and in the crea- 
tion of new genera from those already existing. 
Some of the important forms are Loxonema, 
IMurchisonia, Platyostoma, Pleurotomaria, Bu- 
cania, Trematonotus, Euomphalus. The Devonian 
formations are still richer in species and are char- 
acterized by such forms as Loxonema, Turbo, 
Euomphalus, Platyostoma, Platyceras, Acrooulia, 
Macrocheilus. In the Carboniferous the same 
genera are present with the addition of Naticop- 
sis, Vermetus, and Actteonina. The Permian gas- 
tropod fauna is about the same as that of the 
Carboniferous. The majority of the Paleozoic 
gastropods belong to the more primitive, less 
specialized subclass of the Streptoneura, and 
especially to the order Aspidohranchia, and it is 
worthy of note also that the Paleozoic genera are 
as a rule holostomatous, i.e. they have shells with 
non-siphonate apertures. 

The Triassic formations at the beginning of the 
Mesozoic show important changes in the gas- 
tropod fauna. The Paleozoic pteropods liave 
dropped out; the Bellerophontidjr. the Devonian 
Platyceridffi and Platyostomidic have disappeared, 



GASTROPODA. 



150 



GATACBE. 



and the euomphalids have become less abundant, 
and a new type of shell, the siphonostomatous, 
appears with the families Cerithiidae and Melanii- 
diE, in which the siplion is, however, shorter than 
in the later members of these families. The 
important genera are Chemnitzia, Loxonema, 
Kissoa, Eulima, Trochus, Turbo, Pleurotomaria, 
Cerithium, Helcion. In the Jurassic the Valva- 
tidae, Viviparidse, Melaniidae, Aporrhaidse, Strom- 
bidae, Columbellidae, Cyprseidse begin their exist- 
ence and the fauna is strongly siphonostomatous. 
One Jurassic family, the Nerineida>, which began 
in the Trias and continued into the Cretaceous, 
is a very characteristic Mesozoic shell, that may 
be recognized by its slender turreted spire, re- 
sembling that of its allies the Cerithiidae, and 
by the peculiar longitudinal septa that project 
from the columella and walls of the whorls into 
the central cavity of the shell. 

The Cretaceous ushers in another lot of fami- 
lies: Solariidae, Cassididae, Doliidae, Tritonidae, 
Buccinidae, Muricidae, Purpuridae, Volutidae, Oli- 
vidae, Cancellaridae, Pleurotomidae, Conidae, in 
fact, all the more specialized families of the 
Ctenobranchiata, including more pronounced 
siphonate forms. The gastropods hold third rank 
among the Cretaceous mollusks, being excelled 
by the clams and cephalopods. In the Tertiary 
the gastropods rise to first rank. Among the few 
new families appearing in the Tertiary the more 
important are the Harpidae and Ovulidae. The 
siphonostomate shells attain here their highest 
development, and are more prominent than any 
others. All the Tertiary forms are closely allied 
to modern forms; indeed, the majority of the 
Pliocene fossils and a small per cent, of the 
Miocene species are still living in the modern 
ocean. At the present day the gastropods are 
enjoying rapid progressive evolution. 

The history of terrestrial and fresh-water gas- 
tropods is interesting. The earliest form known 
is Pupa, found in the Devonian beds of Saint John, 
N, B., while a Pupa and a Zonites, remarkably 
close to the existing species, have been found in 
the coal measures of the Carboniferous. In the 
Mesozoic are found numerous fluviatile genera, 
such as Planorbis, Melania, Hydrobia, Valvata, 
Physa, Limnaea, Amnicola, and. Carychium. In 
the Cretaceous appear, in addition to those al- 
ready cited in the Jurassic, Vivipara, Glandina, 
Bulimus, Goniobasis, Lioplax, Pleuroceras, and 
in the Tertiary deposits the land and fresh-water 
snails are quite as abundant as they are at the 
present time. 

Some interesting evolutional series have been 
worked out among fossil gastropods. Neumayr 
has shown how Vivipara of the Miocene beds of 
Slavonia starts in the lower layers as smooth 
shells with rounded whorls, and changes, or 
evolves, through the succeeding overlying beds 
by successive intermediate stages into a more 
elevated shell, with concave whorls and nodose 
surfaces, that occurs only in the highest beds. 
Hilgendorf, and afterwards Hyatt, showed the 
peculiar transformations of Planorbis in the 
fresh-water Miocene beds of Steinheim, Wiirttem- 
berg. Other similar evolutional series have been 
worked out for the ISIelaniidae, Cerithiidae, Volu- 
tidae, Mitridae, and Turritellidae. 

Bibliography. For general information and 
anatomy, consult: Parker and Haswell, Text- 
Book of Zoology, vol. i. (London and New York, 



1897) ; Fischer, Manuel de conchyliologie et de 
paleontologie conchy liologique (Paris, 1897) ; 
Tryon and Pilsbry, Manual of Conchology (16 
vols., Philadelphia, 1879-90) ; Pelseneer, Intro- 
duction a Vetude des mollusques (Brussels, 
1894) ; Lang, Text-Book of Comparative Anat- 
omy, translated by Bernard, vol. ii. (London and 
New York, 1896), which contains an excellent 
bibliography of gastropod anatomy and physi- 
ology; Walther, "Die Lebensweise der Meeres 
thiere," in Einleitung in die Geologic, part ii. 
(Jena, 1893) ; Gould, Invertebrates of Massachu- 
setts, edited by Binney (Boston, 1870). For 
fossil gastropods, see Von Zittel and Eastman, 
Text-Book of Paleontology, vol. i. (London and 
New York, 1900), where a good bibliography of 
fossil gastropods is given; see also Ulrich and 
Scofield, "The Lower Silurian Gastropoda of 
Minnesota," in Minnesota Geological and Natural 
History Survey, Paleontology, vol. iii., part ii. 
(Minneapolis, 1897) ; Lindstrom, "On the Silu- 
rian Gastropods and Pteropods of Gotland," in 
Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Hand- 
lingar, vol. xix., No. 6 (Stockholm, 1884) ; and 
Dall, "Contributions to the Tertiary Fauna of 
Florida," in Transactions of the Wagner Free In- 
stitute of Science, vols. iii. and iv. (Philadelphia, 
1895-97). See articles on Mollusca, and on the 
various families and genera of gastropods. 

GASTROSTOMY (from Gk. yaariip, gastcr, 
stomach + arbixa, stoma, mouth). An operation 
which is performed for the relief of stricture of 
the gullet. Its object is to relieve the patient 
from the imminent risk of starvation, by intro- 
ducing food directly into the stomach through an 
external opening. The well-known case of Alexis 
Saint Martin, and numerous experiments on the 
lower animals, first led to the introduction of the 
operation as a practical surgical procedure. 

GASTROT'OMY (from Gk. yaar-^p, gaster, 
stomach -\- to/j.-^, tome, a cutting, from rifiveiv, 
temnein, to cut). An incision into the cavity of 
the abdomen (q.v.) for the purpose of removing 
some diseased structure or foreign body. The 
term has also been applied to the Caesarean 
operation ( q.v. ) . 

GAS'TRUIiA. See Embryology; Gastq.ea 
Theory. 

GASZYNSKI, ga.-sun'ske, KoNSTANTY (1809- 
66 ) . A Polish poet, born at Malawies. He 
fought in the insurrection of 1830, and after- 
wards went to France and settled at Aix in 
Provence. During this exile he wrote much 
verse and prose, which has frequently been trans- 
lated into French. His sonnets are particularly 
elegant. His works include: Poczye (1844); 
Sielanka m,todosci (1855); Reszty pamietnikow 
Macieja Rogoioskiego (1847); Eontuszowe po- 
gadanki (1851); Listy z podrozy po Wtoszech 
(1853) ; and Pan Dezydery Boczko (1846). He 
also contributed to magazines and newspapers. 
His complete works were published in 1870-74. 

GATA, ga'tii. Cape de. See Cape de Gata. 

GATACRE, gat'a'ker. Sir William Forbes 
(1843—). An English soldier. He entered the 
Seventy-seventh Foot in 1862, passed at the Staff 
College in 1874, and from 1875 to 1879 was in- 
structor in surveying at the Royal Military Col- 
lege. In 1889-90 he commanded the IVlandalay 
Brigade, and in 1898 was in command of the 



CO 

o 
o 

CL 

o 
a: 

h- 
co 
< 




GATACRE. 



151 



GATES. 



British forces in the Sudan during the first 
march against Atbara. He also commanded the 
British division in the advance against Khartum 
and Omdurman, and was assigned to the com- 
mand of the troops of the Eastern District. 
During the Second Boer War he commanded the 
third division of the South African Field Force. 
He attained the rank of lieutenant-general. 

GATAKER^ gat'a-ker, Thomas (1574-1654). 
A Puritan clergyman, critic, and author, bom in 
London. He was educated at Saint John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, and in 1596 was nominated a 
fellow of Sidney Sussex College. In 1601 he be- 
came lecturer at Lincoln's Inn, and from 1611 
was rector of Rotherhithe (Surrey). He declined 
the mastership of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and in 1643 was appointed a member of the 
Westminster Assembly of Divines. In 1645 he was 
elected one of seven empowered for draughting 
a confession of faith. He was a scholar of un- 
usual acquirements in Hebrew and the classics. 
His Marcus Antoninus de Rehus 8uis (1652), 
with the Greek text accompanied by a version 
and commentary in Latin, has been called by 
Hallam "the earliest edition of any classical 
writer published in England with original anno- 
tations." He also prepared commentaries on 
Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations for the As- 
sembly's Annotations (1645, 1651). His Opera 
Critica, including a De Novi Instrumenti Stylo 
Dissertatio (1648), were edited by Witsius 
(Utrecht, 1698). Several controversial writings 
and a collection of sermons (1637) also appeared 
from his pen. Consult Brook, The Lives of the 
Puritans (3 vols., London, 1813). 

GATCHINA, ga'ch^-nS. A town of Russia in 
the Government of Saint Petersburg, situated 
about 28 miles south-southwest of the capital on 
a small lake formed by the Izhora (Map: Russia, 
D 3 ) . It is especially worthy of mention for its 
imperial palace, constructed in 1770, which con- 
tains 600 rooms, a theatre, and art collections. It 
is surrounded by a magnificent park. It originally 
belonged to Prince Orloff, who received it from 
Catharine 11. After his death it reverted to the 
Crown and became the favorite summer residence 
of Czar Paul I., who l)estowed municipal rights 
upon the town in 1797, . Gatchina is a very 
popular summer resort Avith the residents of the 
cai)ital. Population, in 1897, 14,735, 

GATE CITY. A popular name for Keokuk, 
Iowa, from its situation at the head of navigation 
on the Mississippi, and for Atlanta, Ga., which 
was so named by Jefferson Davis on account of 
the importance of its position. 

GATE HOUSE PRISON. A prison in West- 
minster, London, from which, on October 29, 
1618, Sir Walter Rnleigh was led to the scaflfold 
in Old Palace Yard. 

GATE OF THE LIONS. See Lion Gate. 

GATE OF THE MEDITERRANEAN. The 

Straits of Gibraltar, as tlie passage between the 
Atlantic and the Mediterranean. 

GATES, Horatio (1728-1806), An Amorioan 
soldier, prominent in the Revolutionary War. 
He was bom at ^laldon. Essex County, England, 
his parents being servants in the household of the 
Duke of Leeds. He entered the army when very 
young, came to America in 1755, and. as major, 
served under l^rnddock (q.v.) and was severely 



wounded at the defeat of the latter on July 9th 
of the same year near Fort Duquesne (Pitts- 
burg). In 1760 he was stationed, as brigade- 
major, under General ^lonckton. at Fort Pitt 
(Pittsburg), and in 1762 was ^Monckton's aide 
at the capture of ^Martinique. Buying a farm in 
Berkeley County, Va., in 1763, he lived there in 
retirement until July, 1775, when Congress ap- 
pointed him adjutant-general in the regular army, 
with the rank of brigadier. In 1776 he was 
appointed to the command of the army which had 
lately retreated from Canada, and immediately 
began intriguing to supplant General Schu^'ler as 
the commander of the Northern Department. 
This he did through the influence ot the New Eng 
land delegates in Congress, on Ai^gust 2, 1777. 
The army under his command, afb^r fighting the 
battles of Stillwater and Saratoga, forced Bur- 
goyne to surrender on October 17th. (See Saba- 
TOGA.) Gates received nearly all of the credit, 
though Schuyler, Arnold, and Morgan had done 
most of the work, and he had been conspicu- 
ous chiefly for incapacity and for an apparent 
lack of personal courage. Soon afterwards he 
entered into the schemes of the Conway Cabal 
(q.v,), whose object was to have him appoint- 
ed, in Washington's stead, as commander-in-chief. 
For a time he was president of the newly or- 
ganized Board of War, but was detected in 
several falsehoods, became discredited, and with- 
drew in 1778 to his farm in Virginia, where 
he remained until 1780, when he was put in com- 
mand of the Army of the South. Owing chiefly 
to his wretched generalship, his forces were 
totally defeated near Camden, S. C. (q.v.), on 
August 16th by Lord Cornwall is, and on Decem- 
ber 2d he was .superseded by General Greene. A 
court of inquiry, appointed to investigate his 
conduct, sat imtil 1782, and finally acquitted him. 
He then again retired to his Virginia farm, and 
lived there until 1790, when, after freeing his 
slaves, he removed to New York City, where he 
remained until his death, April 10, 1806. Per- 
sonally, he was handsome, aflfable, and courteous, 
and in society was a general favorite. For his 
part in the Sar.atoga campaign, consult Stone, 
Campaign of Lieutenant -Oeneral Burgoyne (Al- 
bany, 1877). 

GATES, LE^v^s Edward (I860—). An Ameri- 
can critic, born at Warsaw, N, Y. A graduate of 
Harvard, he has been chiefly connected with that 
institution in the departments of English and 
comparative literature. He has won reputation 
as a subtle critic, especially by his essays on 
Cardinal Ne^^•man, Francis .Teffrey, and ^fatthew 
Arnold prefixed to volumes of selections from 
their writings edited for use in colleges. Among 
his other books may be named Studies and Appre- 
ciations (1900). 

GATES, Merrill Edwards (1848—). An 
American educator. He was horn at Warsaw, N. 
Y., the son of Seth Merrill Gates (q.v.) .graduated 
at the University of Rochester in 1870, and from 
1870 to 1882 was principal of the Albany Acad- 
emy. From 1882 to 1890 he was president of 
Rutgers College, and from 1890 to 1899 was presi- 
dent of Amherst College. He became widely 
known through his eflTorts to promote education, 
oivil-sen'ice reform, and ballot reform, and in 
1884 was chosen chairman of the United States 
Board of Indian Commissioners. Among his 
publications are: Sidney Lanier, Poet and Artist; 



GATES. 



152 



GATEWAY. 



Land and Law as Agents in Educating the In- 
dians; and International Arbitration. 

GATES, Seth Merrill ( 1800-77 ) . An Ameri- 
can lawyer, born at Winfield (Herkimer County), 
N. Y. He was admitted to the bar in 1827, and 
in 1833 was elected to the State Legislature of 
New York. In 1838, and again in 1840, he was 
elected a member of Congress, and in 1848 was 
defeated as the Free-Soil candidate for the 
Lieutenant-Governorship of New York. He 
draughted, in 1843, the protest signed by the 
Whigs in Congress against the annexation of 
Texas to the Union. In 1838 he became editor and 
proprietor of the Le Roy Gazette. So pronounced 
was he in his hostility to slavery that a Southern 
planter offered a reward of $500 for his appre- 
hension. 

GATES, Sir Thomas (?-c.1621). The first 
regular Colonial Governor of Virginia under the 
Virginia Company. He was born probably at 
Colyford, Devonshire, England; entered the mili- 
tary service; accompanied Sir Francis Drake on 
his voyage to America in 1585-86, and for his 
conduct at the capture of Cadiz was knighted in 
June, 1596. In 1598 he entered Gray's Inn, and 
in the following year was engaged in public ser- 
vice at Plymouth; but soon afterwards he en- 
listed, together with Sir Thomas Dale (q.v.), in 
the service of the Netherlands. He was one of 
the first petitioners for royal license to colonize 
Virginia and was one of the incorporators of 
the first Virginia charter of 1606. Having ob- 
tained a leave of absence from the States-Gen- 
eral, he was chosen the first Deputy Governor 
of Virginia, and was placed in command, with 
Sir George Somers and Captain Newport, of 
the fleet of nine vessels, carrying 500 colonists, 
which sailed for America in 1609. The Sea Ven- 
ture, carrying Gates, Somers, and Newport, was 
wrecked on the Bermudas, where, within the next 
nine months, two new vessels were constructed. 
Leaving the Bermudas on May 10, 1610, Gates 
arrived at Jamestown in May, near the close of 
the 'starving time,' and was installed with great 
ceremony as Deputy Governor, replacing George 
Percy, the retiring president of the King's Coun- 
cil. The famished colonists clamoring to be taken 
from Virginia, Gates crowded them upon four 
small vessels and started with them for England, 
but was met at the mouth of the James River 
and turned back by Lord De La Warr (q.v.), 
who, in turn, was installed as Governor. Gates 
was sent to England for a new supply of cattle ; 
returned to Jamestown in 1611 with six ships 
and 300 colonists, and remained as Lieutenant- 
Governor until March, 1614. He afterwards 
served on one of the committees of the Vir- 
ginia Company, and in 1620 was appointed by 
James I. one of "the first moderne and present 
Councill established at Plymouth, in the County 
of Devon, for the planting, ruling, and govern- 
ing of New England in America." For an ac- 
count of the administration of affairs in Virginia 
by Gates, consult Brown, The First Republic in 
America (Boston, 1898). 

GATES^'HEAD. A large manufacturing town 
in Durham County, England, on the south bank 
of the Tyne, op[)osite Newcastle, of which it is 
practically a suburb, and with which it is con- 
nected by three bridges (Map: England, E 2). 
The community is almost entirely industrial, and 



finds employment in the neighboring coal-mines,, 
in the Gateshead Fell quarries celebrated for 
'Newcastle grindstone,' in the locomotive works of 
the Northeastern Railway, in iron ship-building 
yards, iron-foundries, cable and wire-rope fac- 
tories, and in chemical, cement, and glass works. 
At Gateshead a large portion of the first Atlantic 
cable was manufactured. Its history dates from 
the Roman occupation, and some portions of the 
town are very ancient. The chief architectural 
features are the town hall, free library, various 
denominational churches, and the restored parish 
church of Saint Mary's, established in the 
eleventh century, and in 1080 the scene of 
Bishop Walcher's murder by an avenging English 
mob. Daniel Defoe's dwelling, where he wrote 
Robinson Crusoe, is in the Hillgate district. The 
town owns a profitable corporation quay, and 
maintains baths, wash-houses, cemeteries, public 
parks, recreation grounds, and public libraries. 
There are steam tramways; gas and Avater are- 
supplied by private companies. Gateshead sends 
a member to Parliament. Population, in 1891, 
85,000; in 1901, 110,000. Consult Welford, ^V 
tory of Newcastle and Gateshead ( Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, 1884-85). 

GATES'VILLE. A city and the county-seat 
of Coryell County, Tex., 45 miles west of Waco, 
on the Leon River and on the Saint Louis South- 
western Railroad (Map: Texas, F 4). It is the 
seat of the State House of Correction and Re- 
formatory. The city ships cotton, grain, and live 
stock, and has cotton gins and compress, flour- 
ing and planing mills, etc. Population, in 1890,. 
1375; in 1900, 1865. 

GATEWAY. The passage or opening in which 
a gate or large door is hung. This may be either 
a mere opening in a wall or a covered way 
vaulted or roofed over. It differs from a door- 
way in that it does not open directly into a 
building. A monumental gateway and doorway 
are often both called a portal (q.v.). The gate- 
way, being a most important point in all fortified 
places, is usually protected by various devices. 
It is flanked by towers with loopholes, from which 
assailants may be attacked, and is frequently 
overhung by a machicolated battlement, from 
which missiles of every description were poured 
upon the besiegers. City gates, and gates of 
large castles, have in all ages been the objects, 
of great care in construction ; and when from 
some cause, such as the cessation of constant 
fighting, or a change in the mode of warfare, 
gateways have lost their importance in a mili- 
tary point of view, they have maintained their 
position as important architectural works, and 
where no longer useful, have become ornamental. 
In very ancient times, we read of the 'gate' as 
the most prominent part of a city where proc- 
lamations were made, and where the kings ad- 
ministered justice. This was especially the case 
in the Orient, where the gateway held tlie same 
place as the Greek agora and the Roman Forum,, 
business of all kinds being transacted there. 
Hence the modern term 'The Sublime Porte' used 
of the Turkish Government. Such gateways are 
often mentioned in the Old Testament, and the 
great Assyro-Babylonian city gates, especially 
those of Sargon's city, at Khorsabad (q.v.), il- 
lustrate the texts. They were great inclosurea 
with cool passages and courts where scribes, 
venders, and lawyers sat. The Greek and Roman 



GATEWAY. 



153 



GATHAS. 



gates were frequently of great magnificence. The 
Propylaea at Athens is a beautiful example, and 
the triumphal arches of the Romans were often 
identical with their city gates. The Lion Gate- 
way at Mycenae and the city gates of Segni and 
Alatri in Italy are good examples of early Cyclo- 
pean structures before the seventh century B.C. 
Those at Frentino, Viterbo, and Falerii show the 
pre-Roman arched style. The Roman gates at 
Verona, the Golden Gateways at Jerusalem, the 
'gates at Spalato and Benevento, and others in 
>Gaul, Syria, Asia Minor, and North Africa show 
I every variety of design and number of openings. 
In the Middle Ages the city gateways were often 
crowned by towers of imposing architecture, es- 
pecially in North Germany, as in Lubeck and 
Nuremberg, and the same was the case with the 
gateways of bridges and secular buildings, such 
as those of Oxford and Cambridge. The castle 
gateways, of which many remain, have but sel- 
dom any decorative character, being for defense, 
but the "monastic doorways, leading into the great 
inclosed courts, were often arcliitecturally beauti- 
ful, as in the Cistercian monastery at Casamari 
in Italy, with its double porch, porter's lodge, and 
living-rooms. The abbey gates of Canterbury 
and Bury Saint Edmund's are well known. All 
closes, whether of abbeys, colleges, law courts, 
guilds, fraternities, or the like, had architectural 
gateways. The Gothic Renaissance and Rococo 
styles are especially rich in designs, which have 
been followed by modem architects. Parks, pri- 
vate grounds, and avenues are often entered 
through such gates. 

GATH (Heb., wine-press). One of the five 
cities of the Philistines. It was probably situ- 
ated at the modern Tell es-Safiyeh, 'the white 
hill'; though the Crusaders identified it with 
Yebna, the ancient Jamnia, and some modern 
scholars have adopted this view. The first men- 
tion of Gath is in the list of Palestinian towns 
conquered by Thothmes III., where it is re- 
ferred to as Kntu (Kintu). In the Amarna 
letters it occurs several times as Gimti and 
Ginti, there being an EgA'ptian governor in this 
city in the time of Amenhotep IV. Its posi- 
tion on the borders of Judean territory made 
it of great importance in the wars with the 
Philistines. The Philistine champion Goliath 
(q.v.) came from Gath (I. Sam. xvii. 4). David 
took refuge with Achish, King of Gath (ib. 
xxi. 10), and probably also ol)tained a wife in 
Gath. It is possil)le that Gath was in the hands 
of the Israelites in the time of David. Whether 
Solomon and Rehoboam were able to keep it 
cannot be determined in view of the probable 
late date of the statements. During the wars 
with Assyria Gath seems to hnve formed a 
part of Ashdodite territory. Sarg(m mentions in 
the Khorsabad inscription that lie besieged and 
conquered Gimtu, probably in the year n.c. 711. 
The absence of Gath in many passages where the 
other Philistine cities are mentioned may be 
acco\mted for by its being regarded as a de- 
pendency of Ashdod. In the days of Eusebius 
and Jerome the city still existed, and the descrip- 
tion of the site in the O)iomasticon seems to 
point to Tell es-Safiyeh. At this place the 
Blanca Ouarda was erected by Foulques of Anjou 
in 1144. The fortress was taken by Saladin in 

1191, and recaptured and fortified by Richard in 

1192. Situated on a hill 300 feet above tlie plain 



with steep walls upon three sides, it was at all 
times a diflicult place to capture and an im- 
portant stronghold. There is to-day a small vil- 
lage on the top of the hill. Consult: Smith, 
Historical Geography of the Holy Land (I^ndon, 
1895) ; Buhl, Geographic des alien Palastina 
(Leipzig, 1896). 

GATHAS, ga'thaz (Av. gada,Skt., Pali gethu, 
song) . The name applied to certain metrical com- 
positions, both in the Avesta and in Sanskrit Brah- 
manic and Buddhistic literature. The Gathas of 
the Avesta comprise 17 hymns (Yasna 28-34, 
43-51, 53), which contain 232 stanzas, besides 
three in Yasna 27. •13-14 and Yasna 54. They are 
composed in five metres, which are reckoned by 
the number of feet, not by their quantity, as in 
Greek and Latin. These metrical schemes, which 
are of great antiquity, are composed respectively 
of three-line stanzas of 7 + 9 (or sometimes 8) 
syllables (Ahunavaiti), five-line stanzas of 4 -f 7 
syllables (Ushtavaiti) , four-line stanzas of 4 + 
7 syllables (Spentamainyu) , three-line stanzas of 
7-4-7 syllables ( Vohukhshathra) , and four-line 
stanzas, whose first two lines have 7 + 0, and the 
last two 7 + 74-5 syllables (Vahishtoishti) . 
The dialect in which these hymns are written 
diff"ers considerably from the ordinary Avesta, and 
is more archaic in character. If we may reason 
on the analogy of the Gathas of the Buddhist 
Jatakas (q.v.) , where verse alternates with prose, 
it might be plausibly suggested that the Avesta 
Gathas represent but a small part of the original 
content of this portion of the Zoroastrian Scrip- 
tures. There may have been a large amount of 
prose l)etween the stanzas which has been lost. 
The Iranian tradition ascribes the authorship of 
the Gathas to Zoroaster (q.v.) himself. They 
are of peculiar difficulty, owing in part to the 
inflectional system of the Gatha-Avesta dialect, 
and in part to the numerous words which occur 
but once in them and have no representatives, so 
far as known, in any other Indo-Iranian or even 
Indo-Germanic language. Their interpretation is. 
aided, however, to a large degree, by a Pahlavi 
version with glosses, which was translated into 
Sanskrit by a Parsi priest, Nerj'osangh, probably 
about A.D. 1200. These versions, while important, 
are not altogether trustworthy, mainly on ac- 
count of the decay of grammatical knowledge of 
the Avesta language. They are, notwithstanding, 
indispensable in interpreting the Gathas, and 
mainly through their aid the meaning of the 
hymns is now for the most part tolerably certain. 

In India the term Gatha was employed in the 
Brahmanas (q.v.) to denote verses of religious 
content which did not belong to any of the four 
Vedas. (See Ved.\.) It became wider in its scope 
in the Buddhistic literature, and denoted e8j>e- 
cially that part of the sacred canon which com- 
prised ihe Dhanimapada, Theragatha, Therigatha, 
and the i)ure v(M'se sections of the Suttanipata, 
and also to the verses in the Jatakas. It is most 
commonly a])plied. however, to the North Bud- 
dhist Lalita-Vistara (q.v.). composed in verse 
mingled with prose. This work is in a dialect, 
probably artificial, of Prakrit words with Sanskrit 
terminations, and on account of this peculiarity 
the language of the Lalita-Vistara is often called 
the Gatha dialect, although prose works were 
sometimes written in it. Consult: Haug, Die fiinf 
Gnthtrf (Tx^ipzig. la.W-fiO) : Bartholoma*, Die 
Od6A*s itud heiligen Gehete des altiranischen 



GATHAS. 



154 



GATJ. 



Volkes (Halle, 1897) ; Mills, A Study of the Five 
Zarathushirian [Zoroastrian] Gdthds (Oxford, 
1892-94) ; id., A Dictionary of the Gdthic Lan- 
guuge of the Zend Avesta (ib., 1901 et seq.) ; 
id., The Gdthds of Zarathushtra [Zoroaster] in 
Metre and Rhythm (ib., 1900) ; Miiller, "Der 
Dialekt der Gathas des Lalitavistara," in Bei- 
trage zur vergleichenden Sprachforschung, vol. 
viii. (Berlin, 1876). See Avesta; Lalita-Vis- 
TARA; Zoroaster. 

GATINEATJ, ga'te'no''. A large river of Que- 
bec, Canada, rising in a connected chain of large 
lakes immediately north of the forty-eighth par- 
allel of latitude (Map: Cana^/i, P 7). It flows 
first south-southwest, and then almost due south, 
and falls into the Ottawa one mile below Ottawa 
City. The length of the river is estimated at 
400 miles; it receives a number of tributaries, 
and is extensively used for floating down the 
lumber of the upper region. 

GATOilNG, KiciiARD Jordan (1818 — ). An 
American inventor. He was born in Hertford 
County, N. C, and during his boyhood he 
acquired considerable skill and mechanical acu- 
men working as his father's assistant in the 
perfection of a machine for sowing cottonseed. 
His principal invention, and the one by which 
he became famous, was the revolving gun, since 
known by its inventor's name. In 1886 he in- 
vented a new gun-metal of steel and aluminum. 
Congress afterwards voted him $40,000 to experi- 
ment on a new method of casting cannon. Among 
his other inventions may be noted a hemp-break- 
ing machine and a steam plow. Although a 
graduate of the Ohio Medical College (1850), he 
has never practiced medicine. See Machine 
Gun; Ordnance. 

GATSCHET, ga'sha', Albert Samuel (1832 
— ) . An American philologist and ethnologist, 
born at Saint Beatenberg, Bern, Switzerland. He 
studied at the universities of Bern and Berlin, 
made investigations regarding the Swiss dialects, 
and published Ortscti/niologische Forschungen 
als Beitrdge su einer Toponomastik der Schiaeiz 
(1865-67), and Promenade onomatologique sur 
les hords du Lac LSman (1867). In 1868 he re- 
moved to the United States, where imtil 1S77 he 
Avas connected with the staffs of 'various German 
newspapers, and in that year was appointed eth- 
nologist of the Government Geological Survey. He 
became linguist to the Bureau of American Eth- 
nology in 1879. From 1874 he made extensive study 
of the languages of the North American Indians, 
in particular those of the Tonkawa, Yuma, Chu- 
meto, Hitchiti, Creek, and Timucua tribes. Among 
the many valuable treatises published by him, in 
both English and German, are : Zwolf Slprachenans 
dem Siidwesten Nordamerikas (1876) ; Analytic- 
al Report upon Indian Dialects Spoken in South- 
ern California, Nevada, and on the Lower Colo- 
rado River (1876) ; "Classification of Western 
Indian Dialects," in volume vii. of the Report 
of the Geological Survey West of the 100th Merid- 
ian (1879); Volk mid Sprache der Timucua 
( 1881 ) ; Indian Lanquages of the Pacific States 
and Territories and of the Pueblos of New Mexi- 
co (1882); "A Migration Legend of the Creek 
Indians," in No. 4 of Brinton, Library of Aborig- 
inal American Literature (Philadelphia, 1884- 
88) ; and "The Indians of Southwestern Oregon," 
in Contribution} s to North A merican Ethnology, 
vol. ii. (Washington, 1890). For a further list of 



titles, consult Pilling, Bibliography of North 
American Languages (Washington, 1885). 

GATSCHINA, ga'che-na. See Gatchina. 

GATTEAUX, ga't6', Jacques Edouard (1788- 
1881). A French sculptor and engraver, born in 
Paris. He was the pupil of his father, Nicholas 
Marie Gatteaux, and won the Prix de Rome 
(1809) for medaling. He was one of the found- 
ei"s of the 'Galerie Numismatique des illustra- 
tions frangaises' in Paris. He was employed by 
the French Government to strike a medal com- 
memorative of the establishment of the School 
of Architecture. Others of his famous medals 
are those for the "Holy Alliance" and the Peace 
of 1814. He was elected to the Institute in 
1845, and left his art collection to the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts and the Louvre. His busts include 
those of Michelangelo, in the Louvre, and of 
Rabelais, at Versailles. 

GATTERER, gat^er-er, Johann Christoph 
(1727-99). A German historian, bom at Lich- 
tenau. He studied at the L^niversity.of Altdorf, 
and in 1759 became professor of history at 
Gottingen, where from 1767 he was also director 
of the historical institute established by him- 
self in 1764. He was the first to introduce into 
the historical courses of German universities 
geography, diplomacy, heraldry, and other aux- 
iliary studies. The most important of his works 
are: Die Weltgeschichte in ihrem ganzen Urn- 
fange (2 vols., 1785-87), and the Versuch einer 
allgemeinen Weltgeschichte bis zur Entdeckung 
von Amerika (1792). Consult Elogium Gat- 
tereri, by Heyne (Gottingen, 1800). 

GATTI^ gut'te, Bernardino (c.1497-1575). 
called 'II sojaro' (the cooper). An Italian 
painter, born at Parma. He was the pupil of 
Correggio, and so like him in his manner that 
his pictures have been mistaken for that mas- 
ter's. A French critic says: "Gatti had the mis- 
fortune to be born a copyist in a century of 
mighty geniuses." He also imitated Pordenone, 
and was selected to complete the frescoes left 
unfinished by him in the Santa Maria di Cam- 
pagna, Piacenza. Gatti's works include paint- 
ings in the Parma Cathedral and in the Church 
of Saint Peter there., and an altarpiece, "^ladon- 
na with the Rose Garland" (1531), his principal 
work, in the Cathedral of Pavia. 

GATTY, Mrs. Margaret ( 1809-73 ) . An Eng' 
lish novelist. She was born in 1809, and in 
1839 married a clergyman, and passed most of 
her life after marriage at Eeclesfield, in York- 
shire, becoming widely known by The Fairy 
Godmothers (1851) and Parables from Nature 
(five series, 1855-70), translated into the lead- 
ing languages of Europe. In 1866 she started 
a monthly periodical for young people, called 
Aunt Judy's Magazine, which, after her death 
in 1873, was continued by her daughters till 
1885. Here first appeared nearly all the stories 
of her daughter, Mrs. Juliana Ewing (q.v.). 

GAIT, gou (Ger., district). A word used to 
designate those portions of a district outside of 
a town. It embraced several communities, and 
was governed by a graf. Its use prevailed during 
the iliddle Ages as a name for a political divis- 
ion of the German country, having especial refer- 
ence to the power of the military and judicial 
authorities. 



GAUBIL. 



155 



GAUDY. 



I 



GAUBIL, g6'beF, Antoine (1689-1759). A 
French Jesuit missionary to China, and a scholar 
of great versatility. He was born at Gaillac, 
became a Jesuit at the age of fifteen, and in 
1723 was sent to China, where he learned Chi- 
nese and Manchu with wonderful facility. His 
scholarship won him a place at Court, in spite 
of the Emperor's aversion to the missionaries, 
and his influence kept the Jesuits from being 
disturbed. He was made interpreter, and was 
especially prominent in carrying on diplomatic 
correspondence with Russia, besides being head 
of the Imperial Colleges under Kien Lung when 
he succeeded Yung Ching. A correspondent of the 
Paris Academy of Sciences and a member of 
the Academy of Saint Petersburg, he was one of 
the earliest European sinologists. Pfere Gaubil 
died in Pekin. He wrote: Histoire de Oentchis- 
can et de toutc la dynastie des Manchoux (1739) ; 
Traits de chronologie chvnoise (1814); and a 
translation of Le Chou King (1771), besides 
many letters and sketches published in Lettres 
4difiantes and in R6musat, Nouveauof melanges 
asiatiques. 

GAUCHOS, gou'ch6z (countrymen). Pastoral 
nomads of Chaco, in the Argentine Republic, South 
America, the offspring of whites and Indians of 
the Pampas. They are tall and handsome, with a 
proud and dissolute expression of countenance. 
They wear mustaches, and have long black hair 
hanging down their backs. Their costume is 
brightly colored. ITiey are very polite, and pos- 
sess high ideas of their own equality and dig- 
nity. These hybrids can scarcely be traced to 
their original Guaycuru Indian components; but 
since the white infusion has ceased the people 
are reverting to the Indian type, thus showing 
a most interesting example of the formation of 
a new race. The free, wild life of the Pampas 
has developed the Gauchos into an alert, vigorous 
people, expert horsemen and cattlemen, who 
wield the lariat with great skill. The bolas 
(q.v.) is also employed in the chase and in war- 
fare. 

The Gauchos eat meat exclusively for months 
together, and with it a large proportion of fat. 
It has been observed that they dislike dry meat. 
Curiously enough, they do not eat salt. The 
men are proficient in leather-working, and the 
women weave belts and dress skins. 

GAU'DEAIttUS (Lat., Let us rejoice). The 
first word and the title of a well-known Latin 
student song })opular in Germany and America. 
It is based partly on a Latin song dating from 
1267, and existed in the eighteenth century in a 
somewhat obscene form, with German as well as 
Latin verses. The present version dates from 
1781. The song recalls the transitory character 
of human things, and urges the enjoyment of life 
before old age comes on. 

GAUDEN, gft'dcn, John (1605-62). An Eng- 
lish prelate and author. He was born at May- 
land, Essex, where his father was vicar. After 
education at Bury Saint Edmund's, he entered 
Saint John's College, Cambridge, and obtained 
the degrees of H.A. and M.A. While a tutor 
at Oxford he took tlie degree of B.D. at Wadham 
College in 1635, and D.D. in 1641. His pupil, 
Sir Francis Russell, presented him with the liv- 
ing of Chippenham in 1640, and the same year 
he was the appointed preacher to the House of 
Commons. After the Restoration, in 1660, he 
Vol. VIIl.-ii. 



was appointed Bishop of Exeter, and in 1662 
was translated to the bishopric of Worcester. 
He died four months later (September 20, 1662). 
His publications number some thirteen or more 
books, which appeared between 1642 and 1660. At 
first he was inclined to the Parliamentary cause, 
but in the end he strongly opposed the Puritan 
excesses. Among his more forcible writings 
may be mentioned Cromwell's Bloody Slaughter 
House; or, His Damnable Designs in Contriving 
the Murther of His Sacred Majesty King Charles 
I. Discovered (1660). He is best known on ac- 
count of the controversies which have raged over 
the authorship of Eikon Ba^like, a book at- 
tributed to Charles I. himself. It was published 
immediately after the execution of the King, 
and, according to Malcolm Laing, "had it ap- 
peared a week sooner, it might have saved the 
King's life." The Bishop claimed its author- 
ship in correspondence with Chancellor Hyde, 
Lord Clarendon (1660-62). Burnet in 1674 
stated that the Duke of York told him that Dr. 
Gauden was the author, and in November, 1686, 
at the sale of the Marquis of Anglesey's choice 
library of books, the 'famous memorandum' was 
found in the peer's copy of the Eikon Basilike — 
"King Charles II. and the Duke of York have 
both assured me that this work was none of the 
King's compiling, but made by Dr. Gauden, 
Bishop of Chester (?), which I here insert for 
the undeceiving of others in this point, by attest- 
ing so much, under my hand." A sharp contro- 
versy arose, which has been revived on vari- 
ous occasions up to as late as 1880. In Who 
Wrote Icon Basilike f (3 vols., 1824-28), Dr. 
Christopher Wordsworth 'proves' that the King 
did. Sir James Mackintosh, reviewing Words- 
worth's book in the Edinburgh Review (xliv.), 
'proves' that Gauden wrote it. Macaulay, Guizot, 
and other historians sustain Gauden's claim. 
Consult Almach, Bibliography of the King's Book 
(London, 1896). See Eikon Basilike. 

GAUDBY, g6'dr^, Albebt (1827—). A 
French paleontologist, bom at Saint-Germain- 
en-Laye. From 1853 he traveled in the Orient, 
and from 1855 to 1860 in Greece, where he was 
occupied with paleontological researches. He 
was then appointed assistant naturalist in the 
Museum of Natural History in Paris, where in 
1872 he became professor. In 1882 he was elect- 
ed a member of the French Academy of Sciences. 
His works include: Recherches scientifiques en 
VOrient (1855) ; Animaux fossiles et g^olofrie de 
VAttique (2 vols., 1862-67) ; Animaux fossiles 
du Mont-Ldbdron, with Fischer and Tournouer 
(1873); and Enchainementa du monde animal 
dans les temps g^ologiques (1878). 

GAUDY, gou'dd, Franz Bebnhabd Heinrich 
WiLiiELM, Baron von (1800-40). A German 
author, bom in Frankfort-on-the-Oder. In 1818 
he entered the Prussian Army, but resigned from 
the senice in 1833 to follow a wholly literary 
career, and at Berlin was a friend of Chamisso, 
with whom he edited the Deutseher ^fusenal^ 
manach for 1839. His best-known work is his 
humorous and frequently epigrammatic verse. 
Some of his poems became widely popular. Of 
his prose writings, Tageburh eincs toandemden 
Schneidrrgesellen (1836) and Vettevianische No- 
vcUen (1838) are still popular in Germany. The 
more important of his writings appeared at Ber- 
lin in 1853 (8 vols.), edited by Arthur MUller. 



GAUERMANN. 



156 



GAUL. 



GATJEBMANN, gou'er-man, Friedrich ( 1807- 
62). An Austrian genre, landscape, and animal 
painter, born at Miesenbach, Lower Austria, 
September 20, 1807. He was a son of the land- 
Bcape painter Jakob Gauermann. Under his 
father's direction he began studies in landscape, 
and he also diligently copied the etchings of the 
chief masters in animal painting which were 
contained in the Academy of Fine Arts and the 
Imperial Library of Vienna. In the summer he 
made art tours in Styria, Tyrol, and Salzburg. 
Two animal pieces which he exhibited at the 
Vienna exhibitions of 1824 were regarded as re- 
markable productions for his years, and led to 
his receiving commissions in 1825 and 1826 
from Prince Metternich and others. His reputa- 
tion was greatly increased by his picture "The 
Storm," exhibited in 1829, and from that time his 
works were much sought after and obtained cor- 
respondingly high prices. His "Field Laborer" 
was regarded by many as the most noteworthy 
picture in the Vienna Exhibition of 1834, and his 
numerous animal pieces have entitled him to a 
place in the first rank of painters of that class of 
subjects. Gauermann was sincere and exact in his 
representation of German peasantry, according to 
their locality, individual habit, and environment, 
and though he is largely represented by pictures 
of animals, he painted such rural scenes as: 
"Husbandmen Ploughing;" "Cows, Sheep, a 
Horse, etc." (in the Leipzig Museum) ; "Rural 
Smithy;" and "Watering Place in the Tyrol" 
(Berlin National Gallery). He was made mem- 
ber of the Munich Academy in 1836. Gauermann 
left at his death, which occurred at Vienna, July 
7, 1862, over 1000 oil paintings, 565 drawings, 
and 15 unfinished pictures. 

GAUGE (from OF. gauge, jauge; connected 
with ML. gaugatum, gauging of a wine-cask, 
jalagium, right to gauge wine-casks, and prob- 
ably with jalea, gallon, OF., Fr. jale, bowl). In 
mechanics, an instrument for determining the 
dimensions, quantity, force, capacity, etc., of 
anything. Gauges are of various forms, and 
are employed for numerous purposes in engi- 
neering and the arts. Gauges to secure precision 
in the' dimensions and forms of manufactured 
articles are made of hardened steel, or of case- 
hardened wrought iron, formed to the exact out- 
line to be secured and accurately dimensioned. 
Such gauges are extensively used in machinery 
manufacture where interchangeability of corre- 
sponding parts is sought. Wire gauges are cir- 
cular disks of hardened steel, having round the 
edge a series of notches of different sizes of 
openings corresponding to the standard wire 
sizes of the Birmingham or other gauges. In 
the Birmingham wire gauges the sizes run from 
No. 1, denoting a wire diameter of 0.3 inch, to 
No. 34, denoting a wire diameter of 0.004 inch. 
Similar gauges are used for measuring the 
thickness of metal plates. Pressure-gauges for 
measuring the pressure of steam or other gas 
inside a closed vessel are familiar to all. In the 
most usual form the pressure of the gas acts 
to cause a pointer to move around a graduated 
dial. The steam-boiler gauge is a familiar ex- 
ample of such devices. Wind-gauges are ar- 
rangements by which the wind blowing against 
a plate diaphragm actuates a recording device 
which records the pressure. (See Anemome- 
ter.) Water-gauges consist of a strong glass 



tube with metal fixtures at its ends, which con- 
nect the tube with the interior of a steam boiler. 
The lower end of the tube connects with the 
boiler below the lowest water-line, and the upper 
end connects with it above the highest water- 
line, and the level of the water between the 
two points is observable by the height at which 
it stands in the glass. Screw-gauges consist of 
a U-shaped frame of steel at the end of one arm 
of which is a steel plug pointing toward the 
opposite arm, through whose end runs a finely 
threaded thumb-screw with a graduated head. To 
measure with this device the end of the plug is 
brought into contact with one side of the object, 
and the screw run out into it touches the other 
side; a reading of the graduated head shows the 
distance apart of the end of the plug and the end 
of the screw, and therefore the thickness of the 
object. See Calipers; Railways. 

GAUGENGIGL, gou'gen-ge'g'l, Ignaz Mar- 
cel ( 1856 — ) . An American genre painter, bom 
at Passau, Bavaria. He studied under Raab and 
Diez at the Munich Academy. Afterwards he 
cam5 to America, and settled in Boston in 1879. 
His subjects are usually interiors, with several 
figures painted in the miniature style of Meisson- 
nier. His pictures are: "The Duel," "The First 
Hearing," "My Studio," and "On the Prom- 
enade." 

GAUGER. A United States custom-house of- 
ficer whose duty is to gauge or measure casks 
and other hollow vessels, containing liquids liable 
to duty. Local officers are to be found in many 
States also, whose duties are of a similar nature. 
Tliese are often known as sealers of weights and 
measures. 

GAUGUA, gou^gwk. See Guagua. 

GAUL (Lat. Gallia). The name given by the 
Romans to that portion of Western Europe 
which is in the main identical with France, al- 
though extending beyond the bounds of the mod- 
em State. In the earliest times this region, 
bounded by the Atlantic, the Rhine, the Alps, the 
Mediterranean, and the Pyrenees, was inhabited 
by the Gauls, who had overrun the territory, and 
had brought under control the earlier peoples, 
such as the Ligurians, along the southern coast- 
line, and the Iberians, who had subjugated the 
southwestern section and are represented by the 
Basques of modem days. The Greeks founded 
Massilia (Marseilles), a Phocjean colony, about 
B.C. 600. They called the people Ke^ra/, either, 
as Thierry suggests, extending the name of one 
tribe to the entire race, or using a generic term 
to indicate the collective Celtic people. Later 
the Greeks named the country Talaria, and the 
Romans spoke of the Galli and of Gallia. These 
words are cognate with the native title Gaeltachd, 
which means 'the land of the Gauls,' and which 
designated the territory above defined, but did 
not include the two islands kno\^Ti as Albion or 
Albin, the White Island, and Erin {Eri or lar = 
the West) , the Isle of the West, which were in- 
habited by the same race. 

Julius Cresar is the first writer who enlightens 
us in regard to this people. He speaks of Gaul 
as being divided among the three peoples, the 
Belgse, the Aquitani, and the Galli, or, "as they 
are known in their own tongue," Celtse. The 
Belgjfi dwelt on the north with the Seine as their 
southern boundary, the Aquitani in the south be- 
tween the Garonne and the Pyrenees, while the 



GAUL. 



157 



GAUL. 



Celtae dwelt between them. All these differed in 
language, customs, and laws. This description 
is substantially correct, although Caesar does not 
mention all the races of Gaul, nor does he rec- 
ognize the fact that the Aquitani were really 
distinct in race from the Belgae and Celtae, who 
were closely related. The Aquitani were Iberian 
in stock, and this racial difference was indicated 
by marked differences in temperament and physi- 
cal characteristics. The Gauls were tall, of light 
complexion, sociable in disposition, given to fight- 
ing in large numbers, while the Aquitani were 
dark, reserved in disposition, and fond of fighting 
in small bands, traits which are found among the 
Basques to-day. 

C«sar mentions numerous tribes belonging to 
the three nations distinguished by him. Such 
were the Helvetii, the Sequani, and the Aedui 
along the Rhone and SaCne, and the Arverni 
(modern Auvergne) among the mountains (Ce- 
vennes) ; along the Loire the Namnetes, Se- 
nones, and Camutes, and between the Loire and 
the Seine the Armorican or maritime tribes, 
such as the Veneti. The Bellovaci, Suessiones, 
Nervii, and Morini were tribes of the Belgae. 

The part the Gauls played in the ethnic dis- 
tribution of the early peoples of Europe was 
remarkable. In their nomadic history they wan- 
dered far and wide throughout Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. From their home in Western Europe 
they spread to Britain, invaded Spain, swarmed 
over the Alps into Italy, and, extending their con- 
quests to the Tiber, burned Rome (b.c. 390). 
Other tribes of Gaul traversed Eastern Europe 
and Asia Minor, ravaged Macedonia and Thes- 
saly, passed through Thermopylae, and pillaged 
Delphi, In B.C. 241, meeting with Attains, King 
of Pergamus, they were driven back into the 
mountain district near the Halys River, and 
there they established the independent principal- 
ity of Galatia, or Gallo-Graecia, which be- 
came a power among the peoples of Asia. This 
represents the first period of their history. 
The second is the history of their settlements 
in various parts of the world, and the develop- 
ment of their peculiar institutions, inHuenced 
as they were by environment and modified 
by the introduction of foreign elements. Thus 
in Phrygian Galatia the Gallic civilization 
was combined with those of Greece and Phrygia, 
and in Italy their manners and customs were 
affected by their contact with the Romans. Fi- 
nally, in the struggle to maintain their freedom, 
they met the Romans on every side. As Thierry 
says: "The Gauls and Romans followed each 
other over the earth to decide the old quarrel of 
the Capitol," It was the long conflict between 
a ferociously active but undisciplined people and 
the sturdy, disciplined prowess of the Romans. 
The northern part of Italy, because of the early 
invasion of the Gauls, was termed by the Romans 
Gallia Cisalpina, i.e. 'Gaul this side of the Alps,* 
as viewed from Rome. This territory was also 
known as Gallia Citerior, to distinguish it from 
Gallia Transalpina or Gallia Ulterior. Here the 
contest was waged for centuries, the Romans 
gradually pushing their sway up to the Alps and 
establishing colonies in the Gallic towns. 

Then the Romans pa.ssed over the Alps, in- 
vited by the people of Maasilia (b.c. 154), who 
sought assistance against their neighbors; but 
11\p invaders did not cease to interfere with the 
affairs of Southern Gaul until the entire region 



from the Alps to the Pyrenees became a Roman 
province. This was known as Gallia Provincia 
(Provence), and Narbo became the capital city. 
The wars of Julius Caesar, which ended with the 
eighth campaign, in B.C. 50, in the conquest of 
Gaul, resulted in the formation of a new prov- 
ince, Aquitania. To this province was given the 
name Gallia Comata, or long-haired Gaul, just 
as Cisalpine Gaul had been termed Gallia Togata, 
and the old province Gallia Braccata, from the 
w^ord hracc(e, meaning the trousers (breeches) 
worn by the people. The third period in the his- 
tory of Gaul dates from the time of Augustus, for 
in B.C. 27 Gaul became a part of the Roman 
Empire when that Emperor organized the peoples 
of Gaul in four provinces: Narbonensis, the old 
province; Aquitania, with the Liger (Loire) as 
the northern boundary ; Lugdunensis, named from 
the town of Lugdunum (Lyons), between the 
Loire, the Seine, and the Saone; and Belgica, be- 
tween the Seine and the Rhine, with the North Sea 
as the northern boundary. This division was not 
changed until the fourth century, when Gaul was 
divided into two great dioceses, the dicecesis Gal- 
liarum and the dicecesis Viennensis. The former 
was subdivided into eight provinces, and the 
latter into seven provinces. The Emperor Clau- 
dius did much toward the complete Romanization 
of Gaul, and later emperors completed what 
Augustus had begun. In the history of the 
Imperial period the Gauls had an important part ; 
their fortunes rose and fell with the fortunes of 
the Roman people. 

In the many contests of later Imperial times 
their land was the scene of fierce conflicts, and 
when the races of the north and east fought and 
overcame those of the south, their land was tra- 
versed again and again by great migrations of the 
Burgundians, Goths, and Franks, until out of the 
ruin there arose a new empire, and the history 
of mediaeval and modern Europe began. See 
France. 

Bibliography. Thierry, Histoire des Oaulois 
(4th ed., Paris, 1872) ; Marten, Histoire de 
France (4th ed., Paris, 1865) ; Marin de Syr, La 
France avant C^sar (Paris, 1865) ; Godwin. His- 
tory of France (New York, 1860) ; Roget, Ethno- 
genie gauloise (Paris, 1868-75) ; Desjardins, 
Geographic historique et administrative de la 
GauU romaine (Paris, 1877) ; Fustel de Cou- 
langes, Histoire des institutions politiques de 
Vancienne France (Paris, 1877). 

GAUL, Alfred Robert (1837—). An English 
organist and composer, born at Norwich. He 
studied imder Zechariah Buch, organist of Nor- 
wich Cathedral, from 1854 to 1859 was organist 
at Fakenham (Norfolk), and in 1859 was ap- 
pointed organist of Saint Augustine's (Edge- 
baston), Birmingham. His works include an 
oratorio, Hezckiah (1860) ; two sacred cantatas, 
Ruth (1881) and The Holy City (1882), the lat- 
ter of which has been very popular in the 
United States; a Passion Service (1882); an 
historical cantata, Joan of Arc (1887); and 
anthems and part-songs. 

GAUL, Gilbert William (1855—). An 
American painter, bom at Jersey City, N. J. 
He studied under J. G. Brown, and was a pupil 
of the Nntional Academy of Design, where he 
first exhibited in 1872. His works include: "In- 
dian Girl" (1880); "Old Beau" (1881); 
"Charging the Battery," "News from Home" 



GAUL. 



158 



GAUR. 



(1882) ; "On the Lookout" (1885) ; and "Wound- 
ed to the Rear." He is at his best in his battle 
pictures, which are characterized by clever color- 
ing and notable dash and spirit. 

GAUL, goul, GusTAv (1836-88). An Austrian 
historical genre and portrait painter, born in 
Vienna, where he studied for five years at the 
Academy under Rahl. After a visit to Italy he 
turned his attention particularly to the specimens 
of the Venetian School in the Dresden Gallery, 
and on subsequent journeys to France and Hol- 
land supplemented his studies from the works of 
Rubens and Rembrandt. He painted with pre- 
dilection historical genre scenes, and as a por- 
trait painter was much sought by members of 
the Imperial family, also by the foremost actors 
and actresses of Vienna. Among several other 
celebrities he portrayed Ludwig Spohr, Professor 
Hyrtl, and Sophie Schroeder. His copies after 
the old masters were held in great esteem. His 
brother Franz (1837 — ) painted some battle 
pieces, but gradually made himself indispensable 
as a designer of costumes and figures for the 
Imperial Opera and the Burgtheater. 

GAULEY (ga'le) MOUNTAINS. A portion 
of the mountain range in Pocahontas County, 
W. Va., which farther south becomes the Cum- 
berland Mountains (q.v.). The name is also 
locally applied to mountains in Nicholas County, 
through which flows the Gauley River. 

GAULEY mVER. A river rising in the 
Gauley Mountains, Pocahontas County, W. Va. 
After a southwest course it unites with New 
River at Gauley Bridge, to form the Great Ka- 
nawha, a tributary of the Ohio. 

GAULIN, g6'laN' (West Indian name). In 
Jamaica and the West Indies, a heron. 

GAULS. See Gaul. 

GAULT. A division of the Cretaceous system 
of England separating the Lower and Upper 
Greensands. It consists of a dark, plastic clay, 
sometimes sandy or marly, and attains a thick- 
ness of from 100 to 300 feet. It is exposed 
along the southeastern coast of England, one of 
the best sections being near Folkestone. 

GAULTHE'RIA 
(Neo-Lat. nom. pi., 
from Gaultier, a 
Canadian p h y s i - 
cian). A genus of 
low or trailing 
shrubs, belonging 
to the order Erica- 
ceae, a number of 
species o